Administration And Management In Criminal Justice 2nd Edition By Jennifer M. Test Bank

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Administration And Management In Criminal Justice 2nd Edition By Jennifer M. Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Administration And Management In Criminal Justice 2nd Edition By Jennifer M. Test Bank

Chapter 2:

Open Versus Closed Systems

Test Bank

 

 

Multiple Choice (25)

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of an open-systems organization?
  2. An organization sealed off from the outside
  3. Internal explanations for organizational events and challenges
  4. Explanations are easier and preferable theoretically

*d. An unpredictable and changing environment

Answer location: (Open System Models: The Humanistic Perspective) p. 48

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The workload of the local police department is increasing. Which of the following is a possible external factor that may be useful in explaining this workload increase from an open-systems perspective?
  2. Officers are retiring
  3. Morale among officers is low due to poor leadership
  4. Equipment is failing

*d. Economic conditions are leading people to commit more crime

Answer location: (Open System Models: The Humanistic Perspective) p. 48

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Closed systems models of organizations emerged from the problems of what historical period?

*a. Mid-1800s (Industrial Revolution)

  1. Early-1900s (Progressive Era)
  2. 1940s (World War II)
  3. 1960s (Civil Rights Era)

Answer location: (Closed-System Models: The Classical Perspective) p. 28

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The father of scientific management is widely considered to be __________.
  2. Henri Fayol
  3. Max Weber

*c. Frederick Taylor

  1. Douglas McGregor

Answer location: (Scientific Management) p. 28

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered a classical or machine model of management?
  2. Scientific management
  3. Bureaucratic management

*c. Total quality management

  1. Administrative management

Answer location: (Closed-System Models: The Classical Perspective) p. 28

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Scientific management and bureaucratic management are commonly referred to as __________ of management.
  2. Machine models
  3. Traditional models
  4. Classical models

*d. All of the above

Answer location:  (Closed-System Models: The Classical Perspective) p. 28

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Time motion studies are most closely identified with __________.

*a. Scientific management

  1. Bureaucratic management
  2. Administrative management
  3. Human relations theory

Answer location: (Task Performance) p. 28

Question Type: MC

 

  1. One of the criticisms levied against scientific management is that the worker is hired for his/her physical labor rather than his/her mind. In which of the following examples is this criticism largely absent?

*a. A probation officer has considerable freedom in developing a treatment plan for her probationers.

  1. A correctional officer is told by his sergeant what to do, how to do it, and when to do it.
  2. A police officer, on his first day of duty, is given an 839 page policy manual to follow.
  3. A new security officer is told by his supervisor to do as youre told and speak when spoken to.

Answer location: (Motivation) p. 30

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police department detective unit assigns case to detectives based on three crime typeshomicide/robbery, vice and narcotics, and all others. This assignment is most consistent with Fayols principle of __________.
  2. Discipline
  3. Centralization
  4. Scalar chain

*d. Division of work

Answer location:  (Fayols General Principles of Management) p. 31

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Fayol advocated all of the following except __________.
  2. Employees should receive some level of job security to develop experience and expertise
  3. Management should work to develop positive relationships among employees
  4. Employees should be compensated at a fair rate

*d. Power should be concentrated at the level of the frontline worker

Answer location:  (Fayols General Principles of Management) p. 32

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A probation officer questions whether to revoke the probation of an offender. One supervisor instructs the officer to violate the individuals probation.  A second supervisor instructs the same officer to overlook the infraction.  The probation officer is now faced with a dilemma of deciding who to listen to, a problem produced by a violation of which of Fayols principles of management?
  2. Authority

*b. Unity of command

  1. Unity of direction
  2. Scalar chain

Answer location: (Fayols General Principles of Management) p. 31

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following models primarily focuses on the work performed by the frontline worker?

*a. Scientific management

  1. Administrative management
  2. Bureaucratic management
  3. Total quality management

Answer location:  (Administrative Management) pg. 31

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Bureaucratic organizations are designed to overcome the problem of nepotism by emphasizing _________.

*a. Impersonal social relations

  1. Hierarchy of authority and spheres of competence
  2. Task specialization
  3. None of the above

Answer location:  (Bureaucratic Management) p. 33

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following best illustrates the idea of task specialization?
  2. A judge handles all casescivil, criminal, family, and juvenile
  3. A parole officer supervises all offenders released in the community

*c. A prosecutor only handles appeals, leaving the pre-trial and trial stages to other prosecutors

  1. A police detective is considered a generalist, responsible for investigating all crime types

Answer location:   (Bureaucratic Management) p. 35

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The idea of red tape results from bureaucracys emphasis on __________.
  2. Impersonal relations
  3. Task specialization

*c. Rules and procedures

  1. Merit-based promotion and selection

Answer location:  (Bureaucratic Management) p. 37

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The War on Drugs has resulted in the passage of statutes requiring lengthy mandatory terms of incarceration for certain drug offenders even though rehabilitation might be more effective. The strict adherence to the law without considering other innovative approaches may be described as ___________.

*a. Excessive rulification

  1. The development of a grapevine
  2. A departmentalization mentality
  3. Over-innovation

Answer location:  (Bureaucratic Management) p. 37

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A gang unit in a police department sees its work (apprehending gang members) as more important than the work of patrol officers (enforcing the criminal law, more generally) to the point where members are making it difficult for patrol officers to complete their jobs. The problem with the gang unit may be described as __________.
  2. Excessive rulification
  3. The development of a grapevine

*c. A departmentalization mentality

  1. Over-innovation

Answer location: (Bureaucratic Management) p. 38

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The dominant organizational model in criminal justice organizations today is __________.
  2. Scientific management
  3. Total quality management
  4. Administrative management

*d. Bureaucratic management

Answer location:  (Bureaucratic Management) p. 39

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The Hawthorne studies revealed a number of different findings related to the workplace. Which of the following was not one of these findings?
  2. Informal groups tend to develop in the workplace
  3. Work attitudes help determine productivity

*c. Pay is the primary motivator of employees

  1. Increased attention paid to workers led to increased output

Answer location:  (Open-System Models: The Humanistic Perspective) p. 46-47

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the four basic characteristics that emerge from human relations theory?
  2. Individuals possess differences
  3. Workers can be motivated to achieve organizational goals
  4. Employees like to be treated with respect

*d. Workers are hired for their physical abilities rather than their mental abilities

Answer location:  (Open-System Models: The Humanistic Perspective) p. 47

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Total quality management emerged in the United States after company successes in the 1970s and 1980s in what country?
  2. China
  3. Great Britain

*c. Japan

  1. Germany

Answer location: (Total Quality Management (TQM) Model) p. 48

Question Type: MC

 

  1. As part of its Total Quality Management (TQM) approach, the Smithtown Police Department regularly examines other police departments in search of successful strategies to adopt. This process relates to the TQM idea of __________.
  2. Employee involvement
  3. Customer focus
  4. Continuous improvement

*d. Benchmarking

Answer location:  (Total Quality Management (TQM) Model) p. 49

Question Type: MC

 

  1. According to the supply chain/synergy perspective, who is the immediate supplier of inmates to a state prison?
  2. The victim
  3. The police

*c. The courts

  1. 911 dispatchers

Answer location: (Supply Chain/Synergy Model) p. 52

Question Type: MC

 

  1. All of the following models of organizations advocate considering customer input except ________.
  2. Total quality management
  3. The supply chain/synergy model
  4. Learning organizations

*d. Administrative management

Answer location: (Open-System Models: The Humanistic Perspective) pgs. 48-56

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Criminal justice organizations are influenced by their environment. Which of the following changes has not occurred in recent years?

*a. Declining number of immigrants in the workforce

  1. Technological advances including the widespread use of the Internet
  2. Decreasing confidence in American businesses
  3. Globalization

Answer location: (Changing Face of the Criminal Justice System Need for a Learning Organization) p. 57

Question Type: MC

 

True/False (16)

 

  1. The open systems model states that the actions of organizations are best explained by reference to internal organizational characteristics.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Closed-System Models: The Classical Perspective) p. 27

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Explanations for organizational events are likely to be more limited if one adopts an open-systems approach.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Closed-System Models: The Classical Perspective) p. 27

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Classical perspectives such as scientific management, bureaucratic management, and administrative management share the view that individuals are rational in their decision-making.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: Closed-System Models: The Classical Perspective) p. 28

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Frederick Taylor believed that the best way to perform work could be identified using a managers gut instincts or hunches.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Task Performance) p. 28

Question Type: TF

 

  1. According to the principles of scientific management, managers were to be given authority only related to their respective area of expertise.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Supervision) p. 29

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Scientific management was criticized for incorrectly assuming that workers would behave in predictable, similar ways.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Motivation) p. 30

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Fayols principles of management suggest that authority in the organization should be concentrated primarily at the bottom of the hierarchy.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Fayols General Principles of Management) p. 32

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Fayols principle of centralization conflicts with modern management thought which views frontline workers as capable and willing to make important decisions.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Fayols General Principles of Management) p. 33

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Fayol proposed six general principles of management.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Fayols General Principles of Management) p. 31-32

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The personable leader of a gang organization is incarcerated leading to the disintegration of the gang. This illustrates Webers argument that authority should lie in the position, not a person.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Hierarchy of authority and spheres of competence) p. 34

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The grapevine is a formal communication channel in organizations.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Bureaucratic Management) p. 37

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The Hawthorne effect is based on the idea that workers will be more productive if their wages are increased.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Open-System Models: The Humanistic Perspective) p. 46

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Like in most classical perspective approaches, total quality management places little value on employee input into key decisions about the organization.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Total Quality Management (TQM) Model) p. 49

Question Type: TF

 

  1. If the components (subsystems) of the criminal justice system are operating in synergy, they are coordinating and cooperating in order to get work done.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Supply Chain/Synergy Model) p. 51-52

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Learning organizations can be considered closed system organizations.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Changing Face of the Criminal Justice System Need for a Learning Organization) p. 56

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Learning organizations rely less on rules thereby allowing frontline workers to address dynamic problems quickly.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Changing Face of the Criminal Justice System Need for a Learning Organization) p. 61

Question Type: TF

 

Short Answer (5)

 

  1. Assuming the department of corrections is an open system, identify four external environmental factors that may help people understand why the prison population is increasing in a particular state.

Varies, but may include overall population increases in society, changes in demographics (age, etc.), get tough laws passed by legislatures, more arrests by police, more convictions by prosecutors, etc.

Answer location: (Closed-System Models: The Classical Perspective) p. 27

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Frederick Taylors scientific management viewed the role of managers as fourfold. What was expected of managers in order to create an effective and efficient organization?

Develop and codify procedures describing the best way to perform work, select workers with skills and abilities to perform the work, train them in the procedures, and monitor and support them via careful planning.

Answer location: (Task Performance) p. 29

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Both Henri Fayol and Max Weber argued that a division of labor/task specialization contributed to a more effective and efficient organization. How does dividing work into smaller tasks improve the performance of those completing those tasks?

Workers develop expertise, something they could not do if they had to know everything.  Workers can master their individual tasks.  There is less interference and each person becomes responsible for completing their part of the task.

Answer location: (Fayols General Principles of Management, Bureaucratic Management) p. 32-33 and 35

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Identify and briefly describe the four basic elements of total quality management.

Employee involvement (workers provide input), customer focus (they are the final judges of quality), continuous improvement (enhance performance), and benchmarking (look to other organizations for successful ideas).

Answer location: (Total Quality Management (TQM) Model) p. 49

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Criminal justice organizations have faced a changing environment characterized by demographic shifts, a global borderless world, technological advancements, increased diversity, and heightened demands for corporate responsibility. What are five changes organizations can make in their design to address these challenges?

Varies, but shift from vertical to horizontal structures, afford more discretion and authority to frontline workers, share more information with frontline workers, empower workers to make changes and adapt as needed, and collaborate with clients and customers.

Answer location: (Changing Face of the Criminal Justice System Need for a Learning Organization) p. 60-61

Question Type: SA

 

Essay (4)

 

  1. What is the difference between the closed-systems and open-systems views of organizations? Is it realistic to ever consider a criminal justice organization completely closed?  Explain your answer and provide an example to illustrate your argument.

Varies, but the focus will be on the importance of internal (closed) and external (open) factors in shaping organizations.  Organizations are more likely to be considered closed when the environment is unpredictable and unchanging.  From an academic standpoint, it is easier to view organizations as closed.  Practically, however, organizations, particularly commonwealth organizations (see Chapter 1), must consider the external environment.

Answer location: (Closed System Models: The Classical Perspective) and (Open System Models: The Humanistic Perspective) p. 27-28 and p. 46-48

Question Type: ES

 

  1. During the 1800s, police officers were often selected by political leaders and removed if the political leader was voted out of office. What would Max Weber say about this approach to officer selection and promotion?   Explain what procedures are in place today with respect to selection and promotion in police departments to address Webers concerns.

Varies, but Weber though interpersonal relations damaged the effectiveness of the organization.  Workers would do what they could to preserve their jobs by satisfying those who appointed them.  Moreover, there was no guarantee that such procedures resulted in the selection of the best candidates.  Today, various combinations of testing and screening mechanisms are used to select officers for hiring and/or promotion, presumably increasing the likelihood that decisions are based on merit.

Answer location: (Bureaucratic Management) p. 33

Question Type: ES

 

  1. The bureaucratic form was supposed to be high effective and highly efficient yet the term bureaucracy is now associated with inefficiency and poor performance. What are several of the characteristics of the bureaucratic form?  How did these same characteristics intended to produce efficiency result in something very inefficient?

Varies, but specialization, intended to produce expertise, results in employees not seeing the big picture and a departmentalization mentality.  Rules and procedures, designed to produce consistency, limit change and cannot be developed for all situations.  The hierarchy, designed to control workers, produces informal communication and informal leaders.

Answer location: (Bureaucratic Management) p. 33-39

Question Type: ES

 

  1. The organizational design changes necessarily to facilitate a learning organization tend to run contrary to the ideas about bureaucracy promulgated by Weber. How do these changes challenge traditional bureaucratic ideas?

Varies, but hierarchy is replaced with a more horizontal structure, rulification is reduced and workers are empowered, information is shared throughout the organization rather than concentrated at the top, etc.

Answer location: (Bureaucratic Management) and (Changing Face of the Criminal Justice System Need for a Learning Organization) p. 33-37 and 60-62

Question Type: ES

 

Chapter 4

Environmental Influences

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice (25)

 

  1. Most public criminal justice organizations are financially supported primarily through _____________.
  2. Donations

*b. Taxes

  1. Fee for services
  2. Profits

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 104

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Police, court, and correctional agencies fight for limited funds and other resources, leading to agency rivalries and challenges in working together. This problem has been described as ________________.

*a. Territorial jealousy

  1. Staking
  2. Claims-making
  3. Outcome adversaries

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 105

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A probation department wants to assess the feasibility of a program where current probationers are matched with former offenders who have turned their lives around. To assess the feasibility of this approach, the probation department might consider applying for ___________ grants.
  2. Research

*b. Demonstration

  1. Project
  2. In-kind

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 106-107

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not a possible source of public funds for criminal justice agencies?
  2. Federal government grants
  3. City council budget allocations drawn from taxes

*c. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation donations

  1. State legislative appropriations

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 107

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of funding in criminal justice agencies?
  2. Funds come primarily from government sources
  3. Dedicating time to securing additional funds (fundraising) is challenging
  4. Grants are often used to supplement budgets

*d. Agencies always receive all of the funding from local governments necessary to secure their needs and wants

Answer location:  (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 107

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The federal government is distributing grant money to each states department of corrections based on the incarceration rate of each state. States with higher incarceration rates will receive more money while states with lower incarceration rates will receive less money.  The federal government is likely using _____________ grants to distribute the money.

*a. Formula

  1. Block
  2. Foundation
  3. Research

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 107

Question Type: MC

 

  1. ____________ grants are large sums of money provided to states by the federal government for specific purposes (e.g., improving highway safety). States then decide how to distribute the money to specific agencies.
  2. Formula

*b. Block

  1. Foundation
  2. Research

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) pg. 107

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Criminal justice agencies sometimes receive private funds. This money most likely comes in the form of _____________ grants.
  2. Formula
  3. Block

*c. Foundation

  1. Federal

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 107

Question Type: MC

 

  1. CAD represents a significant technological advance in the field of law enforcement. CAD stands for _______________.
  2. Compact assistance device

*b. Computer assisted dispatch

  1. Central area detector
  2. None of the above

Answer location: (Technology in Criminal Justice) p. 110

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Deskilling is best described by which of the following statements?

*a. People must learn new technologies and give up old ways of doing things

  1. Partial funding is returned to granting agencies if it goes unused
  2. Judges increase sentences for drug offenders
  3. In-kind donations are received on a regular basis

Answer location:  (Technology in Criminal Justice) p. 112

Question Type: MC

 

  1. When an offender wrongfully obtains and uses another persons personal information for purposes of fraud and deception, they are committing ______________.

*a. Identify theft

  1. Cyberterrorism
  2. Copyright infringement
  3. Cyber-stalking

Answer location:  (Technology in Criminal Justice) p. 112

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not generally considered a demographic factor?
  2. Age
  3. Race
  4. Socioeconomic status

*d. All of the above are considered demographic factors

Answer location: (Culture and Demographic Issues) p. 116

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A cultural gap occurs when ______________________________.

*a. Legal and political activities do not keep pace with what society holds as collectively acceptable

  1. A groups culture is not adequately transmitted to young children
  2. Members of the population enter their crime-prone years
  3. Law enforcement authorities get trained in sensitivity issues

Answer location: (Culture and Demographic Issues) p. 113

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Shifting cultural patterns are evident by the fact that by 2005, ________ states had passed laws legalizing marijuana use for medicinal purposes.
  2. 0
  3. 3

*c. 10

  1. 30

Answer location:  (Culture and Demographic Issues) p. 113

Question Type: MC

 

  1. United States law is based on common law derived from the ________________ tradition.
  2. French
  3. German

*c. British

  1. Spanish

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 117

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Police are restricted in their ability to search and seize individuals and property. These restrictions on the police are likely to be found in____________ law.
  2. Statutory or criminal

*b. Procedural

  1. Civil
  2. Common

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 124

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The type of law created by the court system, as opposed to legislatures is ____________ law.
  2. Statutory or criminal
  3. Procedural

*c. Case

  1. Civil

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 124

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Equal employment opportunity laws and other hiring standards are most likely to be found in _____________________.
  2. Statutory or criminal law

*b. Administrative law

  1. Procedural law
  2. Common law

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 125

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A 1972 Supreme Court case dramatically altered system operations by forbidding (temporarily) the use of the death penalty due to its application. The case was ______________________.
  2. Ricci v. DeStafano
  3. McCleskey v. Zant

*c. Furman v. Georgia

  1. In re Gault

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 124

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Civil lawsuits may be filed in ________________ courts.
  2. State
  3. Federal

*c. Both state or federal

  1. Neither state nor federal

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 124

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The recent case of ______________ stated that firefighters test scores could not be thrown out even though the city feared that it would be sued for producing an exam that unintentionally favored one group over another.

*a. Ricci v. DeStafano

  1. McCleskey v. Zant
  2. Furman v. Georgia
  3. Roper v. Simmons

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 125

Question Type: MC

 

  1. As of 2012, there were approximately ___________________ union members in the United States.
  2. 3.5 million

*b. 14.4 million

  1. 75.2 million
  2. 147 million

Answer location: (Unions) p. 126

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The typical union contract lasts approximately _______________________.
  2. 6 months
  3. 1 year

*c. 3-5 years

  1. 7-10 years

Answer location: (Unions) p. 126

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered a police union?
  2. The International Union of Police Associations
  3. National Conference of Police Associations
  4. National Association of Police Organizations

*d. International Association of Chiefs of Police

Answer location: (Unions) p. 127

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Special interests were able to compel the passage of Megans Law, a statute that addresses ___________.

*a. Notification of the public about known sex offenders

  1. Drunk driving checkpoints
  2. Marijuana legalization for medicinal purposes
  3. Taser use

Answer location: (Politics) p. 129

Question Type: MC

 

True/False (15)

 

  1. Legislatures sometimes pass laws that criminal justice organizations must enforce without the luxury of additional funding.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 104

Question Type: TF

 

  1. In additional to local governments, criminal justice agencies often supplement their budgets with grants.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 105

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The U.S. Department of Justice regularly announces grant opportunities for criminal justice agencies.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 105

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Agency administrators should spend more time fundraising and less time managing and guiding employees.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 106

Question Type: TF

 

  1. In-kind donations generally represent cash donations with no strings attached.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 107

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Technology has only had positive effects on the criminal justice system and citizen perceptions of it.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Technology in Criminal Justice) p. 111-112

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Technological advances have created new types of crimes such as cyber-stalking and Internet distribution of child pornography.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Technology in Criminal Justice) p. 112

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A communitys demographic characteristics are defined as its shared attitudes, values, purpose, and routines.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Cultural and Demographic Issues) p. 113

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Approximately 50 percent of violent crimes are committed by females.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Cultural and Demographic Issues) p. 116

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Urban areas typically have higher crime rates than suburban and rural areas.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Cultural and Demographic Issues) p. 116

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Police officers must enforce the statutory or criminal law but they do not have to obey it themselves.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 117

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Violations of civil laws are crimes.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 124

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Union membership has been increasing (upward trend) over recent decades.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Unions) p. 126

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A new labor contract always includes all of the elements from the previous, expiring contract.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Unions) p. 126

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The National Association of Police Officers union works exclusively with members of police agencies.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Unions) p. 127

Question Type: TF

 

Short Answer (5)

 

  1. Assume you were hired to secure funds for your local police department. Identify four different sources you might turn to in your fundraising efforts.

Varies, but may include government grants at all levels of government, foundations, individual donors, etc.

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 106-108

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Criminal justice agencies receiving grant funding often view such resources as free money. However, the money sometimes comes with certain restrictions or requirements.  Identify several of these requirements that may be attached to grant money.

Audits, program reviews, mandatory results and reporting, required matching funds, short term funds, etc.

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 109

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Identify three ways that the demographic characteristics of a community may influence the criminal justice system in that jurisdiction.

Varies, but may include issues such as defining who is in the workforce (hiring), who commits crimes, where crimes are located, etc.

Answer location: (Cultural and Demographic Issues) p. 116

Question Type: SA

 

  1. What are three corrections-specific issues (exclude more general issues such as pay, benefits, grievance procedures, etc.) of concern to correctional unions?

Varies, but may include privatization of prisons, staffing levels, legislation, and disease control.

Answer location: (Unions) p. 127

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Describe the difference between statutory law (or criminal law) and procedural law. Provide an example of each.

Varies, but statutory law determines what behavior is illegal and punishments for violation.  Procedural law determines how an offender is processed through the system.

Answer location: (Legal Pressures) p. 117 & 124

Question Type: SA

 

Essay (3)

 

  1. The Smithtown Police Department has an idea for an innovative yet-to-be-funded gun-crime reduction strategy. Agency leaders are reluctant to share information about the program with a neighboring police department faced with rising gun crime rates.  What characteristics of criminal justice agency funding and funding sources contribute to this reluctance to share information?  What is the name given to this phenomenon?

Varies but may include a discussion of territorial jealousy.  Agencies are competing for scarce resources and do not want to share ideas with others who might use them to secure their own funding.  Resentment could occur if the agency that originally created the idea fails to secure funding but the neighboring agency does.

Answer location: (Funding in Criminal Justice) p. 105

Question Type: ES

 

  1. It might be argued that technology can only have positive effects on the criminal justice system. Yet, it is also possible for technology to have negative or unintended effects.  Identify three different technological advances over the past 30 years.  For each, provide an example of how the technology has improved the criminal justice system and an example of how the technology has created challenges.

Varies.  One example is online sex offender registries.  While they have created an informed public, they have also led to potential challenges such as declining property values, difficulties with offender reintegration, etc.

Answer location: (Technology in Criminal Justice) p. 110-113

Question Type: ES

 

  1. Unions have both strong supporters and strong critics. Identify two or three arguments supporters when touting the importance of unions.  Identify two or three arguments critics use to highlight the negative aspects of unions.

Varies.  Positives may include discussion of improved procedural rights, benefits, grievance procedures, and policy input.  Negatives include little accountability, diminished role of chief, and poor management practices.

Answer location: (Unions) p. 126-128

Question Type: ES

 

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