A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay Test Bank

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A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay Test Bank


A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay Test Bank

c2- Essay

Answer each of the following questions with an essay. Be sure to include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.



1. Describe some of the changes brought to Mesopotamian societies by the introduction of sustained agriculture.



2. Mesopotamia and Egypt were both sites of ancient civilizations. Describe each civilization in terms of its political structure, religion, society, and culture. How can we account for the similarities and differences between them?



3. Explain the differences and similarities between Phoenician, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian writing systems. Why was writing important to the development of each of these civilizations?



4. How did the worship of Yahweh by the Hebrews compare with how the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, and Persians worshiped their gods?



5. Explain the roles of women in Egyptian and Hebrew societies. Discuss similarities and differences.




Answer Key


1. Answer would ideally include:


Sustained agriculture in Mesopotamia required the building of irrigation canals for the crops, and thus required people to settle and defend one location. A division of labor followed. The concentration of populations led to the development of cities, with defensive walls, marketplaces, and public gathering sites such as assembly areas and temples. The emergent class system privileged priests, and a writing system was created to keep accounts.

2. Answer would ideally include:


For politics, this description should include governmental organization, political and geographic unity, the role of the military, and the role of the priesthood. For religion, it should include the role and power of the priesthood, types and attitudes of the gods, and view of the afterlife. For society, it should address social structure, slavery, family, and gender. The description of culture should include such things as art and folktales. The similarities and differences between each should be explained based on such factors as historical development and geography.

3. Answer would ideally include:


Phoenician scribes produced the first completely phonetic (i.e., sound-based) system of writing. At the core of this system was the first alphabet, which served as a foundation for many Western writing systems, including Greek and Roman. Scribes in Mesopotamia and Egypt did incorporate some symbols that represented sounds, but these were always used as part of a much larger system of ideograms. Answers should include some information on each specific writing system and, in the second part of the question, information on the importance of writing to religion, commerce, laws, and government administration.

4. Answer would ideally include:


The essay will probably start with the most obvious difference in how the four religions thought about godsthat the Hebrews are monotheistic and believe that Yahweh is the only god, whereas the other three religions are polytheistic and worship many different gods. Although all four religions incorporate animal sacrifice in worship, the Hebrews also worship their god through their treatment of one another, following a specified moral code.

5. Answer would ideally include:


Good essays will find that women in both societies had domestic obligations and economic opportunities. Most will note that women were never viewed as being as important as men. Some will likely mention the unusual role of Hatshepsut. Good essays will also compare the importance of marriage and fertility. While women in Egypt were frequently portrayed as companions to men, women in Hebrew society had a particularly important role in educating their children.


c2- Matching

Use the following to answer questions 1-10:


Select the word or phrase from the Terms section that best matches the definition or example provided in the Definitions section.



  1. Iron Age
  2. Yahweh
  3. cuneiform
  4. Zoroastrianism
  5. epic poem
  6. Indo-European languages
  7. polytheism
  8. Phoenicians
  9. pharaoh
  10. Hammurabis law code



1. Sumerian form of writing; the term describes the wedge-shaped marks made by a stylus. _________________



2. An oral or written narration of the achievements and sometimes the failures of heroes that embodies peoples ideas about themselves. _________________



3. A proclamation issued by Babylonian king Hammurabi to establish laws regulating many aspects of life. _________________



4. The worship of many gods and goddesses. _________________



5. A large family of languages that includes English, most of the languages of modern Europe, ancient Greek, Latin, Persian, Hindi, Bengali, and Sanskrit, the sacred tongue of ancient India. _________________



6. Period beginning about 1100 B.C.E. when iron became the most important material for weapons and tools in some parts of the world. _________________



7. All-powerful god of the Hebrew people and the basis for the enduring religious traditions of Judaism. _________________



8. Religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster that emphasized the individuals responsibility to choose between good and evil. _________________



9. People of the prosperous city-states in what is now Lebanon who traded and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean and spread the phonetic alphabet. _________________



10. The title given to the king of Egypt in the New Kingdom, from a word that meant great house. _________________




Answer Key


1. c. cuneiform
2. e. epic poem
3. j. Hammurabis law code
4. g. polytheism
5. f. Indo-European languages
6. 1. Iron Age
7. b. Yahweh
8. d. Zoroastrianism
9. h. Phoenicians
10. i. pharaoh


c2- Multiple Choice

Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. What material was used for writing in Mesopotamia?
  A) Animal bones
  B) Papyrus
  C) Soft clay
  D) Parchment



2. How did papyrus compare with clay tablets as a writing material?
  A) It was less prone to disintegration.
  B) It was more fragile and less likely to survive.
  C) It required a stylus to carve the symbols.
  D) It was more difficult to write on.



3. In general, how did residents of ancient cities tend to view residents of rural areas?
  A) City dwellers viewed themselves as more sophisticated.
  B) City dwellers saw themselves as equal to the farmers.
  C) City dwellers looked up to and envied those who lived in the country.
  D) City dwellers tried to imitate the people of the rural areas.



4. What method did early states use to control their populace?
  A) Exemption from taxation
  B) Promises of wealth
  C) Threats of violence
  D) Offers of free food



5. Social hierarchies in early states were usually heightened by the introduction of what state mechanism?
  A) Written laws
  B) Economic records
  C) Written religious texts
  D) Coinage



6. In what region did the first known states develop?
  A) Egypt
  B) India
  C) Persia
  D) Mesopotamia



7. What natural feature in Sumer helped settled agriculture develop there first?
  A) Naturally occurring irrigation ditches that helped water the crops
  B) Rivers that brought new soil with annual floods
  C) Constant annual rainfall that irrigated the fields
  D) An abundance of labor to work the fields



8. What role did the first rulers of Ur, Uruk, and other Sumerian city-states play?
  A) Priests
  B) Merchants
  C) Farmers
  D) Scribes



9. Where did Sumerians build their large ziggurat temples?
  A) On the outskirts of the cities
  B) In the middle of crop fields
  C) On man-made islands in the river
  D) In the center of the city



10. Which of the following best describes a ziggurat-style temple?
  A) Underground cavern
  B) Floating island
  C) Beehive-shaped dome
  D) Stepped pyramid



11. Why did Sumerians likely begin a system of taxation?
  A) To pay for establishing a public school system
  B) To pay for the construction of temples and the expenses of temple officials
  C) To pay for the construction of libraries to hold cuneiform tablets
  D) To encourage economic growth and the development of market squares for traders



12. To counter the temples power, military leaders who became kings began to build what kinds of structures?
  A) Rival temples to worship war gods
  B) Public cemeteries to honor war dead as heroes
  C) Palaces to demonstrate the kings strength
  D) Marketplaces to highlight goods from conquered territories



13. Who were known as clients in Sumer?
  A) Free people who were dependent on the nobility
  B) Household slaves
  C) Destitute persons supported by the city temple
  D) Indentured servants who had contracts with local nobles



14. Who worked the land owned by the king, nobles, and temples in ancient Sumer?
  A) Hired laborers
  B) Priests in training
  C) Client farmers and slaves
  D) Scribes and soldiers



15. Why did older men have the most power in the Mesopotamian social system?
  A) Mesopotamian societies were patriarchal.
  B) The most important value in Mesopotamian society was reverence for elders.
  C) Older men tended to form political alliances with powerful priests.
  D) Older men presided over important ancestor-worship rituals.



16. Which of the following describes the earliest Sumerian writings?
  A) They were ideograms in which each sign symbolized an idea.
  B) They were pictographs in which each sign pictured an object.
  C) Each symbol represented a sound in the spoken language.
  D) They were written using the first known alphabet.



17. How did Sumerian scribes learn the cuneiform writing system?
  A) They were taught at special schools.
  B) Their fathers taught them at home.
  C) Priests were solely responsible for this important teaching.
  D) They were taught as part of their mandated training as members of the army.



18. Sumerian scribes were trained largely to do what?
  A) To record religious texts and ritual manuals
  B) To write tax documents and legal cases
  C) To write official histories of royal families
  D) To keep property and wealth records



19. What is the key theme of the Epic of Gilgamesh?
  A) The duty of a soldier to serve the king
  B) The constant battle between good and evil
  C) The idea that men and women were created by magic
  D) Humanitys search for immortality



20. The Sumerian mathematical system was based on units of sixty, ten, and six and survives in what modern system?
  A) Calculus
  B) Musical notation
  C) Time measurement
  D) Square roots



21. Around 2300 B.C.E., what chieftain conquered Sumer and created an empire?
  A) Hammurabi
  B) Menes
  C) Akhenaten
  D) Sargon



22. How did Sargon reinforce his rule in Mesopotamia?
  A) He converted all the people to his Semitic religion.
  B) He tore down the defensive walls of major cities and appointed his own sons as rulers.
  C) He wrote the first law code.
  D) He claimed to be a descendant of the god Marduk.



23. How did religion contribute to Hammurabis political success?
  A) He demonstrated his strength by forcing the exile of all Sumerian priests.
  B) He partitioned all of Mesopotamia into small political units governed by priests.
  C) He destroyed all existing Mesopotamian religions and forced acceptance of his Babylonian faith.
  D) He claimed that divine authority stood behind the laws that he established.



24. What was the intended function of Hammurabis code?
  A) To regulate the relationships among his people and promote their welfare
  B) To intimidate the common people in order to prevent social upheaval
  C) To protect the position of nobles and priests at the expense of the commoners
  D) To increase the nobilitys power over the priesthood



25. According to Hammurabis code, who controlled a womans dowry after she married?
  A) A judge
  B) The womans husband
  C) The womans father
  D) The woman herself



26. What geographic feature had the largest impact on Egyptian culture and prosperity?
  A) The Sinai Desert
  B) The Nile River
  C) The Red Sea
  D) The Mediterranean Sea



27. How did Egyptians view the afterlife?
  A) As bleak and very frightening
  B) As pleasant
  C) As a place of punishment
  D) As a fictional realm that nonetheless inspired great wonder



28. According to Egyptian belief, the Niles rise and fall was dictated by
  A) tides.
  B) Ra.
  C) the pharaoh.
  D) priests.



29. One of the earliest deities Egyptians worshiped was Amon, god of
  A) the sky.
  B) the underworld.
  C) the dead.
  D) fertility.



30. For which of the following was a pharaoh believed to be responsible?
  A) Achieving integration between gods and humans
  B) Ruling over earth and sky
  C) Ensuring his peoples safe passage to the afterlife
  D) Organizing Egypts agricultural system



31. Egyptian hieroglyphs were recorded on papyrus sheets and on what else?
  A) Clay tablets
  B) Glass items
  C) Walls of tombs
  D) Clay pots



32. How did Egyptian and Mesopotamian women compare in terms of their ability to own and control property?
  A) Neither culture allowed women to own or control property independently.
  B) Mesopotamian women owned and controlled more property than Egyptian women.
  C) In both cultures, women were able to own and control property freely.
  D) Egyptian women owned and controlled more property than Mesopotamian women.



33. During what period did slavery become widespread in Egypt?
  A) Second Intermediate Period
  B) Old Kingdom
  C) New Kingdom
  D) First Intermediate Period



34. What important contribution did the Hyksos make to Egyptian society?
  A) They encouraged Egyptians to worship the god Amon.
  B) Their bronze technology and weaponry was adopted by Egyptians.
  C) As naval pioneers, they introduced the center-stern rudder to Egyptian ships.
  D) Their mathematicians introduced the abacus to Egypt.



35. How was the New Kingdom different from the previous Middle and Old Kingdoms?
  A) Pharaohs increasingly tried to ensure peace because they realized war was too expensive.
  B) In response to multiple social problems, pharaohs encouraged more religious activities.
  C) Egyptians now focused more on trade than on farming because the Nile became unpredictable.
  D) Egyptians now focused more on conquest of new territories and created the first Egyptian empire.



36. Which of the following contributed to the expansion of slavery in the New Kingdom period?
  A) Economic problems forced families to sell children into slavery to pay off debts.
  B) As the Egyptian population diminished, the agricultural system required more laborers to maintain farming efficiency.
  C) Power struggles within the royal family led to more people becoming slaves.
  D) Focus on the conquest of other peoples resulted in slaves being brought back to Egypt from conquered territories.



37. Why was Akhenatens interest in worship of a new sun-god Aten ultimately a failure?
  A) The elaborate worship rituals were too confusing.
  B) The hated and corrupt priesthood endorsed it.
  C) It was imposed from above and failed to find a place among the people.
  D) It attempted to do away with worship of the widely popular sun-god.



38. Why did the Hittites and Egyptians conclude a peace treaty in 1258 B.C.E.?
  A) Both sides were exhausted by war.
  B) The Egyptians signed to avoid a total defeat by the Hittites.
  C) The Hittites brutally conquered the Egyptians.
  D) Both sides recognized the impossibility of defeating the other.



39. Which civilization produced some of the best iron products in the world?
  A) India
  B) Sumer
  C) Mero
  D) Persia



40. In 727 B.C.E., King Piye conquered and unified Egypt from his home kingdom of
  A) Kush.
  B) Phoenicia.
  C) Persia.
  D) Babylonia.



41. What was the Phoenicians greatest cultural achievement?
  A) They developed settled agriculture.
  B) They developed the first sun-based calendar.
  C) They created the first fully phonetic alphabet.
  D) They were responsible for the composition of The Iliad.



42. What remains our most important source of knowledge about ancient Jews?
  A) Archaeological excavations
  B) The Hebrew Bible
  C) Governmental records
  D) Oral epic histories



43. The Hebrews created a monarchy with Saul as leader by fighting what other Palestinian people in the eleventh century B.C.E.?
  A) Philistines
  B) Phoenicians
  C) Egyptians
  D) Assyrians



44. Which Hebrew leader captured the city of Jerusalem?
  A) Judah
  B) David
  C) Saul
  D) Solomon



45. What happened to the Hebrew kingdom after Solomons death?
  A) Its leaders continued to consolidate politically.
  B) Conflict led to its split into two separate kingdoms.
  C) The kingdom was largely destroyed by an internal power struggle.
  D) Leaders gained the military protection of the Assyrians.



46. How did the Hebrew religion change as a result of the Babylonian Captivity?
  A) It was redefined and established as the law of Yahweh.
  B) It almost disappeared.
  C) It was exposed to Zoroastrianism.
  D) It was adopted by the Chaldeans.



47. How were children educated in ancient Israel?
  A) Education was left up to the father.
  B) Education took place in organized schools.
  C) Boys and girls attended school at the local temple.
  D) Education was a responsibility of both parents.



48. Which of the following was true of the Assyrians?
  A) They were one of the most warlike people in history.
  B) They used shrewd diplomacy to carve out an empire.
  C) They united the small kingdoms of Phoenicia and the Jews to defeat Egypt.
  D) They were nomadic fighters who did not build or live in permanent towns.



49. In addition to his concept of empire, what was another characteristic that made Cyrus a remarkable warrior-king?
  A) His concern for economic development
  B) His effective assimilation of nomadic invaders into his kingdom
  C) His benevolence and humanity as a ruler
  D) His ability to coordinate an efficient bureaucracy over a vast region



50. Which of the following was an important teaching of Zoroaster?
  A) Human actions were the result of manipulation by the gods.
  B) People possessed free will and were accountable for their actions.
  C) Peoples eternal fate was determined by the depth of their religious faith.
  D) All gods embodied good and truth, whereas only humans could be hateful or evil.




Answer Key


1. C
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. A
6. D
7. B
8. A
9. D
10. D
11. B
12. C
13. A
14. C
15. A
16. B
17. A
18. D
19. D
20. C
21. D
22. B
23. D
24. A
25. D
26. B
27. B
28. C
29. A
30. A
31. C
32. D
33. C
34. B
35. D
36. D
37. C
38. D
39. C
40. A
41. C
42. B
43. A
44. B
45. B
46. A
47. D
48. A
49. C
50. B



c32- Essay

Answer each of the following questions in an essay. Be sure to include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.



1. How did the oil embargo and the policies of OPEC affect the economic development of the United States?



2. How did the Palestinian-Israeli conflict shape the development of Arab states, especially Egypt?



3. Why was there so much violence in Central America during the Cold War?



4. What led to the Four Modernizations movement of China? Were they all equally successful? Explain what was missing from this attempt at reform.



5. How has Pakistan developed politically and economically since the 1970s?




Answer Key


1. Answer would ideally include:


In 1973 OPEC implemented a successful embargo of America and western Europe, and energy costs quadrupled. The United States was unable to break the cartel and lost influence globally. Oil prices remained high, and revolution in Iran caused a second oil shock in 1979. Prices increased, and energy costs slowed economic growth, triggering inflation and low wage growth (stagflation). Banks raised interest rates, slowing economic growth further and leading to a major recession. Reduced consumer demand lowered inflation but also damaged economies that sought to export to the United States. Rising debt combined with rising interest rates globally produced a global debt crisis. The debt crisis allowed the United States to gain economic leverage and impose neoliberal free-market reforms globally.

2. Answer would ideally include:


OPEC organization, which was effective in response to the Yom Kippur War in 1973, left Israel feeling vulnerable and empowered oil-exporting Arab nations. The wealth of oil-producing Arab states changed power relations between Arab countries, as did the rise of Islamic militancy. Egypt and the United States engaged in a peace process with Israel in 1979 that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt and led to American aid to Egypt but also spread division as most Arab states did not support the process, and Islamic radicals assassinated Anwar Sadat in 1981. Tensions between Israel and other Arab states continued, and the peace between Egypt and Israel has been placed under considerable pressure by the rise of Hamas in Palestine, by the deteriorating conditions in the Gaza Strip and West Bank since the death of Yasir Arafat in 2004, and by the revolution in Egypt in 2011, which led to growing uncertainties in Egyptian politics.

3. Answer would ideally include:


Central American economies were dominated in many cases by American interests. Movements arose during the Cold War era aimed at nationalism and reducing American influence, while peasants sought land reform and political rights. Marxist revolutionary movements and other radical social reformers gained strength in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador, while the United States backed right-wing interests that included the military and powerful dictators. In Nicaragua, the U.S. backed right-wing insurgents in their struggle against the successful Sandinista revolutionary movement that overthrew dictator Anastasio Somoza. War and conflict were widespread until Costa Rican president Oscar Arias mediated peace talks in 1986 that led to open elections. These did not alleviate poverty and violence, which have persisted.

4. Answer would ideally include:


Maos attempts to reform China along strict Marxist lines, with an emphasis on purging dissent and heavy labor on a small scale, had created greater social equality but destabilized the country in other ways. City dwellers in particular felt a sense of chaos, perhaps because the largest cultural changes occurred there. Intellectuals and technicians, who as a class had been purged in the Cultural Revolution, fought back to reclaim their influence. Ultimately, Maos Cultural Revolution had failed. In response, Deng Xiaoping, who assumed leadership of China after Maos death, instituted the Four Modernizations as part of an effort to remake China yet again, undoing some of the problems created by Mao. Deng singled out four areas of the economy and industry for some degree of modernization and experimentation, the opposite of Maos rigid policies. The four areas modernized were agriculture (large collectives were replaced with more traditional family farms and cash crops), industry (which remained state-owned, but foreign-owned factories were allowed to open and some private enterprise was allowed), science and technology, and national defense (which also remained in government hands). The agricultural reforms were the most successful and benefited the peasantry greatly. Industry and technology also did well. One area not addressed by Dengs reforms was societal changes brought on by economic changes. China experienced dissent in 1989 as a result. The Communist Party retained a monopoly on political power and did not respond to the worldwide movement toward more democracy and political freedom. University students, however, did respond to that movement and the lack of political change in China and began a series of demonstrations and protests in 1989.

5. Answer would ideally include:


Military rule in Pakistan led to a close alliance with the United States, and Pakistan received considerable U.S. assistance. Relations with both the United States and India worsened considerably as Pakistan developed nuclear weapons by 1998, which nearly precipitated war with India. Pakistani-based terrorist groups have attacked targets in India, and Pakistani support for the Taliban and others in Afghanistan in their struggle against Soviet occupation led to close connections between the Taliban and al-Qaeda, including their operation in parts of Northwest Pakistan. While Pakistans dictator Perez Musharraf renewed alliances with the United States after September 2001, he was forced to resign when his political rival Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in 2007.


c32- Matching

Use the following to answer questions 1-14:


Select the word or phrase from the Terms section that best matches the definition or example provided in the Definitions section.



  1. African National Congress (ANC)
  2. perestroika
  3. Tiananmen Square
  4. intifada
  5. neoliberalism
  6. European Union (EU)
  7. petrodollars
  8. dtente
  9. apartheid
  10. junta
  11. glasnost
  12. Washington Consensus
  13. Japan, Inc.
  14. Solidarity



1. The progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions. _________________



2. Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachevs popular campaign for openness in the government and the media. _________________



3. The main black nationalist organization in South Africa, led by Nelson Mandela. _________________



4. The global recirculation by international banks of profits from the higher price of oil. _________________



5. A nickname from the 1980s used to describe the intricate relationship of Japans business world and government. _________________



6. A return to policies intended to promote free markets and the free circulation of capital across national borders. _________________



7. The system of racial segregation and discrimination that was supported by the Afrikaner government in South Africa. _________________



8. A prolonged campaign of civil disobedience by Palestinian youth against Israeli soldiers; the Arabic word intifada means shaking off. _________________



9. Economic restructuring and reform implemented by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the establishment of profit-seeking private cooperatives to provide personal services for consumers. _________________



10. An economic and political alliance of twelve European nations formed in 1993 that has since grown to include twenty-seven European nations. _________________



11. workers and political reform.  _____________________



12. Policies restricting public spending, lowering import barriers, privatizing state enterprises, and deregulating markets. _________________



13. The site of a Chinese student revolt in 1989 at which Communists imposed martial law and arrested, injured, or killed hundreds of students. _________________



14. A government headed by a council of commanders of the branches of the armed forces. _________________




Answer Key


1. h. dtente
2. k. glasnost
3. a. African National Congress (ANC)
4. g. petrodollars
5. m. Japan, Inc.
6. e. neoliberalism
7. i. apartheid
8. d. intifada
9. b. perestroika
10. f. European Union (EU)
11. n. Solidarity
12. l. Washington Consensus
13. c. Tiananmen Square
14. j. junta


c32- Multiple Choice

Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. What enabled the OPEC cartel to control the price of oil in 1973?
  A) Americas support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War
  B) The death of Anwar Sadat, who had opposed the cartel
  C) The Iranian revolution
  D) Coordination with Britain, where oil had been discovered in the North Sea



2. How did the oil embargo affect Americas standing in the world?
  A) The embargo increased respect for America as American pressure finally broke the embargo, benefitting other Western economies.
  B) The embargo led other producers of raw materials to challenge American influence over the global economy.
  C) The embargo ended the importance of the U.S. dollar as a global currency.
  D) The embargo led to a widespread perception of declining American influence.



3. How did Brazils military leaders react to the embargo of 1973?
  A) Brazil remained a staunch American ally.
  B) Brazil resisted American pressure to continue supporting Israel.
  C) Brazil moved closer to the Soviet Union.
  D) Brazil switched to nuclear power as much as possible.



4. How did Europeans respond to the oil shocks of the 1970s?
  A) Increasing political radicalism
  B) Switching to a large degree to coal and natural gas
  C) Increasing bicycle and mass transit use
  D) Supporting an American invasion of Iraq



5. How did petrodollars change the world economy from the 1970s?
  A) They enriched developing countries.
  B) They ensured that the industrialized West did not suffer inflation.
  C) The ended the economic hegemony of the United States and western Europe.
  D) They increased the availability of loans for developing states.



6. How did the neoliberalism of the 1980s change the world economy?
  A) Neoliberalism contributed to a shift in economic power to the developing world.
  B) Neoliberalism increased the influence of free-market political ideals in the global economy.
  C) Neoliberalism encouraged more developing countries to align themselves with the Soviet Union.
  D) Neoliberalism undermined the Washington Consensus.



7. What characterized the global economy in the 1970s and 1980s?
  A) Deflation and recession
  B) Hyperinflation
  C) Stagflation and boom/bust cycles
  D) A credit crunch



8. What contributed to the discrediting of the PRI in Mexico after 1968?
  A) Corruption and failed neoliberal policies
  B) Close association with discredited Marxist ideas
  C) War with Central American states
  D) A failed attempt to establish a free trade agreement (NAFTA)



9. How did newfound oil wealth affect the development of Nigeria from the 1960s?
  A) Nigeria experienced steady economic development with a weak political system.
  B) The military became less influential over Nigerian politics.
  C) Religious differences became less central to political divisions.
  D) Political and cultural unity remained elusive as the economy endured boom and bust cycles.



10. What happened when Nigerian dictator General Sani Abacha died suddenly in 1998?
  A) Another military

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