Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe Test Bank

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Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe Test Bank

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe Test Bank

 

Sample  Question   

1. A childs problems must be considered in relation to the influence of the ____.

  a. individual
  b. family
  c. community/culture
  d. all of these

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

2. Victor is fearful of approaching new situations and often appears inhibited. Victors mother reports that she struggles with similar difficulties and he may have inherited it from her. This is an example of ____.

  a. emotional influences
  b. biological influences
  c. cognitive influences
  d. behavioral influences

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What is Causing Jorges Problems?
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

3.  Etiology refers to the ____ of childhood disorders.

  a. causation
  b. treatments
  c. correlates
  d. prevention

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

4. What is an underlying assumption with regard to abnormal child behavior?

  a. Abnormal development is solely determined by the childs genetic makeup.
  b. Abnormal development is solely determined by the childs environment.
  c. Abnormal development involves continuities and discontinuities.
  d. Abnormal development focuses on extreme or bizarre behavior.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

5. Isabella is 3 years old, and frequently demands attention, overreacts, and refuses to go to bed. These behaviors are considered ____.

  a. common because of her age
  b. diagnosable as clinical disorders
  c. signs of an overly sensitive child
  d. early warning signs of future difficulties

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Apply

 

6. The dynamic interaction of child and environment is referred to as ____.

  a. mutuality
  b. etiology
  c. transaction
  d. continuity

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

7. Which theoretical orientation best explains the various behaviors or disorders in childhood?

  a. biological
  b. psychological
  c. family
  d. integrative

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

8. The failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones is referred to as a(n)____.

  a. adaptational failure
  b. developmental disintegration
  c. discontinuity
  d. dysregulation

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

9. Most often, adaptational failure is due to a(n) ____.

  a. single, definable cause
  b. longstanding biological maladaptation
  c. ongoing interaction between the individual and environment
  d. sudden onset of an environmental challenge

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

10. An organizational view of development implies a(n) ____ process.

  a. static
  b. unchanging
  c. dynamic
  d. fixed

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

11. The windows of time during which environmental influences on development are enhanced are called ____.

  a. sensitive periods
  b. critical periods
  c. crucial periods
  d. necessary periods

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

12. Because development is ____, sensitive periods play a meaningful role in any discussion of normal and abnormal behavior.

  a. disorganized
  b. organized
  c. hierarchical
  d. organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

13. Childrens development occurs in a(n) ____ manner.

  a. mostly random
  b. strictly organized
  c. strictly hierarchical
  d. organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

14. The developmental psychopathology approach to studying childhood disorders emphasizes the importance of developmental____.

  a. disruptions
  b. processes and tasks
  c. regressions
  d. obstacles

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

15. A central tenet of developmental psychopathology is that to understand maladaptive behavior, we must consider ____.

  a. ones genetic predisposition
  b. how problematic behaviors develop over time
  c. the childs familial history for maladjustment
  d. what is normative for a given period of development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

16. Childrens early caretaking experiences play an important role in designing parts of the brain that involve ____.

  a. planning and complex processes
  b. problem solving skills
  c. emotion, personality, and behavior
  d. fine motor skills

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

17. Brain maturity occurs in a(n) ____ fashion.

  a. mostly random
  b. strictly organized
  c. strictly hierarchical
  d. organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

18. Which statement about neural development is false?

  a. Most developing axons reach their destination even before a baby is born.
  b. Synapses both proliferate and disappear in early childhood.
  c. Brain connections are relatively pre-determined and cannot be changed by the environment.
  d. Primitive areas of the brain develop first.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

19. Which statement about neural development is true?

  a. Major restructuring of the brain in relation to puberty occurs between 6 and 9 years of age.
  b. The brain stops developing after 3 years of age.
  c. Primitive areas of the brain mature last.
  d. The prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum are not wired until a person is 5 to 7 years old.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

20. Which statement about our genetic makeup is false?

  a. Genes determine behavior.
  b. Genes are composed of DNA.
  c. Genes produce proteins.
  d. The expression of genes is influenced by the environment.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

21. The problem with family aggregation studies is that they ____.

  a. are difficult to carry out
  b. do not control for environmental variables
  c. only tell us about the influence of the environment
  d. only tell us about chromosomal abnormalities

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

22. Behavioral geneticists have concluded that ____.

  a. many psychological disorders can be accounted for by an individual gene
  b. much of our development and behaviors are influenced by a small number of genes
  c. both genetic and environmental influences affect behavior
  d. behavior is largely influenced by the environment

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

23. Which part of the brain is most responsible for regulating our emotional experiences, expressions, and impulses?

  a. hypothalamus
  b. hindbrain
  c. basal ganglia
  d. limbic system

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

24. Epinephrine is also known as ____.

  a. dopamine
  b. serotonin
  c. cortisol
  d. adrenaline

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

25. Which part of the brain is implicated in disorders affecting motor behavior?

  a. hypothalamus
  b. hindbrain
  c. basal ganglia
  d. limbic system

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

26. The ____ gives us the distinct qualities that make us human and allows us to think about the future, to be playful, and to be creative.

  a. cerebral cortex
  b. limbic system
  c. brainstem
  d. hippocampus

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

27. The _________ lobes contain the functions underlying much of our thinking and reasoning abilities.

  a. temporal
  b. frontal
  c. parietal
  d. occipital

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

28. The ____ gland produces epinephrine in response to stress.

  a. hypothalamus
  b. thyroid
  c. adrenal
  d. pituitary

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

29. The glands located on top of the kidneys are important because they produce hormones that ____.

  a. orchestrate the bodys regulatory functions
  b. control the entire HPA axis
  c. energize us and prepare for possible threats in the environment
  d. allow our cellular functions to relax and rejuvenate

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

30. The ____ gland plays a role in energy metabolism and growth, and is implicated in certain eating disorders.

  a. hypothalamus
  b. thyroid
  c. adrenal
  d. pituitary

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

31. The ____ gland oversees the bodys regulatory functions by producing several hormones, including estrogen and testosterone.

  a. pineal
  b. pituitary
  c. thyroid
  d. adrenal

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

32. ____ has been implicated in several psychological disorders, especially those connected to a persons response to stress and ability to regulate emotions.

  a. The HPA axis
  b. BZ-GABA
  c. Norepinephrine
  d. Dopamine

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

33. What is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces overall arousal and levels of anger, hostility, and aggression?

  a. serotonin
  b. benzodiazepine-GABA
  c. norepinephrine
  d. dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

34. ____ acts like a switch in the brain, turning on various circuits associated with certain types of behavior.

  a. Serotonin
  b. Benzodiazepine-GABA
  c. Norepinephrine
  d. Dopamine

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

35. The neurotransmitter implicated in regulatory problems, such as eating and sleep disorders, is ____.

  a. norepinephrine
  b. serotonin
  c. benzodiazepine-GABA
  d. dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

36. Emotions serve ____.

  a. as external monitoring systems
  b. to provide motivation for action
  c. to promote risk-taking behaviors
  d. as a cognitive backbone

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

37. ACTH causes the adrenal glands to release ____.

  a. benzodiazepine-GABA
  b. cortisol
  c. serotonin
  d. dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

38. James often appears to be in a bad mood and he is easily frustrated when given challenging tasks. His temperament would be described as ____.

  a. angry and intense
  b. negative affect or irritability
  c. fearful or inhibited
  d. positive affect and approach

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Applied

 

39. ____ serve(s) as a filter for organizing large amounts of new information and avoiding potential harm.

  a. Cognitions
  b. Emotions
  c. The HPA axis
  d. Benzodiazepine-GABA

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

40. A child who cannot control his temper has problems in emotion ____.

  a. sensitivity
  b. reactivity
  c. regulation
  d. deregulation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

41. _______ relates to how children think about themselves and others, resulting in mental representations of themselves, relationships, and their social world.

  a. Social cognition
  b. Observational learning
  c. Cognitive mediation
  d. Cognitive development

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

42. Individual differences in emotion ____ account for differing responses to a stressful environment.

  a. affectivity
  b. sensitivity
  c. reactivity
  d. regulation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

43. ____ problems refer to weak or absent control structures, whereas ____ problems indicate that existing control structures operative in a maladaptive way.

  a. Regulation; dysregulation
  b. Dysregulation; regulation
  c. Reactivity; regulation
  d. Regulation; reactivity

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

44. Temperament ____.

  a. refers to a childs unpredictable behavior
  b. shapes a childs approach to the environment and vice versa
  c. is not related to personality
  d. forms very late in development

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

45. Which phrase describes the slow-to-warm-up child, who is cautious in approaching novel or challenging situations?

  a. positive affect and approach
  b. fearful or inhibited
  c. negative affect or irritability
  d. adaptive with negative mood

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

46. ABA involves the examination of ____.

  a. behavior only
  b. antecedents and consequences only
  c. behavior and consequences only
  d. behavior, antecedents, and consequences

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

47. ____ explain the acquisition of problem behavior on the basis of paired associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g., homework), and unconditioned stimuli (e.g., parental anger).

  a. Operant models
  b. Classical conditioning models
  c. Social learning models
  d. Social cognition models

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

48. ____ theorists emphasize attributional biases, modeling, and cognitions in their explanation of abnormal behavior.

  a. Behavior
  b. Psychodynamic
  c. Social learning
  d. Biological

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

49. ____ models portray the childs environment as a series of nested and interconnected structures.

  a. Environmental
  b. Ecological
  c. Societal
  d. Macroparadigm

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

50. Bronfenbrenners (1977) model includes a consideration of the ____.

  a. child only
  b. child and family members
  c. family members and society in which the child lives
  d. child, family members, and society in which the child lives

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

51. Attachment theory considers crying (in an infant) to be a behavior that ____.

  a. serves to keep predators away
  b. stimulates the immune system
  c. irritates others
  d. enhances relationships with the caregiver

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

52. Todays research and thinking accepts the notion that many childhood disorders:

  a. cannot be overcome
  b. are treatable with the use of medications
  c. receive too much media attention
  d. share many clinical features and causes

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Looking Ahead
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

53. The process of attachment typically begins between ____ of age.

  a. 0 to 2 months
  b. 6 to 12 months
  c. 12 to 18 months
  d. 18 to 24 months

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

54. Infants that explore the environment with little affective interaction with the caregiver are likely to have a(n) ____ attachment pattern.

  a. secure
  b. anxious-avoidant
  c. anxious-resistant
  d. disorganized

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

55. Infants that are wary of new situations and strangers and who often cannot be comforted by the caregiver are likely to have a(n) ____ attachment pattern.

  a. secure
  b. anxious-avoidant
  c. anxious-resistant
  d. disorganized

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

56. Which attachment pattern has been linked to conduct problems and aggressive behavior?

  a. secure
  b. anxious-avoidant
  c. anxious-resistant
  d. disorganized

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

57. Which attachment pattern has been linked to phobias and anxiety problems?

  a. secure
  b. anxious-avoidant
  c. anxious-resistant
  d. disorganized

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

58. Which term describes a childs model of relationships in terms of what the child expects from others and how the child relates to others?

  a. internal working model
  b. external working model
  c. internal attachment model
  d. external attachment model

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

59. _____ theorists argue that a childs behavior can only be understood in terms of relationships with others.

  a. Cognitive
  b. Behavioral
  c. Family systems
  d. Genetic

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

60. The _____ view of child development recognizes the importance of balancing the abilities of individuals with the challenges and risks of their environments.

  a. health promotion
  b. family systems
  c. attachment
  d. psychopathological

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Looking Ahead
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

61. Discuss the three major underlying assumptions regarding abnormal child behavior.

ANSWER:   Our first underlying assumption is that abnormal child behavior is multiply determined. Thus, we have to look beyond the childs current symptoms and consider developmental pathways and interacting events that, over time, contribute to the expression of a particular disorder. Our second assumption extends the influence of multiple causes by stressing how the child and environment are interdependenthow they influence each other. This concept departs from the tradition of viewing the environment as acting on the child to cause changes in development, and instead argues that children also influence their own environment. In simple terms, the concept of interdependence appreciates how nature and nurture work together and are, in fact, interconnected. Few psychological disorders or impairments suddenly emerge without at least some warning signs or connections to earlier developmental issues. This connection is apparent, for example, in early-onset and persistent conduct disorders, with which parents and other adults often see troublesome behaviors at a young age that continue in some form into adolescence and adulthood.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Analyze

 

62. Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous patterns of behavior development.

ANSWER:   Continuity implies that developmental changes are gradual and quantitative (i.e., expressed as amounts that can be measured numerically, such as weight and height changes) and that future behavior patterns can be predicted from earlier patterns. Discontinuity, in contrast, implies that developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative (i.e., expressed as qualities that cannot be measured numerically, such as changes in mood or expression) and that future behavior is poorly predicted by earlier patterns.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

63. What is meant by using an integrative approach to understanding factors that influence a childs behavior?

ANSWER:   Because no single theoretical orientation can explain various behaviors or disorders, we must be familiar with many theories and conceptual modelseach contributes important insights into normal and abnormal development.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Analyze

 

64. Describe how sensitive periods can impact childrens development. Can developmental change occur outside of these periods?

ANSWER:   Because development is organized, sensitive periods play a meaningful role in any discussion of normal and abnormal behavior. Sensitive periods are windows of time during which environmental influences on development, both good and bad, are enhanced. Sensitive periods can be enhanced opportunities for learning but are not the only opportunities; change can take place at other times.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

65. How can a baby with a difficult temperament influence and be influenced by the environment?

ANSWER:   This dimension describes the difficult child, who is predominantly negative or intense in mood, not very adaptable, and arrhythmic. Some children with this temperament show distress when faced with novel or challenging situations, and others are prone to general distress or irritability, including when limitations are placed on them.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Analyze

 

66. Discuss how children learn from their emotions and the emotional expression of others.

ANSWER:   Children have a natural tendency to attend to emotional cues from others, which helps them learn to interpret and regulate their own emotions. They learn, from a very young age, through the emotional expressions of others.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Analyze

 

67. How permanent are early neuronal connections?

ANSWER:   This question has provoked different theories and agonized many parents who are concerned about their childrens early development. For instance, if early brain functions are unlikely to change, this implies that early experiences set the course for lifetime development. Freuds similar contention implied that an individuals core personality is formed from an early age, which sets the pace and boundaries for further personality formation. To the contrary, This question has provoked different theories and agonized many parents who are concerned about their childrens early development. For instance, if early brain functions are unlikely to change, this implies that early experiences set the course for lifetime development. Freuds similar contention implied that an individuals core personality is formed from an early age, which sets the pace and boundaries for further personality formation. To the contrary,
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

68.  Discuss the major functions of four major neurotransmitters in the brain and their implicated role in psychopathology.

ANSWER:    Benzodiazepine-GABA reduces arousal and moderates emotional responses, such as anger and hostility; it is implicated in anxiety disorder. Dopamine may act as a switch that turns on various brain circuits, allowing other neurotransmitters to inhibit or facilitate emotions or behavior and is implicated in schizophrenia, mood disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Norepinephrine facilitates or controls emergency reactions and alarm responses, it plays a role in emotional and behavioral regulation, but is not directly implicated with any specific disorder. Serotonin plays a role in information and motor coordination, and is implicated in regulatory problems, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Analyze

 

69. Discuss the importance of attachment and how it affects a childs internal working model of relationships.

ANSWER:   Accordingly, attachment serves an important stress-reduction function. The infant is motivated to maintain a balance between the desire to preserve the familiar and the desire to seek and explore new information. Self-reliance develops when the attachment figure provides a secure base for exploration (Bretherton & Munholland, 2008). Moreover, a childs internal working model of relationshipswhat he or she expects from others and how he or she relates to othersemerges from this first crucial relationship and is carried forward into later relationships.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Blooms: Understand

 

70. Distinguish between emotion reactivity and emotion regulation.

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ANSWER:   Emotion reactivity refers to individual differences in the threshold and intensity of emotional experience, which provide clues to an individuals level of distress and sensitivity to the environment. Emotion regulation, on the other hand, involves enhancing, maintaining, or inhibiting emotional arousal, which is usually done for a specific purpose or goal.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy