A History Of Psychology Ideas and Context 4th Edition by King Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
A History Of Psychology Ideas and Context 4th Edition by King Test Bank
Chapter 2
Philosophical Issues
1. The term epistemology, is derived from the Greek episteme, which means
a. to value highly.
b. to exist.
* c. to understand or know.
d. to be skeptical.
[p. 15]
2. The term A Priori refers to
a. that which is derived from experience.
b. knowledge that is acquired through learning.
* c. self-evident truths known through intuition.
d. the nature of being.
[p. 15]
3. The term A Posteriori refers to
* a. that which is derived from experience.
b. the study of problem solving.
c. self-evident truths known through intuition.
d. the nature of being.
[p. 15]
4. The empiricist, unlike the nativist, believes that
* a. all perceptions are learned or derived from experience.
b. we discern many truths through intuition alone.
c. A Posteriori knowledge is relatively unimportant.
d. there are a great many self-evident truths.
[p. 16]
5. The nativist believes that perceptual abilities
a. are learned or derived from experience.
b. are learned through interaction with others.
c. learned after birth are relatively unimportant.
* d. are operational from birth.
[p. 16]
6. According to the text, the method of _____ is surely the most common method of assessing truth.
a. rationalism
* b. authority
c. empiricism
d. pragmatism
[p. 17]
7. Knowledge, according to empiricism, is based on facts presented through
* a. observation and experience.
b. intuition.
c. instinct.
d. authority.
[pp. 17-18]
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A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
8. The term rationalism comes from the same Latin root as
a. logic.
b. intuition.
* c. reason.
d. mathematics.
[p. 18]
9. Aestheticism emphasizes
a. an active mind.
b. dependence on sensory experience.
* c. the belief that the principles of beauty are applicable to other arenas of thought.
d. the cash value of an idea.
[p. 18]
10. Pragmatism emphasizes the of an idea.
a. absolute truth.
b. intuitive success
c. importance of authoritarian validation
* d. cash value or workability.
[pp. 18-19]
11. Strong emotions are more likely to be conditioned to ____________ as a way of knowing
* a. authority.
b. pragmatism.
c. empiricism.
d. rationalism.
[p. 20]
12. Observational evidence alone does not warrant a universal conclusion. Thus, though every observed swan is
white, there is no basis for saying that all swans are white. Such a contention is found in the work of an
important philosopher of science by the name of _____.
a. Thomas S. Kuhn
b. Paul Feyerabend
* c. Karl Popper
d. William James
[p. 21]
13. According to Popper, a theory should
a. survive over time.
* b. be falsifiable.
c. have intuitive appeal.
d. meet an aesthetic criterion.
[pp. 21-22]
14. According to Kuhn, a shift in scientific view marked by a radical new and more successful organization of the
world is
a. normal science.
b. a paradigm.
* c. a scientific revolution.
d. all of the above.
[pp. 22-23]
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15. The term paradigm as used by _____ refers to _____.
a. Popper . . . anarchy in science
* b. Kuhn . . . conventional ways of solving problems
c. Feyerabend . . . normal science
d. Descartes . . . the hypothetico-deductive method
[pp. 22-23]
16. Which of the following has argued for an anarchistic epistemology marked by the belief that there is no such
thing as a single unified and unchanging scientific method?
* a. Paul K. Feyerabend
b. Thomas Kuhn
c. Karl Popper
d. Francis Bacon
[pp. 23-24]
17. Domino A impacts domino B and B falls over. According to Aristotle, domino A is the ____ cause of the fall of
B.
a. formal
* b. efficient
c. final
d. material
[p. 25]
18. The term teleology refers to
a. the formal cause
* b. purpose or design
c. the energy that sets a causal chain in motion
d. the technical study of religion
[pp. 25-26]
19. The final cause, according to Aristotle, refers to
a. that which immediately sets a thing in motion
b. the shape or identifying features of an object of interest
* c. the purpose or end for which a thing was intended
d. free will
[p. 25]
20. An airplane could be constructed of appropriate materials and have an adequate propulsion system, but if the
wing or some other part were not shaped appropriately, the plane would not fly. The importance of the shape
of the plane is close in meaning to Aristotles ___ cause.
a. material
b. final
c. teleological
* d. formal
[p. 25]
21. The view that any design in nature is immanent in nature is found in , while the view that any design
in nature is the work of a designer is found in .
* a. intrinsic teleology . . . extrinsic teleology
b. extrinsic teleology . . . intrinsic teleology
c. intrinsic teleology . . . formal cause
d. extrinsic teleology . . . formal cause
[pp. 25-26]
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A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
22. Causation is not a clearly identifiable quality that resides in or inheres in an object. Such a skeptical view of
causation was set forth by
a. Plato
* b. David Hume
c. Aristotle
d. Democritus
[p. 26]
23. Psychological determinism is the belief that
* a. there are causes, known or unknown, for every behavior or experience.
b. some events may really be random.
c. humans freely determine their own choices.
d. all of the above.
[p. 28]
24. The term ontology refers to
a. the study of the limitations of human knowledge
b. the study of values
* c. the study of the nature and relations of being
d. the study of causality
[p. 29]
25. Materialism is the belief that
a. mind is the primary material of the universe.
* b. matter makes up everything.
c. mind interacts with material.
d. all of the above.
[p. 29]
26. According to idealism
a. material reality is the basis of all science
b. language is the basis of all science
* c. the mental world or the world of experience is the basis of all science
d. science studies only the physical world
[p. 29]
27. Mind is a kind of overflow of by-product of brain activity, but mind has no causal efficacy. Such a contention is
most consistent with
a. interactionism
b. epistemology
c. ontological pluralism
* d. epiphenomenalism
[p. 30]
28. According to the text, the common-sense position with respect to mind and body is known as
* a. interactionism
b. psychophysical parallelism
c. emergentism
d. epiphenomenalism
[p. 30]
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Test Bank
29. One of the more difficult problems associated with psychophysical parallelism is that
a. it fails to specify a source of interaction between mind and body
* b. it implies a kind of preestablished harmony
c. it fails to show how mind emerges from body
d. it agrees in an uncanny way with common sense
[p. 31]
30. Some philosophers have argued that mental processes are produced by brain processes, but are nevertheless
qualitatively different from brain processes. Such a position is called
* a. emergentism
b. interactionism
c. psychophysical parallelism
d. attributive pluralism
[pp. 31-32]
31. The idea that there are many separate real things (e.g., a real mind, a real body, a real God, a real material world,
and so on) is most consistent with
a. attributive pluralism
* b. ontological pluralism
c. epiphenomenalism
d. interactionism
[pp. 31-32]
32. Psychogeny can be defined as the study of
* a. the origin of psuche.
b. materialist mind-brain positions.
c. double-aspect monism.
d. the origin of the mind-brain debate
[p. 32]
33. Identity theory maintains that
a. psuche is instilled in the biological substrate at a given point in time.
b. the psychically endowed biological substrate is identical with the conscious adult.
c. the psuche does not change qualitatively across the lifetime of the individual.
* d. all of the above.
[p. 32]
34. Psychogenic emergentism is the belief that
a. psuche is instilled in the organism at one point in time.
* b. psuche develops with the developing biological organism.
c. the instilled psuche is identical with the conscious adult.
d. all of the above.
[p. 33]
35. A central problem with explanations by analogies is
* a. the risk of overgeneralization.
b. that humans lack confidence in analogies.
c. that differences between ideas or concepts may be overemphasized.
d. all of the above.
[p. 34]

Chapter 8
Mechanization and Quantification
1. Philosophy is simply the study of bodies in motion. Which of the following advanced that idea?
a. Ren Descartes
b. Francis Bacon
c. John Locke
* d. Thomas Hobbes
[p. 161]
2. The heart is a spring, the nerves are strings, the joints are wheels giving motion to the whole body. This
mechanistic approach to life is encountered in the work of
a. George Berkeley.
* b. Thomas Hobbes.
c. Immanuel Kant.
d. Christian von Wolff.
[p. 161]
3. According to the text, the epistemology embraced by Thomas Hobbes was
a. an unqualified empiricism, since knowledge begins with the senses.
b. nominalism, since the truths we know are truths about words.
c. rationalism, since deduction and the geometric method provide the only basis for verifiable conclusions.
* d. a complicated combination of empiricism, rationalism and nominalism.
[pp. 162-163]
4. The author of Leviathan was
a. Joseph Ignace Guillotin.
b. Julien Offray de la Mettrie.
c. Sir Charles Bell.
* d. Thomas Hobbes.
[p. 163]
5. In terms of ontology, Hobbes was
a. an interactionist, believing in the reality of mind and body.
b. an idealist.
* c. a thoroughgoing materialist.
d. a pluralist.
[p. 163]
6. According to Hobbes, the behavior of human beings can be understood
a. as a complex interaction of mind and body.
b. in terms of the free choices that we make.
* c. in the same quantitative fashion that we employ in our understanding of the physical world.
d. in the context of probability. Psychology could never be an exact science.
[p. 163]
7. Philosophy to Hobbes was
a. the queen of the humanities.
b. essentially a social science.
c. a branch of theology.
* d. simply science.
[p. 163]
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A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
8. When theorizing about human physiology, Descartes relied heavily on the hydraulic model he observed in
moving statues. In Descartes view of humans, flowing in nerves is (are) analogous to water flowing
in the pipes of the statues.
a. the pineal gland
b. air
* c. animal spirits
d. very fine atoms
[p. 164]
9. Descartes believed that
* a. many movements in humans and all movements in animals were of a purely mechanical and
nonreflective nature.
b. All movements in humans and in animals are mechanical.
c. All movements in humans are of a reflective nature and some movements in animals are of a reflective
nature.
d. All human behavior is rational and no animal behavior is rational.
[p. 165]
10. According to Descartes, the soul, in humans, is
a. tied to the body, but nevertheless autonomous and free.
* b. cannot prevent some motions (especially in cases of strong emotions). The soul is therefore not
completely autonomous.
c. is not really tied to the body and is completely free.
d. plays no role whatever in any kind of movement.
[p. 165]
11. A muscle with an attached nerve from a frogs leg contracts in a sealed glass tube. At one end of the glass tube
is a pipette containing a drop of water. When the muscle contracts, the drop of water is not forced out. This
demonstration by __________ proved embarrassing to the theory of nervous action advanced by
____________.
a. Descartes . . . Swammerdam
* b. Swammerdam . . . Descartes
c. Swammerdam . . . Hobbes
d. Descartes . . . Hobbes
[p. 166]
12. Descartes advanced many hypotheses about the pineal gland. Neils Stensen demonstrated that some of these
hypotheses were incorrect. Which of the following were challenged by Stensen?
a. the pineal gland moves from side to side
b. the pineal gland is richly supplied with nerves
c. animals do not have pineal glands
* d. all of the above
[p. 167]
13. __________ was the first to clearly demonstrate a spinal reflex.
a. Sir Charles Bell
b. Julien Offray de la Mettrie
* c. Stephen Hales
d. Pierre Jean-Georges Cabanis
[p. 167]
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14. __________ drew distinctions between voluntary and involuntary actions and may have been the first to use the
terms stimulus and response in a manner comparable to modern usage.
* a. Robert Whytt
b. Stephen Hales
c. Johann August Unzer
d. Franois Magendie
[p. 168]
15. __________ was the first to employ the word reflex in connection with sensory-motor functions.
a. Joseph Ignace Guillotin
b. Julien Offray de la Mettrie
* c. Johann August Unzer
d. Stephen Hales
[p. 168]
16. _________ was the first to introduce the terms afferent and efferent.
a. Robert Whytt
b. Stephen Hales
c. Jan Swammerdam
* d. Johann August Unzer
[p. 168]
17. ________, author of Man a Machine, advanced a radical mechanistic philosophy.
a. Jacques Qutelet
b. Francis Galton
c. Hermann von Helmholtz
* d. Julien Offray de la Mettrie
[p. 169]
18. In the tradition of la Mettrie, was a thoroughly materialistic physician who emphasized close
connections between psychological processes, neurological activity, and environmental influences.
* a. Pierre-Jean-George Cabanis
b. Etienne Bonnot de Condillac
c. Jan Swammerdam
d. Robert Whytt
[p. 170]
19. was the English researcher who discovered the motor function of the ventral root of the spinal chord.
a. Robert Whytt
b. Stephen Hales
* c. Sir Charles Bell
d. Johann August Unzer
[p. 170]
20. was the French researcher who verified the motor function of the ventral root of the spinal chord and
discovered the sensory function of the dorsal root of the spinal chord.
a. Pierre-Jean-George Cabanis
b. Etienne Bonnot de Condillac
* c. Franois Magendie
d. Claude-Adrien Helvetius
[p. 171]
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A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
21. The doctrine of the specific energies of the nerves implies that
a. experience is not totally dependent upon nervous structure.
b. we are directly aware of objects in the world.
* c. we are directly aware not of objects, but of our nerves themselves.
d. the mind is only sometimes tied directly to the machinery of the body.
[p. 171]
22. developed the conviction that mental functions and personality characteristics are located in specific
areas of the brain.
* a. Franz Joseph Gall
b. Hermann von Helmholtz
c. Paul Broca
d. Pierre Flourens
[p. 172]
23. The literal meaning of phrenology is
a. science of the skull.
b. science of the brain.
* c. science of the mind.
d. science of shape.
[p. 174]
24. used the method of ablation to find look for evidence to support the claims of phrenology, but he
found no such evidence.
a. Franz Joseph Gall
b. Hermann von Helmholtz
c. Edward Bradford Titchener
* d. Pierre Flourens
[p. 175]
25. discovered that articulate or spoken speech is localized in the left inferior frontal gyrus.
a. Franz Joseph Gall
b. Julius Eduard Hitzig
* c. Paul Broca
d. Pierre Flourens
[p. 175]
26. Electrical stimulation of the cortex is a technique pioneered by
a. Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Kaspar Spurzheim.
* b. Julius Eduard Hitzig and Theodor Fritsch.
c. Paul Broca and Pierre Flourens.
d. Hermann von Helmholtz and Johannes Mller.
[p. 176]
27. developed a staining procedure that enhances the features of nerve elements
* a. Camillo Golgi
b. Julius Eduard Hitzig
c. Paul Broca
d. Santiago Ramn Y Cajal
[p. 176]
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Test Bank
28. wrote Integrative Action of the Nervous System, which laid the foundations for modern
neurophysiology.
a. Camillo Golgi
b. Julius Eduard Hitzig
* c. Sir Charles Sherrington
d. Santiago Ramn Y Cajal
[p. 176]
29. measured the speed of a nervous impulse.
a. Johannes Mller
* b. Hermann von Helmholtz
c. Jacques Qutelet
d. Francis Galton
[p. 177]
30. The original derivations of the well-known symmetrical bell-shaped curve were set forth by
a. Jacques Qutelet.
b. Francis Galton.
* c. Abraham DeMoivre.
d. Blaise Pascal.
[p. 178]
31. was the first to apply statistics to the moral arena. One way he did so was by studying relationships
between criminal behavior and age.
* a. Jacques Qutelet
b. Francis Galton
c. Abraham DeMoivre
d. Karl Friedrich Gauss
[p. 178]
32. ________ was the first to use the term co-relation (later changed to correlation). He also contributed to the
technical mathematical basis of correlations.
a. Jacques Qutelet
* b. Francis Galton
c. Karl Pearson
d. Karl Friedrich Gauss
[p. 181]
33. ________ was among the first to use graphs to illustrate the importance of sanitary conditions in field hospitals
a. Francis Galton
* b. Florence Nightingale
c. Dorthea Lynde Dix
d. Jacques Qutelet
[p. 181]
34. _________ was one of the first to use descriptive social statistics in campaigns to improve the treatment
environments for the mentally ill.
a. Benjamin Rush
b. Jacques Qutelet
c. Francis Galton
* d. Dorthea Lynde Dix
[p. 181]

Chapter 16
Psychoanalysis
1. The first case study in psychoanalysis, published in 1895 as Studies in Hysteria, documented the case of Anna
O. and was written by Freud and
a. Ernst Brcke.
* b. Joseph Breuer.
c. Jean-Martin Charcot.
d. Carl Gustav Jung.
[pp. 376-377]
2. The term psychoanalysis
a. was a term Freud employed while he was still in medical school.
b. was employed by Freud in his first year of practice.
c. was not introduced by Freud until the second half of his professional career starting about 1910.
* d. appeared about 10 years after Freud set up his practice, after he tried several other therapeutic methods.
[p. 378]
3. Freuds position on the free will and determinism issue might best be summarized by which of the following
statements?
a. My first act of free will is to believe in free will.
* b. All vital phenomena, including physical ones, are rigidly and lawfully determined.
c. Animals are machines, but human beings have free will.
d. The free will and determinism problem is a pseudo-issue.
[p. 380]
4. The content area that is privileged in Freudian psychoanalysis is
a. learning.
b. sensation and perception.
c. cognition.
* d. motivation.
[p. 380]
5. In Civilization and its Discontents Freud argued that there are three great sources of pain and suffering. They
are
a. psychosis, neurosis, and physical disease.
b. corrupt political systems, disease, and mental illness.
c. social injustice, war, and illness.
* d. our own body, the outer world, and other people.
[p. 381]
6. The most admirable defense against human suffering, according to Freud, is
a. loving and being loved.
* b. hard work and science.
c. sublimation through humor and sports.
d. enjoyment of works of art.
[p. 382]
7. Freud used the term to refer to psychic energies directed toward gratification of the pleasure principle.
a. secondary processes
b. repression
* c. libido
d. anxiety
[p. 382]
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8. Strategies that are engineered by the ego to help the id achieve its purposes in a socially acceptable manner are
examples of
a. primary processes.
b. regression.
* c. secondary processes.
d. libido attachments.
[p. 382]
9. According to Freud, the superego
a. is much more rational than the id.
b. helps the ego create rational strategies for coping with the world.
c. is the most primitive part of the personality.
* d. is as irrational as the id.
[p. 383]
10. According to Freud, the ego does not look favorably upon psychoanalysis and positively refuses to believe
it? Why, in Freuds view, did the ego refuse to believe psychoanalysis?
a. Psychoanalysis is to pessimistic.
b. Psychoanalysis seems superficial.
* c. The idea that rational processes may serve unconscious motives is a blow to human pretensions.
d. Psychoanalysis emphasizes sexuality to the exclusion of other motives.
[p. 384]
11. Although commonly translated as instinct, a preferable translation of the German word trieb would be
a. anxiety.
* b. drive.
c. id.
d. unconscious.
[p. 385]
12. According to Freud, there are four components to instinct or drive. They are
* a. source, impetus, aim, and object.
b. need, valence, object, and goal.
c. need, goal, arousal, homeostasis.
d. arousal, working level, recovery, and steady state.
[p. 385]
13. Each of the following is one of Freuds three kinds of anxiety EXCEPT
a. epistemic anxiety
b. moral anxiety
* c. neurotic anxiety
d. objective anxiety
[pp. 385-386]
14. Neurotic anxiety, according to Freud, may occur when
* a. the ego is threatened by the irrational forces of the id.
b. the ego is threatened by the irrational forces of the superego.
c. the ego succumbs to the wear and tear of the world.
d. the superego is too strong for the ego.
[pp. 385-386]
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A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
15. Moral anxiety, in Freuds view
a. is very rare in our society.
b. occurs when the id is too strong for the ego.
c. results from a weak superego.
* d. occurs when the irrational demands of the superego threaten to overcome the ego.
[p. 386]
16. The ego-defense mechanism that serves as the cornerstone for psychoanalysis is
a. projection.
b. sublimation.
c. regression.
* d. repression.
[p. 386]
17. Freuds notion of sexuality
a. was extremely narrow.
b. included only genital contact with a member of the opposite sex.
c. was limited to adults.
* d. was very broad in nature.
[p. 388]
18. The order of the stages of psychosexual development, according to Freud, is as follows:
* a. oral, anal, phallic, latency period, genital
b. oral, anal, latency period, phallic, genital
c. genital, phallic, latency period, oral, anal
d. genital, oral, anal, latency period, phallic
[pp. 388-389]
19. According to Freud, neglect or overindulgence in a developmental stage may have consequences for later
development due to the formation of
a. the id.
* b. a fixation.
c. objective anxiety.
d. stage.
[p. 388]
20. The Oedipus complex most likely has its origin during the _________ stage.
a. oral
b. genital
* c. phallic
d. anal
[p. 388]
21. The female counterpart of the Oedipus complex is often referred to as
a. transference.
b. the phallic fixation.
c. libidinal attachment.
* d. the Electra Complex.
[p. 389]
22. The latent content of a dream is
a. what the dream appears to be about.
* b. what a dream is actually about.
c. the dream as disguised by the ego.
d. the dream as varnished by the superego.
[p. 389]
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23. The goal of therapy, according to Freud, is to
a. restore happiness to the individual.
b. free the individual of conflicts.
* c. strengthen the ego, make it more independent and widen its field of perception.
d. rid the patient of all symptoms.
[p. 390]
24. Freuds final theory of motivation emphasized
a. the sex drive alone.
b. the centrality of Eros broadly conceived.
* c. the opposition of erotic and aggressive instincts.
d. power as much as sex.
[p. 391]
25. Freuds views on human nature were
a. highly optimistic.
b. guardedly optimistic.
* c. largely pessimistic.
d. neutral.
[p. 391]
26. The system of psychological thought advanced by Alfred Adler is known as
a. Analytic Psychology.
b. Cognitive Psychology.
c. Ego Psychology.
* d. Individual Psychology.
[p. 371]
27. Adler believed that the most important goal in human life is
a. pleasure.
b. happiness.
* c. a striving for totality, unity, or wholeness.
d. a striving for plurality.
[p. 393]
28. Adler used the term to refer to all the unique behaviors that characterize personality and that move
us in the direction of specific goals.
* a. style of life
b. overcompensation
c. fictional final goals
d. all of the above
[p. 394]
29. The term inferiority complex is most central to the theoretical work of
a. Jung.
b. Freud.
* c. Adler.
d. Allport
[p. 395]
30. Which of the following strategies are most central in Adlers theory of personality?
* a. compensation and overcompensation
b. projection and rejection
c. denial and withdrawal
d. identification and repression
[p. 395]
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A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
31. A thin, asthmatic child grows up and spends 90 days walking over 600 miles across the Alaska Range.
According to Adler, this exemplifies
a. rationalization.
b. projection.
c. displacement.
* d. overcompensation.
[p. 395]
32. Carl Gustav Jungs system of thought is typically called
a. Individual Psychology.
b. Neoanalytic Psychology.
* c. Analytic Psychology.
d. Humanistic Psychoanalysis.
[pp. 397-398]
33. Jung believed that memories from the vast biological past may contribute to mental images and response
predispositions. These memories come from what Jung called the
a. personal unconscious.
b. the unconscious.
c. historical consciousness.
* d. collective unconscious.
[p. 398]
34. The species has had millions of years of experience with darkness, power, death, mothers, fathers, and so forth.
Jung could not believe that this vast reservoir of experience was unrepresented in experience. He thus believed
that experiences from the race reside in each of us. He referred to these as
a. shadows.
b. complexes.
* c. archetypes.
d. subliminal cognitions.
[p. 398]
35. Which of the following is NOT a concept associated with the work of Carl Jung?
a. alchemy
b. word association
* c. style of life
d. individuation
[pp. 396-401]
36. Jung believed in four basic psychological functions, these were
* a. thinking., feeling, sensation, and intuition.
b. learning, motivation, sensation, and cognition.
c. action, reflection, anticipation, and meditation.
d. cognitions, affection, motivation, and memory.
[p. 400]
37. Jung believed that some events occur simultaneously and that these events cannot be explained by the ordinary
principles of causality. He attempted to explain such events with his concept of
a. equipotentiality.
* b. synchronicity.
c. paracognition.
d. precognition.
[p. 401]
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38. Jungs approach to psychotherapy
a. is almost identical to the approach advanced by Freud.
b. is much more structured than Freuds approach.
c. focuses, first and foremost, on examining archetypes.
* d. is highly varied or pluralistic.
[p. 401]
39. Unlike other psychoanalysts, Horney focused on on personality and the shaping of neuroses.
* a. sociocultural influences
b. developmental influences
c. unconscious influences
d. influences from the collective unconscious.
[p. 401]
40. Horney described as the terrible feeling of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world.
It could be caused in a child through parental rejection, ridicule, or indifference.
a. the personal unconscious.
* b. basic anxiety.
c. the real self.
d. womb envy.
[p. 402]
41. Horney referred to the relentless drive for total perfection as the tyranny of the
* a. should.
b. want.
c. neurotic self.
d. persona
[p. 403]
42. Horney countered Freuds ideas of female penis envy with evidence of male
a. inferiority complexes.
b. collective unconscious.
* c. womb envy.
d. superiority.
[p. 404]
43. Horney argued that womens sense of inferiority is derived from
a. womens constitution.
b. female anatomy.
* c. masculine society and psychology.
d. penis envy.
[p. 404]

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