Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 5th Edition by David H. Barlow Test Bank

Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 5th Edition by David H. Barlow  Test Bank
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WITH ANSWERS

Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 5th Edition by David H. Barlow Test Bank

CHAPER 2

 

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

1. It is important to understand the process of how learned helplessness is created in laboratory animals because learned helplessness in animals resembles a psychological disorder in humans. What is this disorder?

  a. mania
  b. depression
  c. schizophrenia
  d. generalized anxiety disorder

 

2. Which of the following is likely if Terry has a more optimistic personality than his brother Barry?

  a. Terry will likely live seven-and-a-half years longer than Barry.
  b. Terry is less likely to have a heart attack than Barry.
  c. Terry is likely to have had fewer stressful events in his life so far than Barry.
  d. Terry is likely to have experienced significantly more stressful events in his life than Barry.

 

3. Which neurotransmitter is thought to regulate or moderate certain behavioural tendencies rather than directly influencing specific patterns of behaviour or psychological disorders?

  a. norepinephrine
  b. GABA
  c. serotonin
  d. dopamine

 

4. Alex has a form of epilepsy that affects his limbic system. What sort of behaviour is Alex most likely to display while having a seizure?

  a. lack of body posture and uncoordinated movement
  b. unusual emotional expressions and aggression
  c. disturbed sleep
  d. difficulty breathing

 

5. Karl has been given a medication that reduces dopamine; however, doctors suspect that Karl has taken too much of the medication because of the side effects he is showing. Which of the following described side effects could Karl be showing?

  a. muscle rigidity, tremors, and impaired judgment
  b. extreme aggression
  c. compulsive pleasure-seeking behaviours
  d. delusions and hallucinations

 

6. If you had to choose one brain area to protect so that you could stay alive, which would it be?

  a. the frontal lobes
  b. the brain stem
  c. the forebrain
  d. the midbrain

 

7. What does the diathesisstress model predict about monozygotic twins raised in the same household?

  a. They will have no more likelihood of sharing a disorder than any other two randomly selected individuals from the population.
  b. They will not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their stress.
  c. They will have the same disorders because their diathesis and stress are similarly experienced.
  d. They will not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their diathesis.

 

8. Because psychological disorders are still associated with social stigma (people tend to think that the disorder is something to be ashamed of), which of the following becomes more likely to happen?

  a. People with psychological disorders will not seek and receive the treatment and support of others that are most needed for recovery.
  b. People with psychological disorders will be ignored by mental health professionals when they seek help.
  c. People with psychological disorders will be far more easily treated than those with physical disorders.
  d. People with psychological disorders will seek help for their disorders but be more likely to receive insufficient treatment than those with physical illness.

 

9. Wayne knows he takes a medication that causes an increase in the amount of neurotransmitter activity in the brain. What process is being affected by the medication?

  a. neural stimulation
  b. reuptake
  c. systematic manipulation
  d. neural inhibition

 

10. Which of the following theorists is responsible for the research that conceptualized the term modelling?

  a. Donald Meichenbaum
  b. Albert Bandura
  c. Aaron Beck
  d. Martin Seligman

 

11. Donald Meichenbaum developed self-instructional training for the treatment of depression. What is the goal of this treatment?

  a. to help the client develop more meaningful interpersonal relationships on his or her own
  b. to help the client identify unconscious conflicts from childhood
  c. to help the client identify faulty attributions regarding negative life events
  d. to help the client modify what the client says to him- or herself about the consequences of his or her behaviour

 

12. What part of the brain stem regulates vital activities such as heartbeat, breathing, and digestion?

  a. the forebrain
  b. the thalamus
  c. the reticular activating system
  d. the hindbrain

 

13. Sarah is experiencing a lot of anxiety. If doctors looked at her neurotransmitter levels, what would they most likely find?

  a. reduced levels of norepinephrine
  b. excessive levels of dopamine
  c. reduced levels of GABA
  d. excessive levels of serotonin

 

14. What term did Seligman coin to refer to peoples tendency to display a positive, upbeat attitude even when they are faced with considerable stress and difficulty in their lives?

  a. positive attribution
  b. resilience
  c. optimistic coping style
  d. learned optimism

 

15. Hannah is home alone late at night when she hears a loud, frightening noise. Her heart begins pounding, her muscles tense up, and her senses sharpen. Which of the following systems is causing Hannahs reaction?

  a. the sympathetic nervous system
  b. the limbic system
  c. the parasympathetic nervous system
  d. the central nervous system

 

16. In their research exposing subjects to the virus that causes the common cold, what did Cohen and colleagues (1997) demonstrate?

  a. The quality of social contact predicted whether the individual would contract a cold, but the frequency of social contact did not.
  b. The frequency of social contact and chances of contracting a cold were unrelated.
  c. The less frequent the individuals social contact, the lower the chances of contracting a cold.
  d. The more frequent the individuals social contact, the lower the chances of contracting a cold.

 

17. Which of the following is an example of the unconscious as it is conceptualized by cognitive science?

  a. classical conditioning
  b. implicit memory
  c. ego development
  d. vicarious learning

 

18. In interpersonal psychotherapy, the patient and therapist work together on identifying life stresses that may have contributed to the psychological disorder. What else have these life stresses most likely contributed to?

  a. current interpersonal problems that are either the source of the stress or closely connected to it
  b. the ways in which such stressors interfere with current relationships
  c. the patients history of dysfunctional personal relationships
  d. the frequency and quality of current social contacts

 

19. Professor Knots is talking to her class about the tendency for people to fear spiders but not flowers.  Which of the following could be an excerpt from her lecture?

  a. Over the course of evolution, this knowledge has contributed to the survival of the species.
  b. We have watched many others exhibit these fears and so have vicariously learned them.
  c. We are exposed to them more frequently.
  d. We are reinforced in our environment for some fears more than others.

 

20. Janice is having difficulty maintaining her balance and coordinating her muscle movements. Assuming her problems result from a brain injury, which of the following would you first examine?

  a. the cerebellum
  b. the medulla
  c. the thalamus
  d. the midbrain

 

21. In the 1992 studies conducted by Baxter and colleagues, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were provided with cognitive-behavioural therapy but no drugs. What important result did the brain imaging show?

  a. Neither OCD symptoms nor neurotransmitter function had improved.
  b. Neurotransmitter circuits are the direct and only cause of OCD.
  c. The patients OCD symptoms improved without changes in neurotransmitter function.
  d. The neurotransmitter circuits of the brain had been normalized.

 

22. When people with and without support groups are studied, what have researchers found?

  a. Support groups are the most important factor predicting social and physical health.
  b. Having a supportive group of people around us is important to our psychological well- being but not our physical health.
  c. Social support is important but mostly for those individuals who are at high risk for various physical or psychological disorders.
  d. Having a supportive group of people around us is important to our physical health but not our psychological well-being.

 

23. If Max and Matt are identical twins and you know that Max has a psychological disorder, what can you say about Matt?

  a. Matt will definitely have the disorder as well.
  b. Matt has the same probability of having the disorder as the normal population.
  c. Matt has a greater likelihood of having the disorder than the normal population, but less than he would if he were a dizygotic twin.
  d. Matt is as likely to have the disorder as he would be if he was a non-twin sibling of Max.

 

24. Which of the following parts of the brain is most associated with memory, thought, and reasoning?

  a. the left parietal lobe
  b. the brain stem
  c. the occipital lobe
  d. the frontal lobe

 

25. Which of the following did Albert Bandura teach us about modelling, or observational learning?

  a. Learning acquired through observation is much more resistant to extinction than behaviour acquired through classical or operant conditioning.
  b. Much of our learned behaviour depends upon our interactions with those around us.
  c. Our learned behaviour has much more to do with the types of consequences (reinforcements and punishments) of our actions than our interactions with those around us.
  d. It is impossible to learn behavioural patterns without observing those around us.

 

26. Jeffrey is writing a paper on philosophical theories of morality. Which part of Jeffreys brain would a PET scan show to be most active at this time?

  a. the hindbrain
  b. the cerebral cortex
  c. the midbrain
  d. the limbic system

 

27. What do the evil eye, the Latin American disorder susto, and the Haitian phenomenon of voodoo death all exemplify?

  a. unsubstantiated myths that people can become ill without physical cause
  b. the influence of the social environment on our physical and psychological health
  c. isolated cultural phenomena with little practical significance
  d. the power of the supernatural model of psychopathology

 

28. What is the term for the system comprised of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system?

  a. the peripheral nervous system
  b. the central nervous system
  c. the sympathetic nervous system
  d. the parasympathetic nervous system

 

29. Why are neurotransmitters important?

  a. because they allow neurons to send signals to other neurons
  b. because they are converted into electrical impulses
  c. because they nurture the neuronal structures of the brain
  d. because they allow the brain to maintain its structural integrity

 

30. Why are women more likely than men to suffer from insect phobias?

  a. because of cultural expectations
  b. because of their traditional role in the home, where they are more likely to encounter insects
  c. because of differences in neurochemical pathways
  d. because of hormonal differences

 

31. What is the average duration of interpersonal psychotherapy?

  a. 510 sessions
  b. 1015 sessions
  c. 1520 sessions
  d. 2025 sessions

 

32. What is the major function of the peripheral nervous system?

  a. to control hormonal activity
  b. to regulate arousal
  c. to coordinate with the brain stem to ensure the body is working properly
  d. to process information received from the central nervous system

 

33. What does recent evidence regarding the genetic influence on most psychological disorders indicate?

  a. Multiple genes interact, with each gene contributing a small effect.
  b. Single genes are usually responsible for psychological disorders.
  c. Genes that influence psychopathology are usually recessive.
  d. Little evidence suggests that genes actually influence psychopathology.

 

34. John has inherited a personality trait that makes him more likely to keep to himself than to socialize. As a result, he does not have many friends and spends a lot of time alone. If John were to develop depression, which model would best explain this situation and the cause of his depression?

  a. the interpersonal model
  b. the reciprocal geneenvironment model
  c. the biological model
  d. the diathesisstress model

 

35. Blind sight is a good example of cognitive sciences conception of the unconscious. If an individual is affected by blind sight, what is that person doing?

  a. retrieving explicit memories of episodic experiences
  b. demonstrating that he or she has primitive emotional conflicts
  c. processing and storing information and acting on it without awareness
  d. utilizing implicit memories of visual stimuli

 

36. Dr. Jenkins argues that it is possible to inherit certain genes that could develop into a disorder, even though the disorder may never be activated unless conditions of trauma, challenge, or anxiety are experienced.  Which model supports Dr. Jenkinss hypothesis?

  a. the diathesisstress model
  b. the psychosocial model
  c. the genetic model
  d. the reciprocal geneenvironment model

 

37. A series of studies examining Banduras theory of vicarious learning in children indicated that the steps involved include the child noticing, remembering, and being motivated to exhibit the models behaviour. The basic idea in this work is that a careful analysis of which of the following is important for producing accurate predictions of behaviour?

  a. cognitive processes
  b. social interactions
  c. early play behaviour
  d. rewards and punishments

 

38. Christina sits down to relax in her soft chair after a long, tiring day. As she sits reading her paper, she grows more relaxed. Her breathing and heart rate slow down and her muscles loosen. Which of the following systems is causing Christinas relaxation?

  a. the limbic system
  b. the central nervous system
  c. the parasympathetic nervous system
  d. the sympathetic nervous system

 

39. From their review of studies examining Stroop effects in eating-disordered samples, what did Dobson and Dozois (2004) find in the colour-naming for body/weight words in those with anorexia?

  a. Those with anorexia were more accurate.
  b. Those with anorexia were less accurate.
  c. Those with anorexia were slower.
  d. Those with anorexia were faster.

 

40. Suppose you are a researcher who has bred rats to be emotional and reactive and then you cross-foster those rats so they are raised by calm mothers. What result would you expect?

  a. The young animals will tend to be emotional and reactive as youths but calm when raising their own young.
  b. The young animals will tend to be calm throughout their lives.
  c. The young animals will tend to be mostly calm but emotional and reactive when faced with stressful situations.
  d. The young animals will tend to be emotional and reactive.

 

41. In which of the following cases is low serotonin activity NOT likely to lead to destructive or impulsive behaviours?

  a. if the parasympathetic system is activated
  b. if adrenalin levels remain high
  c. if the individual exercises sufficient self-control
  d. if other biological, social, or psychological influences compensate for the low serotonin activity

 

42. Dr. Tracy conducts an experiment where participants are given a mild shock followed by either a placebo or an opioid. When Dr. Tracy asks participants about pain relief and studies pain-related areas of their brains, what will Dr. Tracy find?

  a. Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, but only the opioid affected the region responsible for the control of the pain response in the brain.
  b. The placebo reduced pain but didnt relieve pain as well as the opioid drug.
  c. Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, and they affected similar regions in the brain stem.
  d. Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, but they affected completely different regions in the brain.

 

43. According to a lifespan psychologist, to understand a patients disorder, what must one also understand?

  a. how the individual has resolved interpersonal conflict throughout life
  b. how experiences during different periods of development may influence the individuals vulnerability to some psychological disorders
  c. how the individual mastered key developmental tasks throughout various life stages
  d. how the individual developed during psychosexual stages

 

44. Which of the following occupations is an analogy for the main function of neurotransmitters?

  a. doorman at a hotel
  b. a messenger in a busy city
  c. a conductor of a train
  d. an actor in a play

 

45. You read in the newspaper that a mother lifted a car to free her trapped child. Which of the mothers systems was highly activated to perform this feat?

  a. the central nervous system
  b. the sympathetic nervous system
  c. the limbic system
  d. the parasympathetic nervous system

 

46. Which of the following is a biological influence on blood-injury-injection phobia?

  a. an overreaction of a physiological mechanism that overcompensates for sudden increases in blood pressure
  b. a genetic tendency to fear situations involving blood
  c. hormonal abnormalities during the developmental period
  d. overactivity of the fear mechanisms in the brain as they pertain to situations involving blood and injury

 

47. Sandra had part of her brain removed to control epilepsy and as a result she can no longer solve problems that require visual imagery. What area of the brain did Sandra have removed?

  a. part of the left hemisphere of the cortex
  b. part the right hemisphere of the cortex
  c. part of the pons
  d. part of the midbrain

 

48. Michael and Marie lost their parents in a tragic accident. Marie has developed depression while Michael has not. Dr. Guthrie thinks that the difference is due to the siblings genders. Which of the following is Dr. Guthrie likely to cite to support her claim?

  a. Men have fewer social relationships than women, which may protect them from additional stress.
  b. When experiencing a negative event, women tend to ruminate about it and to blame themselves.
  c. Men are more likely to self-medicate their depressive feelings with alcohol.
  d. Men are more likely to simply endure feelings of depression, which makes the feelings pass more quickly.

 

49. What did Aaron Beck, the originator of cognitive-behavioural therapy, assume that depression is largely influenced by?

  a. an interaction between maladaptive neurotransmitter pathways and behaviours
  b. thinking too much about ones failures in life
  c. unconscious thoughts that lead to maladaptive life situations
  d. faulty attributions and attitudes

 

50. Which of the following can be created by placing a rat in a cage where occasionally electrical shocks are administered through the floor, over which the rat has no control?

  a. unconscious learning
  b. operant conditioning
  c. stimulus generalization
  d. learned helplessness

 

51. Martha suffered a serious head injury and has since experienced difficulty recognizing specific sights and sounds. Which lobe of her brain has most likely been damaged?

  a. the temporal lobe
  b. the parietal lobe
  c. the frontal lobe
  d. the occipital lobe

 

52. If you put all the neurons from a brain in a hat and randomly selected one, which area would the neuron most likely have come from?

  a. the basal ganglia
  b. the midbrain
  c. the cerebral cortex
  d. the brain stem

 

53. You and a friend are lost while walking a street in a foreign city. A stranger approaches and you are concerned that the stranger may try to mug you. Your friend assumes that the stranger is approaching to give you directions. As the stranger approaches, you experience fear but your friend experiences relief. How can your different emotional reactions be explained?

  a. by the cognitive theory of emotion
  b. by the affective theory of emotion
  c. by the attributional theory of emotion
  d. by the implicit theory of emotion

 

54. Maya has experienced brain damage that has left her with difficulty sleeping and the problem of being hyperaroused. Which area of the brain was most likely damaged?

  a. the pons
  b. the medulla
  c. the hypothalamus
  d. the reticular activating system

 

55. Kolb and colleagues (2003) exposed juvenile, adult, or very old animals to challenging and complex environments. What did they find about this kind of environment?

  a. It had different effects on the animals brains depending on their developmental stage.
  b. It had a negative effect on the older animals brains but had no effect on the younger animals.
  c. It had a negative effect on the young animals cognitive functioning when they became adults.
  d. It had positive effects on the cognitive functioning of all the animals, regardless of age.

 

56. In the diathesisstress model, what does diathesis refer to?

  a. conditions in the environment that can trigger a disorder depending upon how severe the stressors are
  b. an inherited, subclinical disease state that has the potential for developing into a full-blown psychological disorder, given certain environmental conditions
  c. an inherited tendency or condition that makes a person susceptible to developing a disorder
  d. the interaction of social and psychological influences

 

57. Which of the following has dopamine been implicated in?

  a. attention deficit hyperactive disorder and depression
  b. schizophrenia and disorders of addiction
  c. depression and disorders of addiction
  d. schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactive disorder

 

58. Where in the brain are verbal and cognitive processes usually controlled?

  a. across the entire cortex
  b. in the midbrain
  c. in the left hemisphere of the cortex
  d. in the right hemisphere of the cortex

 

59. According to your textbook, the elevated rates of some psychological disorders in First Nations people are probably due to the contributions of poverty and another factor. What is this second factor?

  a. differences in diagnostic criteria used in assessments of First Nations people
  b. genetic differences between First Nations people and non-First Nations people
  c. a history of oppression by a majority culture
  d. cultural differences in the expression of mental illnesses

 

60. Which of the following can be concluded from the studies regarding rat learning and brain structure done by Greenough, Withers, and Wallace (1990)?

  a. Early psychological experience has little to do with brain structure or later development of psychopathology.
  b. Early psychological experience affects the development of the nervous system and will determine whether the individual will develop a psychological disorder later in life.
  c. Early psychological experience affects the development of the nervous system and influences the number of connections between nerve cells.
  d. Early psychological experience does not result in physical changes to the nervous system but can still influence whether or not one develops a psychological disorder.

 

61. Dana has experienced an injury and can no longer perceive some sensory information. Which of Danas nervous systems is damaged?

  a. her peripheral nervous system
  b. her central nervous system
  c. her sympathetic nervous system
  d. her parasympathetic nervous system

 

62. Seans doctor thinks that Sean has low serotonin levels. What sorts of behaviour would lead the doctor to suspect serotonin is low?

  a. Sean is showing aggression, suicidal ideation, and impulsive behaviour.
  b. Sean is showing symptoms of schizophrenia.
  c. Sean is exhibiting anxiety and nervousness.
  d. Sean is exhibiting mania.

 

63. Johns parents both suffer from depression and, as a result, he is being exposed to a great deal of negative emotion during his developmental years. What can we conclude about John?

  a. He may or may not develop depression, but we could determine this if we knew more about factors such as his social support.
  b. He will develop depression due to the genetic predisposition and the home environment.
  c. He is no more likely to develop depression than any other child as long as he has friends and does not have difficulties as a child.
  d. He is at higher risk for depression but may never develop the disorder.

 

64. In their study comparing a placebo to opioid drugs, what did Petrovic and colleagues (2002) conclude?

  a. Psychological factors can affect brain function.
  b. Drugs should not be prescribed for most painful conditions.
  c. Pain is more of a psychological phenomenon than it is physical.
  d. Opioid drugs may relieve pain only through the expectation of pain relief.

 

65. When the Stroop paradigm was used in a study of women who were chronic dieters or restrained eaters, what did Francis and colleagues (1997) find about the restrained eaters, as compared to women who were normal eaters?

  a. The restrained eaters showed substantially slowed colour-naming for food-related words.
  b. The restrained eaters were able to name significantly more food-related words.
  c. The restrained eaters showed substantially faster colour-naming for food-related words.
  d. The restrained eaters were able to name significantly fewer food-related words.

 

66. Which of the following describes the research results of Greenough, Withers, and Wallace (1990)?

  a. Genetically caused brain structure problems can be corrected by positive life experiences.
  b. While psychopathology is often a result of early life experiences, it is generally due to the physical changes in the brain caused by such experiences.
  c. Psychopathology is the result of early learning experiences.
  d. Early experiences such as learning cause physical changes in the brain.

 

67. In addition to reducing anxiety, what broader role does GABA play?

  a. It reduces overall arousal and tempers emotional responses.
  b. It eases depression.
  c. It lessens psychotic behaviours associated with schizophrenia.
  d. It moderates emergency reactions and alarm responses.

 

68. Depression and schizophrenia seem to appear in all cultures but tend to be characterized by different symptoms within individual cultures. For example, Chinese depressed patients tend to report fewer affective and cognitive symptoms of depression. What is the most likely cause of this disparity?

  a. the perception in Chinese society that the affective expression of depression is self-centred and threatening to the social structure
  b. differences in diagnostic measures used in different cultures
  c. a history of oppression, which deters reporting
  d. genetic differences between individuals living in different cultures

 

69. Banduras theory of vicarious learning includes noticing, remembering, and exhibiting the models behaviour. What additional step in the process does Banduras research also suggest?

  a. motivation from seeing the model rewarded
  b. reinforcement from seeing the model rewarded
  c. the belief that the models behaviour was appropriate for the situation
  d. identification with the model

 

70. Which of the following is most likely to be hindered by damage to the somatic nervous system?

  a. voluntary movement
  b. thinking and reasoning
  c. the fight-or-flight response
  d. breathing and sleeping

 

71. Insel and colleagues (1988) conducted a study in which rhesus monkeys were raised either with a sense of control or without a sense of control, and they were later exposed to an anxiety-inducing drug. What did the researchers conclude?

  a. Chemicals such as neurotransmitters influence behaviour in different ways depending upon the psychological history of the individual.
  b. Chemicals such as neurotransmitters may have little or no effect on behaviours related to anxiety.
  c. Chemicals such as neurotransmitters have only indirect effects on behaviour.
  d. Chemicals such as neurotransmitters have few reliable and consistent effects on observed behaviour.

 

72. In the diathesisstress model, what does stress refer to?

  a. life events that, in combination with an inherited tendency, trigger a disorder
  b. inherited tendencies that, in combination with life events, trigger a disorder
  c. the fact that without a diathesis, a disorder will not develop
  d. exposure to very unusual and extreme environmental conditions, which trigger a disorder

 

73. Which of the following is the best analogy for the influence of genes on our cognitive development?

  a. They are like an ignition switch on a rocket that can go forever.
  b. They are like a fence that holds us within a boundary.
  c. They are like a door that leads us to our destiny.
  d. They are like a hurdle that we must jump over.

 

74. How does recent research evidence describe the relationship between the brain (structure, function, neurotransmitters) and psychosocial factors (socialization, rearing, life events)?

  a. It is a system in which the brain directly influences behaviour and psychosocial factors but not the other way around.
  b. It is system of interchanges that are far too complex to fully capture with present-day neurological technologies.
  c. It is an interaction in which the brain affects psychosocial factors and psychosocial factors affect the brain.
  d. It is a system in which behaviour and psychosocial factors affect the brain but not the other way around.

 

75. What do we call the area between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron?

  a. the neural cleft
  b. the dendritic opening
  c. the axon terminal
  d. the synaptic cleft

 

76. What is one reason why men are less likely than women to experience depression in response to stress?

  a. Men are more likely to engage in activity to take their minds off the negative event.
  b. Men are more likely to drink alcohol to relieve stress.
  c. Men are more likely to think about the negative event afterward and solve the problem.
  d. Men are less likely to experience stressful events in the first place.

 

77. What does the term equifinality refer to?

  a. the fact that many causes of psychopathology are equal in influence
  b. the fact that all forms of psychopathology have similar causes
  c. the fact that a number of paths can lead to the same outcome
  d. the fact that the same path can lead to different outcomes

 

78. What does the peripheral nervous system include?

  a. the somatic and autonomic nervous system
  b. the brain stem and cortex
  c. the brain and spinal cord
  d. the endocrine system

 

79. How can neurotransmitters negatively affect psychological functioning?

  a. when they are chemically transformed and not recognizable by the brain
  b. when the wrong neurotransmitters come in contact with a neuron
  c. when production of neurotransmitters is either excessive or insufficient
  d. when an individual produces antibodies that make neurotransmitters ineffective

 

80. What does research imply about the nature of the unconscious?

  a. It clearly exists but in a very different way than Freud imagined.
  b. It clearly exists in much the same way that Freud imagined.
  c. It clearly exists in much the same way that Jung envisioned it.
  d. It may or may not exist as it is impossible to study material of which we are not aware.

 

81. Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with the regulation of mood, behaviour, and thought processes?

  a. GABA
  b. norepinephrine
  c. dopamine
  d. serotonin

 

82. Your very shy and withdrawn uncle spent most of his teen years in a hospital undergoing treatment for a severe physical injury. He has been diagnosed with social phobia that you believe is entirely due to his lack of socialization during his teen years. Which of the following best describes your theory?

  a. one-dimensional
  b. integrative
  c. multidimensional
  d. empirical

 

83. What has brain imaging research revealed about cognitive-behavioural therapy?

  a. Psychosocial factors such as therapy can affect neurotransmitter activity.
  b. Drugs are the most essential means to alter faulty neurotransmitter circuits.
  c. Neurotransmitters affect how people feel and act.
  d. Neurotransmitters are a result of how people feel and act, not a cause.

 

84. Research by Grant and colleagues (1988) found that older adults who have fewer social contacts were more likely to suffer from depression than those who have more frequent social contacts. If the individuals with fewer social contacts became physically ill, what tended to happen?

  a. They were less likely to ask their families for support.
  b. They were even less likely to receive support from their families.
  c. They were more likely to receive substantial social support from their families than those who are not ill.
  d. They were more likely to recover from the depression.

 

85. Dr. Friedmont raised two groups of rhesus monkeys. One group had the ability to control their environment, while the other group had no control. What will likely happen when the monkeys are injected with a drug that produces a feeling of severe anxiety?

  a. The monkeys raised with a sense of control will be calm, while the monkeys raised without a sense of control will appearvery anxious.
  b. The monkeys raised with a sense of control will appear angry and aggressive, while the monkeys raised without a sense of control will appear very anxious.
  c. The monkeys raised with a sense of control will appear anxious, while the monkeys raised without a sense of control will appear angry and aggressive.
  d. The monkeys in both groups will appear angry and aggressive.

 

86. A patient treated for an anxiety disorder has been directed to monitor her thoughts and stop thinking so much about how many things can go wrong. At the same time, she is practising relaxation exercises and trying to spend more time in situations that she fears. What type of treatment is she receiving?

  a. cognitive-behavioural therapy
  b. behavioural reconditioning
  c. classical conditioning
  d. psychoanalytic therapy

 

87. Why are behaviour and personality described as polygenic?

  a. Both are rarely influenced by individual genes.
  b. Both are influenced by many genes, with each individual gene contributing a relatively small effect.
  c. Both are influenced by a few select genes, each exerti

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