A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz Test Bank

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A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz Test Bank

 

1. Define mechanism and describe how the idea of mechanism affected and was affected by physics, concepts of God, and the methods and findings of science. How was the concept of mechanism applied to human beings?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1

 

2. Define determinism and reductionism and describe their relationship to the development of clocks and automata. Why was the mechanical clock the ideal metaphor for the spirit of mechanism?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1

 

3. Describe Descartes views of the mind-body problem and his major contributions to the beginnings of modern science, particularly psychology.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

4. Define positivism, materialism, and empiricism and discuss the contributions of each to the emerging science of psychology.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1

 

5. Describe the general contributions of empiricism to psychology, supporting your selection of each contribution with specific examples from the thought of Locke, Hartley, James Mill, and John Stuart Mill.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

6. The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is ____.

  a. reductionism
  b. materialism
  c. mechanism
  d. empiricism
  e. positivism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism
NOTES:   WWW

 

7. According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was ____.

  a. Zeitgeist
  b. entertainment
  c. water
  d. mechanism
  e. making it to the 18th century

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

 

8. The Zeitgeist of 17th- to 19th-century Europe and of the United States was marked by ____.

  a. scientific revolution
  b. political revolution
  c. determinism
  d. humanism
  e. mechanism

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

 

9. The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by ____.

  a. Locke and Berkeley
  b. La Mettrie and Condillac
  c. Newton and Hume
  d. Newton and Galileo
  e. Galileo and Copernicus

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

 

10. Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?

  a. effects are predictable and measurable
  b. the nature of human beings is basically good, moving toward self-actualization
  c. the paradigm of the source or identity of cause
  d. the laws of association
  e. the deductive method of logic

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism
NOTES:   WWW

 

11. What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the spirit of mechanism?

  a. automobile
  b. pneumatic pressure
  c. metronome
  d. clock
  e. computer

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

12. The doctrine that acts are determined by past events is ____.

  a. reductionism
  b. determinism
  c. mechanism
  d. materialism
  e. positivism

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

13. The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is ____.

  a. reductionism
  b. determinism
  c. mechanism
  d. positivism
  e. materialism

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

14. Seventeenth century philosophers and scientists argued that like clocks and the universe, ____ are regular, predictable, observable and measurable.

  a. God and/or other deities
  b. nonconscious processes
  c. human beings
  d. cognitive processes
  e. characteristics of self-actualization

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

15. ____ are mechanized figures that could almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things.

  a. Elements
  b. Automata
  c. Psychomata
  d. Mannequins
  e. Robots

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

16. Philosophers and scientists joined in agreement that ____.

  a. psychology must be an independent science
  b. there is both an unconscious and a nonconscious
  c. human functioning and behavior are governed by mechanical laws
  d. experimental and quantitative methods could be applied to the study of human nature
  e. the dictates of religious figures about human behavior had to be countered and/or refuted

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe
NOTES:   WWW

 

17. ____ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence.

  a. Galileos telescope
  b. Babbages calculating machine
  c. La Mettries self-winding watch
  d. Descartess automata
  e. Newtons clocks

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

18. Contemporary cognitive psychologists computer model of artificial intelligence is a direct descendant of ____.

  a. Babbages calculating machine
  b. La Mettries self-winding watch
  c. Descartess automata
  d. Newtons clocks
  e. Bessels personal equations

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

19. Who published a clear explanation of how the calculating machine functioned and pointed out its potential use and implications?

  a. Babbage
  b. La Mettrie
  c. Lovelace
  d. Descartes
  e. Locke

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

20. The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience is ____.

  a. mentalism
  b. empiricism
  c. positivism
  d. materialism
  e. None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

21. Empiricism attributes all knowledge to ____.

  a. experience
  b. objectivity in methods
  c. overt behavior
  d. environmental influences
  e. reinforcement schedules

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science
NOTES:   WWW

 

22. Descartes was significant to psychology as a science because he helped liberate ____.

  a. science from the stranglehold of theology
  b. science from the grasp of philosophy
  c. philosophy from the clutches of theology
  d. science from the dictates of government
  e. psychology from the dictates of science

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

23. Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology?

  a. Babbage
  b. Descartes
  c. La Mettrie
  d. Locke
  e. Comte

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

24. In the 20th century, Carl Jung based important decisions on his dreams. A 17th-century predecessor in this practice was ____.

  a. Newton
  b. Galileo
  c. Freud
  d. Descartes
  e. Spinoza

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

25. For Descartes, the application of mathematical principles to sciences would produce ____.

  a. theorems of human nature
  b. laws of physics
  c. principles
  d. religious conviction
  e. certainty of knowledge

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

26. In the 20th century, Hull described and explained behavior by mathematical formulas, axioms, and postulates. Thus, he illustrated whose notion that certainty of knowledge is accomplished by the application of mathematics to science?

  a. Keplers
  b. Descartess
  c. Berkeleys
  d. Lockes
  e. John Stuart Mills

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science
NOTES:   WWW

 

27. The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to ____.

  a. the bipartisan problem
  b. the freethinking problem
  c. the mind-body problem
  d. positivism
  e. theology

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

28. Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction between mind and body was essentially unidirectional, that ____.

  a. the body influenced the mind
  b. the mind influenced the body
  c. the soul influenced both the body and mind
  d. the mind and body influenced each other
  e. the vital force influenced both the mind and the body

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

29. Descartess dualism was novel in its emphasis on the ____.

  a. interaction between mind and spirit
  b. influence of the mind on the body
  c. influence of the body on the mind
  d. parallel but non-interacting functioning of the mind and body
  e. predominance of unconscious mental forces

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

30. Descartes argued that all processes are functions of the body except ____.

  a. reflexes
  b. will
  c. perception
  d. sensation
  e. thought

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

31. Descartes changed the focus from the study of ____ to the study of ____.

  a. conscious processes; the unconscious
  b. the unconscious; conscious processes
  c. the nonconscious; the unconscious
  d. the soul; the mind
  e. science; theology

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

32. Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of ____ apply.

  a. materialism
  b. biology
  c. mechanics
  d. reflexes
  e. mathematics

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

33. The body will respond without any internal conscious intent to some external stimulus. This fact illustrates Descartes principle of ____.

  a. undulatio reflexa
  b. Einfall
  c. cogito ergo sum
  d. esse est percipi
  e. spring action

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

34. In modern terminology, Descartes would argue that if the inputs are known, the behavioral outputs can be predicted. Thus, he is an intellectual ancestor of ____.

  a. behaviorism
  b. functionalism
  c. structuralism
  d. the French materialists
  e. S-R psychology

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

35. The response of salivation following the stimulus of food on the tongue is an illustration of Descartes ____.

  a. reflex action theory
  b. theory of respondent behavior
  c. theory of operant behavior
  d. cogito ergo sum theory
  e. Einfall theory

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

36. Under Descartess reflex action theory, an external stimulus can bring about a(n)____ physical response.

  a. theoretical
  b. involuntary
  c. intense
  d. painful
  e. conscious

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

37. Which of the following statements best describes Descartes dualistic theory of human nature?

  a. The mind directs all the activities of the body.
  b. The body directly controls the activities of the mind.
  c. The brain contains derived ideas; the mind contains innate ideas.
  d. The mind and body mutually influence each others actions.
  e. None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

38. Descartess term for the site of body-mind interaction was the ____, because it is ____.

  a. conarium; duplicated in both brain hemispheres
  b. conarium; not duplicated in both brain hemispheres
  c. undulatio reflexa; duplicated in both brain hemispheres
  d. undulatio reflexa; not duplicated in both brain hemispheres
  e. pineal gland; located near the heart

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

39. Which of the following is an example of a derived idea?

  a. Solving an algebra equation.
  b. Memorizing a history lesson.
  c. Philosophy.
  d. Playing the guitar.
  e. Seeing a forest.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

40. Descartes posited that the mind-body interaction occurred in the ____.

  a. heart
  b. brain as a whole
  c. pineal body
  d. frontal lobes
  e. corpus callosum

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

41. According to Descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brain ____.

  a. where innate ideas are stored
  b. where derived ideas are stored
  c. that controlled the activities of the mind
  d. where the mind and body interact
  e. where all ideas are stored

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

42. Descartes proposed that the mind produces two kinds of ideas, ____ and ____.

  a. derived; innate
  b. body; mind
  c. reasonable; wacky
  d. right; wrong
  e. abstract; pseudo-abstract

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

43. Derived ideas ____.

  a. come from God
  b. are part of our genetic makeup when we are born
  c. arise from the direct application of an external stimulus
  d. come into being as a consequence of being socialized into society
  e. are taken from innate ideas

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

44. Which of the following is an example of an innate idea?

  a. flowers
  b. sweetness
  c. tone
  d. machines
  e. infinity

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

45. Which of the following is a contribution of Rene Descartes to modern psychology?

  a. a mechanistic conception of the body.
  b. the theory of reflex action.
  c. mind-body interaction.
  d. localization of mental function in the brain.
  e. All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

46. The idea of a house is an example of Descartes notion of ____.

  a. innate ideas
  b. undulatio reflexa
  c. derived ideas
  d. simple ideas
  e. complex ideas

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

47. Descartes theorized that we are born with knowledge of the axioms of geometry. Thus, these axioms are ____ ideas.

  a. innate
  b. derived
  c. synthetic
  d. simple
  e. complex

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

48. The doctrine of ____ is important because it stimulated opposition among early empiricists and associationists.

  a. derived ideas
  b. innate ideas
  c. idea principles
  d. simple ideas

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

49. Descartes notion that we are born with certain perceptual processes is also a principle of which modern school of psychology?

  a. behavioristic
  b. psychoanalytic
  c. Gestalt
  d. phenomenological
  e. humanistic

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

50. The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable is ____.

  a. materialism
  b. empiricism
  c. positivism
  d. mechanism
  e. reductionism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

51. Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of ____.

  a. Descartes
  b. Comte
  c. Locke
  d. Berkeley
  e. Mill

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

52. The idea that science should be based totally on objectively observable facts is called ____.

  a. factualism
  b. materialism
  c. absolutism
  d. positivism
  e. observation

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

53. In eyewitness testimony, one swears that what one has observed accurately depicts reality. Because this fact has not been determined through the methods of science, it does not meet Comtes strictest application of ____.

  a. positivism
  b. determinism
  c. complex ideas
  d. materialism
  e. mechanism

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

54. The doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter is ____.

  a. positivism
  b. materialism
  c. mentalism
  d. immaterialism
  e. reductionism

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

55. Those who argue today that behavior is no more than the action of chemicals and electrical events in the brain might be labeled modern ____.

  a. empiricists
  b. positivists
  c. materialists
  d. associationists
  e. determinists

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism
NOTES:   WWW

 

56. Materialism is the belief that ____.

  a. speculation and inference are acceptable
  b. consciousness exists beyond physics and chemistry
  c. the mental world exists on a plane of its own
  d. all things can be described in physical terms
  e. ideas exist only in Descartes mind

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

57. Lockes ____ marks the formal beginning of British empiricism.

  a. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  b. A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
  c. An Essay Toward a New Theory of Vision
  d. A Treatise of Human Nature
  e. Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and His Expectations

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

58. A fundamental difference between Descartess psychology and that of Locke was their position about the existence of ____.

  a. innate ideas
  b. derived ideas
  c. idea doctrines
  d. simple ideas
  e. complex ideas

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

59. John Locke disagreed with the doctrine of innate ideas. According to Locke, ____.

  a. innate ideas once existed in the human mind, but modern humans do not have them
  b. innate ideas only exist in the most intelligent human beings; most people do not have innate ideas
  c. innate ideas stay in the unconscious mind and never reach the level of consciousness
  d. the mind is a blank slate at birth; therefore, there are no innate ideas
  e. There was no disagreement between Locke and Descartes

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

60. Aristotle held that the mind was a wax slate upon which impressions are made. Locke invoked the metaphor of the ____ to illustrate the same phenomenon.

  a. undulatio reflexa
  b. tabula rasa
  c. cogito
  d. complex idea
  e. reflection

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

61. What position did Locke take on the origin of ideas?

  a. Some innate ideas exist, such as self, God, and time.
  b. The only acquired ideas are verbal ideas; all other ideas are innate.
  c. Innate ideas dont change; derived ideas are malleable.
  d. All ideas are innate; experience just makes us aware of their presence.
  e. All ideas are acquired from experience; no ideas are innate.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

62. Locke argued that ideas seem to us to be innate because ____.

  a. they were classically conditioned
  b. they are simple ideas
  c. they are complex ideas
  d. we dont recollect having learned them
  e. we cant identify their component elemental ideas

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

63. For Locke, ideas are the result of ____.

  a. reflection and sensations
  b. reasoning about sensations
  c. primary sensations and secondary sensations
  d. experience and cognition
  e. primary qualities and secondary qualities

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

64. According to Locke, in human development, what kind of ideas appears first?

  a. sensation
  b. reflection
  c. simple
  d. complex
  e. innate

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

65. Why should I have to read what Locke wrote over 300 years ago? Schultz and Schultz and the instructor get paid to summarize that for me. What answer would the textbook authors give you?

  a. Full understanding comes from reading the original data of history from the theorists themselves.
  b. To see how even a good idea can be badly written.
  c. Because you are expected to do so.
  d. Dont worry if you do not have time to read the original source material; authors and teachers provide accurate versions.
  e. Actually, you shouldnt have to.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

66. According to Locke, simple ideas become complex ideas through the process of ____.

  a. association
  b. deductive logic
  c. sensing primary qualities
  d. reflection
  e. recombination

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

67. According to Locke, the idea of an army or a navy would be an example of ____.

  a. a complex idea
  b. an innate idea
  c. a simple idea
  d. a derived idea
  e. a primary quality

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

68. For Locke, the difference between a simple and a complex idea is that a simple idea ____.

  a. contains more premises
  b. is the result of inductive logic
  c. is the result of deductive logic
  d. is contiguous
  e. cannot be reduced

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

69. If a tree falls in the forest and no one is present to hear it, then the fall makes no sound. Using Lockes distinctions, this conclusion assumes that the sound is a(n) ____.

  a. primary quality
  b. secondary quality
  c. association
  d. simple idea
  e. complex idea

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

70. According to Locke, the tickle of a feather would be a(n) ____.

  a. complex idea
  b. primary quality
  c. secondary quality
  d. tertiary quality
  e. essential quality

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

71. The notion of secondary qualities was proposed by Locke to explain ____.

  a. the distinction between the physical world and ones experience of it
  b. the need for objectivity in psychology
  c. the role of positivism in the new science of psychology
  d. Descartess dualism
  e. the difference between simple ideas and complex ideas

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1<

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