Adult Development And Aging Biopsychosocial 5Th Ed By by Susan Krauss Whitbourne Test Bank

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Adult Development And Aging Biopsychosocial 5Th Ed By by Susan Krauss Whitbourne Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Adult Development And Aging Biopsychosocial 5Th Ed By by Susan Krauss Whitbourne Test Bank

Chapter 2

Models of Development: Nature and Nurture in Adulthood

Lecture guidelines

This is a heavily theoretical chapter and can be tough going for students who are eager to move on to learning more concrete information about adult development and aging.  Depending on the nature of the class and its size, the lecture can be oriented toward more or less theoretical aspects of the material by providing a conceptual orientation (more theoretical) or concrete examples (less theoretical).  Because this material previews much of what is to come in later chapters, it is also possible to use this chapter as a way to plant the seeds for these later concepts and discussions.

 

Depending on the length of the class, it is advisable to break this chapter into two or more lectures, dividing it along the lines of biological vs. psychosocial theories.  Biological theories can occupy an entire class period, particularly when combined with videos (see below).  Some students may need extensive background in concepts of genetics.  These will be important for later chapters, particularly Chapter 5, in which the genetic contributions to Alzheimers and other diseases are discussed.  The psychosocial theories provide an opportunity to present some substantive material that may be of greater inherent interest to students in psychology and other social sciences as it previews concepts that will not appear until much later in the course, such as personality development and family issues.

Videos and films

The topic of developmental models is an important one to break up with relevant videos and films because the concepts are inherently dry and theoretical for some students.  There are ample resources on biological theories of aging.  The best ones that I have found are on the PBS series called NOVA Science Now: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/ which aired several segments about the genetics of aging.  A popular movie that contains interesting twists about age and time is The Curious Case of Benjamin Button.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/can-we-slow-aging.html

 

Ageism can be illustrated by showing scenes from humorous portrayals of aging characters in a stereotyped fashion, such as the Simpsons, a classic cartoon series with a wealth of material on aging.  There is also an excellent example in the Seinfeld episode called The Old Man, in which the characters each confront and older adult who is depicted in a funny but stereotypical fashion.

 

Examples of identity assimilation and identity accommodation can also be provided from film or television shows in which characters either resist changing (identity assimilation) or change excessively (identity accommodation) in response to an event that challenges their identities. A good example of identity assimilation is Driving Miss Daisy which, in the first scene of the movie, shows the struggle she experiences as she is faced with accommodating to her loss of the ability to drive.

 

Discussion questions

Key concepts in the study of the lifespan

How does the notion of contextual influences on development relate to concepts such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status?

How do nature and nurture interact in development throughout life?

Models of individual-environment interactions

Which model do you feel is most appropriate for understanding development?

Why is it important to an interactionist model to emphasize the concept of reciprocity?

How has your life involved niche-picking?

Can you think of examples from your life when an action you took or decision you made had an outcome on a later event?

 

Sociocultural models of development

How does the life course perspective relate to the concepts of social clock and age-graded normative influences discussed in Chapter 1?

How does the ecological perspective link models of development that focus on external processes to those that focus on processes within the individual?

Why do you think disengagement theory was popular at one time?

Do you know anyone who exemplifies disengagement theory? Activity theory? Continuity theory?

What type of involvement in society would make you happiest when you get older? Why?

How do older minority individuals (especially women) manage to cope with discrimination?

What is your social clock?

Do you think that the social clock is helpful or harmful when people think about themselves and their lives?

 

Psychological models of development in adulthood

Do you feel that Eriksons theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding development throughout life?  What are its weaknesses and what are its strengths?

Some critics of Eriksons theory feel that the theory is narrowly focused on heterosexual relationships in adulthood.  Others argue that Erikson made an unreasonable distinction between development in men and women in that he suggested that intimacy precedes identity for women.  What do you think of these criticisms?

Why is identity balance considered an optimal way of adapting to the aging process?

Provide some examples of age-related thresholds either in your own life or in the life of other people you have known.  How did the people involved adapt to these thresholds?

Why are psychological models of development necessary? What do they add to biological theories?

 

 

Biological approaches to aging in adulthood

What would the world (or universe) be like if there was no aging?

What will be the implications of mapping the human genome?

What would you like most to learn about the genome and how would this information be of relevance to you?

Can aging be programmed by our genes?

What if the process of replicative senescence could be stopped?

Which is your favorite biological theory? Why?

What products are being sold on the market based on these theories of aging? Are their claims legitimate or not, in your opinion, based on what youre learning in the course?

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

Aging Today

 

1.    Prenatal stress and development

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

Research on genetic explanations of behavior suggests that stress during a mothers pregnancy can lead to changes in the _______ of the developing childs body.

  1. proteins
  2. eye color
  3. blood type
  4. sex

 

 

Key concepts in the study of the lifespan

2.    Life-span perspective- stem

 

The life-span perspective in development emphasizes:

  1. decline in later adulthood due to biological changes.
  2. psychological rather than biological influences on the individual
  3. understanding development as continuous from childhood to old age.
  4. childhood as the most important period of an individuals life.

 

3.    Life span perspective- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The view that development is best viewed as continuous throughout life is referred to as the __________ perspective.

  1. gerontological
  2. life span
  3. contextual
  4. sociocultural

 

4.    Developmental science- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

To indicate a broadening of our understanding of changes in individuals over time, the term developmental _____________ is increasingly becoming used in the field.

  1. psychology
  2. sociology
  3. science
  4. programming

 

Models of individual-environment interactions

5.    Organismic model example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

A research lab that focuses on studying the aging process is attempting to find the specific set of genes that control aging at the cellular level. It is likely that the researchers in this lab are operating from the ____________ model of development.

  1. psychosocial
  2. organismic
  3. existential
  4. mechanistic

6.    Organismic model- stem

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

Organismic models of development are most likely to include which types of aging theories?

  1. Sociological
  2. Behavioral
  3. Social-psychological
  4. Biological

 

7.    Plasticity example- stem

 

Correct choice: D

According to the plasticity principle in development, individuals can alter the course of their own development by:

  1. seeking genetic therapy.
  2. accelerating the rate of the social clock.
  3. describing the changes that occur in their bodies.
  4. engaging in physical and mental exercise.

 

8.    Mechanistic model- choice

 

Difficulty: Difficult

Correct choice: A

The greatest emphasis on the environment is associated with which model of development?

  1. Mechanistic.
  2. Organismic.
  3. Reciprocal.
  4. Interactionist.

 

9.    Niche-Picking example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

A young woman joins her colleges intramural tennis team because its a sport she always wanted to try but had no opportunities to do so. It turns out that shes virtually a natural and soon advances to the top of the varsity teams roster. This example illustrates which process in in individual-environment interactions?

  1. multidimensionality
  2. epigenesis
  3. niche-picking
  4. accommodation

 

10. Disengagement theory- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: B

The idea that older adults are much more satisfied with their lives when they are able to leave behind their former social roles and involvements is consistent with which role adjustment theory?

  1. Activity
  2. Disengagement
  3. Mechanistic
  4. Ecological

 

11. Reciprocity model- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

Which model of development emphasizes the influence you have on the other people in your home, school, and community?

  1. Reciprocal
  2. Mechanistic
  3. Organismic
  4. Contextual

 

12. Ecological perspective model- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

In the Bronfenbrenner ecological model of development, which type of system has the most direct impact on the individual?

  1. mesosystem
  2. exosystem
  3. macrosystem
  4. microsystem

 

13. Macrosystem definition- stem

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice: B

In Bronfenbrenners ecological model of development, the macrosystem includes:

  1. friends, family, and others who the individual knows.
  2. culture, nationality, and the economic structure.
  3. the community and healthcare agencies.
  4. changes that occur in systems over time.

 

14. Microsystem- choice

Difficulty:

Correct choice: D

In the Bronfenbrenner ecological model of development, which type of system has the most direct impact on the individual?

  1. mesosystem
  2. exosystem
  3. macrosystem
  4. microsystem

 

 

15. Chronosystem definition- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The changes that take place over time, according to the ecological model of development, fall into the realm of the:

  1. social clock
  2. chronosystem
  3. age strata
  4. macrosystem

16. Sociocultural example- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

In the Whitehall II study, the fact that social class was related to physical functioning provided a demonstration of which type of influence on development in Bronfrenbrenners model?

  1. Sociocultural
  2. Proximal
  3. Adaptational
  4. Reciprocal

 

Sociocultural models of development

17. Life course example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

A 35-year-old woman feels concerned about her career because she believes that, by this age, she should have advanced further than she has by now. Her concern would be best explained by which theoretical approach to understanding development?

  1. life span
  2. life course
  3. life expectancy
  4. life clock

 

 

18. Continuity theory example- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice:  C

An older adult couple in your neighborhood retired from their jobs as teachers but continue to work in the community as school volunteers.  It seems as if they enjoy maintaining similar roles that they had when they were working. They would be a good example of which role satisfaction theory of aging?

  1. Social clock
  2. Disengagement
  3. Continuity
  4. Organismic

 

19. Social clock definition- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

The idea of being on-time or off-time in achieving major life goals is considered an important element of adjustment in the __________ model.

  1. role fulfillment
  2. disengagement
  3. social clock
  4. identity process

 

20. Ageism from WHO

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

According to the World Health Organization, which is one of the stereotypes about aging?

  1. Older men have less value than younger men
  2. Older adults are selfish and wish to use up societys resources.
  3. Older women lack interest in providing care for others.
  4. Older people are helpless and unable to care for themselves.

 

21. Ageism example from WHO

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice: B

The ageist stereotype that older adults are past their sell-by date, according to the World Health Organization, is refuted by the fact that:

  1. an Olympic gymnast performed a record-setting high jump at the age of 42.
  2. a 100-year-old Canadian woman completed a marathon in Toronto.
  3. the majority of women in sub-Saharan Africa care for their grandchildren.
  4. most Nobel prize winners in Medicine or Physiology are scientists in their 60s and 70s.

 

22. Modernization hypothesis- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

The modernization hypothesis of ageism proposes that attitudes toward older adults will be most negative in societies that:

  1. emphasize oral traditions in which families hand down collective wisdom.
  2. do not believe in an afterlife in which people can come back from the dead.
  3. value people for the amount they can produce and contribute to society.
  4. insist that older adults try to fit in by looking as young as possible.

 

23. Terror management theory- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

As proposed by terror management theory, the cause of ageism can be traced to:

  1. lack of familiarity about the aging process.
  2. loss of contact with older adults in the family.
  3. greater urbanization and industrialization in society.
  4. the anxiety that people feel about their own deaths.

24. Multiple jeopardy- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

The multiple jeopardy hypothesis proposes that ageism will be most severe for people who have which characteristic?

  1. Being from more than one category of minority status.
  2. Only being over the age of 75 years old.
  3. Frequent involvement with younger adults.
  4. Unable to live independently in the community.

 

 

Psychological models of development in adulthood

25. Industry vs. inferiority example- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

People who resolve the industry vs. inferiority issue associated with Eriksons psychosocial theory unfavorably are likely to have difficulty in which area of development?

  1. Identifying with the work ethic.
  2. Getting close to a romantic partner.
  3. Being able to accept death.
  4. Having a strong sense of self.

26. Autonomy in older adult example- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

An older adult faced with issues pertaining to autonomy vs. shame and doubt, in Eriksons theory, might be confronting which situation?

  1. Trying to meet new friends after having recently become widowed.
  2. Having to move to a nursing home instead of being able to live independently.
  3. Recovering from having been mugged after getting off the bus.
  4. Becoming concerned about an illness that is likely to be terminal.

 

27. Generativity example- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

In Eriksons theory, which of the following behaviors would be considered specific to a person high in generativity?

  1. Becoming independent from ones parents.
  2. Mentoring a younger colleague.
  3. Investing in a risky new financial venture.
  4. Appreciating a beautiful work of art.

 

28. Isolation concept- choice

 

Difficulty:Hard

Correct choice: D

People who find it difficult to establish long-lasting, mutually satisfying, close relationships would be considered, in Eriksons theory, to be high on which specific quality?

  1. Stagnation
  2. Mistrust
  3. Despair
  4. Isolation

 

29. Initiative example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

A man in his 50s finds that he does his best work when he allows himself to daydream or even take a break and play a video game. According to Erikson, this man would be high in the quality of:

  1. initiative
  2. identity
  3. industry
  4. inferiority

 

30. Piagetian Assimilation- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

When people are first confronted with new ideas or approaches, they often resist accepting them and instead use their existing schemas or ways of responding. According to Piaget, this process is called:

  1. equilibrium
  2. assimilation
  3. epigenesis
  4. accommodation

 

31. Identity assimilation example- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

A 70-year-old who refuses to think of herself as hearing impaired even though she truly has difficulty hearing conversations at ordinary levels, would be considered to show which identity process?

  1. Secondary aging
  2. Identity assimilation
  3. Ego integrity
  4. Identity accommodation

 

 

32. Identity accommodation- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

In the process called identity ______________, people are able to accept negative information about themselves as part of their sense of self without feeling unduly disturbed or devastated.

  1. assimilation
  2. reflection
  3. balance
  4. accommodation

33. Identity balance- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

In process called identity ______________, people are able to accept negative information about themselves as part of their sense of self without feeling unduly disturbed or devastated.

  1. assimilation
  2. reflection
  3. balance
  4. accommodation

 

34. Identity balance example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

A person using the process of identity balance would have which reaction to age-related changes in physical functioning?

  1. Maintaining a stable view of self despite the change.
  2. Becoming upset and disturbed over any sign of loss or decline.
  3. Pretending that the change has not occurred.
  4. Giving up entirely on any form of physical exercise.

 

35. Self-efficacy- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

The feeling that a person is able to succeed at a specific type of task is referred to as ______________

  1. selective optimization.
  2. identity accommodation.
  3. self-efficacy.
  4. ego integrity

36. Selective optimization with compensation model

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The selective optimization with compensation model proposes that older adults engage in what type of behavior when faced with loss?

  1. Seek help from younger adults to do those tasks for them.
  2. Try to put more energy into the abilities which they care about the most.
  3. Continue to try to achieve their goals, even if they seem out of reach.
  4. Disengage from as many social roles and obligations as they can.

37. Selective optimization with compensation model- Choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: B

In the Selective Optimization with ____________ model, older adults are proposed to cut down on the abilities they are weak and make up with the abilities on which they show greater potential for improvement.

  1. Cognition
  2. Compensation
  3. Complexity
  4. Coping

 

38. Multiple threshold model- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

The multiple threshold model of aging predicts that people will experience challenges to their identities as they get older in a ______________ manner.

  1. clocklike
  2. stepwise
  3. sudden
  4. selective

 

Biological approaches to aging in adulthood

 

39. Genome-wide linkage study- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

The behavioral genetics method in which genetic researchers study the entire genomes of family members who seem to have a higher risk of developing a particular disorder is known as what type of study?

 

  1. genome-wide linkage
  2. selective optimization
  3. genome-wide association
  4. multiple threshold

 

40. Genome-wide Association study- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

The behavioral genetics method in which genetic researchers scan the entire genome looking for signs of genetic disorders is known as what type of study?

  1. genome-wide linkage
  2. mutation analysis
  3. genome-wide association
  4. random error investigation

41. Gompertz Curve- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

The ________ curve illustrates the relationship between death rate and age for different species.

  1. Gompertz
  2. Telomere
  3. Mitochondrial
  4. Resveratrol

 

42. Gompertz curve- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

The Gompertz curve shows the relationship between:

  1. calories and rate of aging.
  2. free radicals and cancer.
  3. death rate and age.
  4. exercise and life span.

 

 

43. Error catastrophe theory- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

According to the biological theory known as error catastrophe, the most significant effects of aging involve which structure in the cell?

  1. Chromosome
  2. Mitochondrial DNA
  3. Microfibril
  4. Collagen

 

44. Telomere theory- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice:  B

The telomere theory proposes that the cause of aging is due to:

  1. release of free radicals.
  2. destruction of the ends of chromosomes.
  3. deterioration of the mitochondria.
  4. cross-linking of long ends of proteins.

 

45. Telomere theory- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

The ends of the chromosome lost with repeating cell replications that are thought to underlie the aging process are called the:

  1. telomeres.
  2. cross-links.
  3. mutations.
  4. Mitochondria.

 

46. SNPs- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

In genome-wide association studies on genetic causes of aging, researchers are seeking to identify genetic variations in sequences of amino acids known as:

  1. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).
  2. cytosine replacement molecules (CRM).
  3. mutation linkage abnormalities (MLA).
  4. glycolization end-product units (GEP).

 

47. Free radicals- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: B

According to one random error theory of aging, the _________ are unstable molecules that bond to other molecules, causing cells to misfuntion.

  1. cross links
  2. free radicals
  3. genetic alleles
  4. amino acids

 

48. Resveratrol- choice

Difficulty:

Correct choice: B

Some research evidence suggests that drinking red wine can slow the aging because it contains:

 

49. FOXO gene- choice

 

Difficulty:  Moderate

Correct choice: D

Researchers are identifying a possible genetic candidate for determining longevity known as the _________ gene.

  1. BOXY
  2. GWAS
  3. SNPP
  4. FOXO

 

50. Mitochondrial DNA and aging- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

[As discussed in class], mice with mitochondrial DNA defects show what effects on aging?

  1. faster running speeds in lab treadmills.
  2. longer ability to reproduce sexually.
  3. loss of muscle and spine strength.
  4. increased appetites for high caloric food.

 

51. Caloric restriction- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

Researchers studying caloric restriction find that rats fed on diets low in total calories:

  1. have longer lifespans
  2. experience more stress
  3. mate less frequently
  4. become more hostile

 

 

Short Answer Questions

Key concepts in the study of the lifespan

  1. What are the three major approaches to understanding development? How do they differ in their emphasis on the role of the individual in development?

Models of individual-environment interactions

  1. What is niche-picking? Provide an example from your own experience that illustrates how this principle operates in development.
  2. Define and contrast the terms: theory, hypothesis, model, and perspective.

 

Sociocultural models of development

  1. What is the major assumption of the life course perspective?
  2. What are the major levels of organization in the ecological perspective?

 

Psychological models of development in adulthood

  1. Define the term epigenetic and explain how it relates to Eriksons psychosocial theory.
  2. What are the four major psychosocial crises of adulthood according to Erikson? Define and provide an example of each.
  3. What is an implication of the matrix as described within Eriksons theory regarding the relationship between age and specific psychosocial issues?
  4. Define and provide an example of these terms:
  5. How does Piagets theory differ from that of Erikson?

 

Biological approaches to aging in adulthood

 

  1. Briefly describe the process of aging according to the telomere theory.
  2. Define and contrast the random error theories of aging and provide an implication that each theory has for how individuals can slow the rate of their own aging.
  3. Can random error theories be integrated with programmed aging theories? Why or why not?

 

Essay Questions

  1. Defend your position about why aging occurs, from an evolutionary perspective.
  2. Describe and analyze a behavior of yours related to your own aging in terms of:
  3. Identity processes.
  4. Multiple threshold model.
  5. Sociocultural perspectives.
  6. What are two forms that ageism can take in terms of ways of thinking about older adults?
  7. Provide your own analysis of why negative attitudes have existed toward older adults in Western society. How might these change in the future?
  8. How do biological theories of aging relate to sociocultural views of development?

CHAPTER 14

Successful Aging and Creativity

Lecture guidelines

As mentioned in the last chapter, the end of the course covers successful aging rather than death and dying.  This allows the instructor to send the students out of the course with an upbeat feeling about what they have to look forward to in the rest of their lives.  The topic of successful aging has existed for some years within gerontology, but it has been given recent impetus by the Positive Psychology movement and the emphasis on optimism that is beginning to pervade the field.   The job of ending the course on this topic has been made much easier by this recent shift in emphasis, as in the past there was not much data from which to draw.   However, as is evident from the chapter, the research on subjective well-being, successful aging, and even more recently successful cognitive aging provides a wealth of riches in this area.  Moreover, the instructor can delve as much as desired into the material on creativity in later life by incorporating the works of great artists, musicians, and literary geniuses who continued to produce well into their eighties.

Videos and films

Instructors will find many possible sources for this lecture, including documentaries on amazing older adults as well as movies that provide a positive image of old age.  There are also any number of documentaries, and YouTube clips about remarkable older adults.  In terms of movies, there are again ample choices available.  One particularly good movie that is available on video is Young at Heart http://www.youngatheartchorus.com/.

 

There are videos available on Rembrandts self-portraits on YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_H71aiz290)

Also a biography of Picasso that includes his later years

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3k1lUBoBBIc

 

A multimedia piece that can be designed specifically for this lecture works very well in the class in the section on achievements by older adults.  A collection of slides showing the Age Busters described in the text can be played along with a musical selection (such as My Way).  This can have a very emotional impact on the class, when they see the compilation of people they have heard about (and those they have not) who have continued to accomplish beyond the point that would be predicted on the basis of their age.  The swan song can also be illustrated by playing examples of music composed at the end of life the best example is Lacrymosa from Mozarts Requiem in D minor (thanks to Dean Simonton for this suggestion!).  Slides from Rembrandts self-portraits (ages 23 to 63) can be shown to illustrate the old age style, as can paintings and sculptures from the artists mentioned in the text.  To summarize, the instructor can use this lecture to end the course with a grand fireworks finale- a wonderful ending to what students will certainly have found to be a fascinating and worthwhile course.

Discussion questions

What is successful aging?

What do you think is involved in successful aging?

What successful agers do you know in your own life? Why do you consider them successful?

How would you rate your subjective well-being? Do you think it varies from day to day? What factors cause it to vary?

Do you think that people can actively construe their lives in a positive way even if their objective circumstances are negative?  How?

Creativity and aging

What is the meaning of the lastingness?

What examples can you think of that fit with the idea of Old Age Style? How about the Swan Song?

How does the idea of the Age Busters fit with the overall predictions based on Lehmans views of aging and productivity?

Successful aging: Final perspectives

How is productivity measured in ordinary people at the end of life?

What can we learn from successful agers?

Multiple choice questions

 

Aging Today

 

1.    John Glenn quote

 

Which Age Buster was known for saying Too many people, when they get old, think that they have to live by the calendar?

  1. Jack LaLanne
  2. Satchel Paige
  3. John Glenn
  4. Jackie Robinson

 

 

What is successful aging?

2.    Rowe and Kahn model

 

Difficulty:  Moderate

Correct choice: C

The Rowe and Kahn definition of successful aging proposes that absence of ____________ is a component of successful aging.

  1. pessimism
  2. neuroticism
  3. disease
  4. worries

3.    Criticism of Rowe and Kahn model

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

Critics of the Rowe and Kahn model of successful aging contend that it is overly focused on:

  1. physical health.
  2. social class.
  3. subjective well-being.

 

4.    Criticism of Rowe and Kahn model from Health and Retirement study

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

A study of successful aging in the Health and Retirement Study lends support to critics of the Rowe and Kahn model because although many in the sample had no disability, a considerable proportion (37-40%) had:

  1. stopped working.
  2. lost their spouses.
  3. cognitive deficits.
  4. some form of disability.

 

5.    SHARE study critique of Rowe and Kahn model

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

A large-scale study of retired European adults led researchers to critique the Rowe and Kahn model because it showed that ______________ were important contributors to successful aging.

  1. childhood social class and income
  2. health and disability
  3. religious beliefs
  4. social support

 

6.    WHO model of successful aging

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice:  B

The WHO model of successful aging is most similar to which developmental model in including the influence of broad social factors?

  1. Piagetians cognitive theory
  2. Bronfenbrenners ecological perspective
  3. Schaies most efficient design
  4. Eriksons psychosocial theory

 

Role of personal factors in WHO model

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

The WHO model of active aging places emphasis on which personal factors?

  1. Need for acommodations due to disability
  2. Gender roles and expectations.
  3. Autonomy and independence
  4. Cultural attitudes toward older adults.

 

7.    Resilience and optimism in WHI study

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

In a test of predictors of successful aging, a study on the Womens Health Initiative sample showed that _____________ had the greatest influence.

  1. resilience and optimism
  2. number of physical symptoms
  3. cognitive performance
  4. number of children

 

8.    Sexual satisfaction in WHI study

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The Womens Health Initiative study on sexuality showed that sexual satisfaction was related to:

  1. age of self and partner.
  2. successful aging in general.
  3. amount of physical exercise.
  4. actual sexual activity.

 

9.    Superagers

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

The Superagers identified in an MRI study on memory and brain structure showed that those with better memories had the most cortical volume in which region?

  1. Occipital cortex
  2. Hypothalamus
  3. Cingulate cortex
  4. Hippocampus

 

10. Plasticity model in aging and brain function

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

A large analysis of studies on age, brain function, and cognitive performance supported the propositions of which perspective?

  1. Ecological
  2. Neural fallout
  3. Plasticity
  4. Cortical thickness

 

11. Predictors of successful cognitive aging

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

In a national survey in the U.S., researchers observed a gap of approximately ___% between the extent of loss that older adults actually experienced compared to what younger adults thought would occur.

  1. 32
  2. 66
  3. 5
  4. 14

 

12. Neurocognitive disorder and c-reactive protein

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

Unlike predictors of cardiovascular performance in younger adults, high levels of which substance seem to protect older adults from neurocognitive disorders?

  1. Triglycerides
  2. Low-density lipoprotein
  3. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1
  4. C-reactive protein

 

 

13. Positive psychology

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: D

Studies of successful aging fit into the perspective known as _______________ psychology, which attempts to understand peoples strengths and virtues.

  1. psychoanalytic
  2. subjective
  3. behavioral
  4. positive

14. Life satisfaction vs. successful aging

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

Compared to subjective well-being as a way to understand factors predicting successful aging, life satisfaction places heavier emphasis on:

 

15. Paradox of well-being

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

According to the paradox of well-being, older adults who are objectively have a number of chronic illness should also appear psychologically to have:

  1. poor mental health.
  2. high levels of neuroticism.
  3. poor cognitive functioning.
  4. high levels of happiness.

 

16. Social indicator model

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

An older adult who is living on a tight income and has to economize on the essentials of daily living should, according to the _______________, also have low levels of happiness and life satisfaction.

  1. paradox of well-being
  2. social indicator model
  3. demographic hypothesis
  4. resilience perspective

17. Pew study on well-being in older adults

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

According to the Pew Research Center study of well-being, young adults wrongly believed that the experience of aging would most likely affect which aspect of life in adults 65 and older?

  1. Desire to help others
  2. Enjoyment of retirement
  3. Cognitive functioning
  4. Being able to get around

 

 

18. Cohort-sequential life satisfaction study

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

In a large cohort-sequential study of two large European national surveys, researchers found that at the very end of life, aging seems related to ______________ in life satisfaction:

  1. gradual increases
  2. continued stability
  3. a fall then a rise
  4. a steady descent

 

19. Life satisfaction study and socioemotional selectivity

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

The results of a large cohort-sequential study of life satisfaction across the adult years seemed to contradict the findings of which theory?

  1. Social indicator model
  2. Socioemotional selectivity
  3. Social comparison
  4. Equal odds rule

 

20. Self-esteem and life satisfaction

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

Research on life satisfaction and personality on German emerging adults suggests that _____________ influences peoples levels of well-being throughout across adulthood.

  1. flexibility
  2. neuroticism
  3. self-esteem
  4. extraversion

 

21. Set point perspective- choice

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

The ____________________ perspective is supported by research showing that personality traits as they change through time affect levels of well-being.

  1. social comparison
  2. social indicator
  3. socioemotional selectivity
  4. set point

 

22. Income levels and health

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

Studies of well-being in older adults suggest that those at the low end of the income scale experience:

  1. high levels of self-esteem.
  2. good overall health.
  3. greater risk of depression.
  4. closer relations with family.

 

23. Life satisfaction across domains

 

Correct choice: A

In a large scale study of well-being across specific domains of life such as health, income, leisure time, housing, and social relations, overall satisfaction with _____________ showed a steep decline in later adulthood.

  1. health
  2. income
  3. social relations
  4. housing

 

24. Social comparison and minority status

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

Among older adults from non-white racial and ethnic groups, especially those with low levels of education who are in poor health, the process of ________________ seems to explain the fact that their self-ratings of health are relatively high.

  1. set point
  2. identity commitment
  3. social comparison
  4. creative potential

25. Identity assimilation and the life story

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

Research on the life story suggests that using _____________ may help older adults cope, at least initially, with late-life losses and disappointments.

  1. identity assimilation
  2. exploring alternatives
  3. social comparison
  4. positive emotions

 

 

 

Creativity and aging

 

 

 

26. Definition of creativity

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

One definition of creative ability emphasizes the idea that it is original, has an impact on others and is:

  1. pleasing
  2. well-liked
  3. unusual

 

27. Creativity in everyday life

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

In everyday life, a person might express creativity in activities such as:

  1. paying bills.

 

28. Mini-C creativity

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

Creativity with a mini-C refers to what type of behavior in everyday life?

  1. scrapbooking and collecting.
  2. buying works of art.
  3. having a sense of humor.
  4. gaining self-understanding.

 

29. Eminent creativity

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The eminent and well-known productive and imaginative  individuals are referred to as having the ________  form of creativity.

  1. Mini C
  2. Big C
  3. Regular C
  4. Capital C

30. Creative tasks used in studies of brain and creativity

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

Studies of the neuroscience of creativity examine brain scans while individuals are involved in such cognitive tasks as:

  1. thinking of analogies.
  2. completing puzzles.
  3. memorizing pictures.
  4. sorting cards.

 

31. Neuroscience of creativity

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

Research on the neuroscience of creativity contradicts the myth that the _____________ of the brain is involved in creative thinking.

  1. parietal lobe
  2. limbic system
  3. frontal lobe
  4. right hemisphere

 

32. Conceptual expansion- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

Studies of the neuroscience of creativity use a task in which the individual is asked to think about alternative uses of common objects, also called:

  1. openness to experience
  2. conceptual expansion
  3. cognitive adaptability
  4. metaphoric reasoning

 

33. Creativity and prefrontal cortex

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

Studies linking personal disposition of openness to experience and activity in the ____________ of the brain suggest that there may be, in part, a biological component to creativity.

  1. cerebellum
  2. frontal lobe
  3. limbic system
  4. corpus callosum

 

34. Planck hypothesis

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

The Planck hypothesis proposes that peak scientific productivity occurs during which period of life?

  1. Young-old age
  2. Middle adulthood
  3. Early adulthood
  4. Old-old age

 

35. Approach taken by Dennis to age and productivity

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

What correction did Dennis make in calculating the relationship between age and productivity?

  1. Eliminated all cases of one-hit wonders.
  2. Disregarded the first 20 years of the career.
  3. Took the quality of productivity into account.
  4. Only included individuals living until 80.

 

36. One-hit wonder example- stem

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

Somewhat surprisingly, the well-known writer ____________ is technically a one-hit wonder

  1. Emily Dickinson
  2. Margaret Mitchell
  3. Anna Marie Robertson
  4. Jane Austen

 

37. Equal odds rule

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

A composer who provides an example of the _____________ was Verdi, who continued to write a large number of pieces of music even at the end of his career, increasing his chances of producing a masterpiece in old age.

  1. set point perspective
  2. paradox of well-being
  3. equal odds rule

 

38. Career age

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

Because he used ___________ rather than chronological age, Simontons model provides a better estimate of an individuals chance of being productive in late life.

  1. cohort
  2. career age
  3. time of measurement
  4. subjective age

 

39. Creative potential

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

People high in __________, according to Simonton, should be able to produce creative works well into old age as long as they remain alive.

  1. openness to experiment
  2. creative potential
  3. cognitive flexibility
  4. subjective well-being

 

40. Longevity and creativity

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

Increases in longevity may contribute to the greater productivity of older creative individuals by allowing them more:

  1. opportunities to travel.
  2. interaction with their children.
  3. resources for collaboration.
  4. time to be by themselves.

 

41. Lastingness

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

The quality of __________________ in the work of older artists applies to creative work that persists over time.

  1. creative potential
  2. old age style
  3. swan song
  4. lastingness

 

42. Old age style example

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

The Pieta Rondanini sculpted by _______________ at the end of his life is an example of the old age style, with its emotional power and lack of attention to detail.

  1. Da Vinci
  2. Matisse
  3. Monet
  4. Michelangelo

 

43. Swan song- stem

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

A chief characteristic of the swan song is the fact that it is:

  1. written in minor key.
  2. intended to be played at funerals.
  3. simple and easy to remember.
  4. the only composition of a one-hit wonder.

 

44. B.F. Skinner book in later life

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

As he got older, for the first time in his life, B.F. Skinner wrote a book about:

  1. the history of psychoanalysis.
  2. a fictional type of utopia.
  3. the joys of becoming a grandparent.
  4. how to overcome the challenges of aging.

 

45. Monet and cataracts

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

The development of ____________ late in life led Monet to change the colors he used to depict scenes from nature.

  1. cataracts
  2. arthritis
  3. cardiovascular disease
  4. depression

 

 

46. Lack of attention to sociocultural factors

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice:  C

Critics of studies on aging and creativity point out that much of the research pays too little attention to:

  1. productive individuals who live outside of North America.
  2. the creative works of poets, writers, and dramatists.
  3. sociocultural factors that advantage certain segments of society.
  4. contributions made by artists in the 1800s and early 1900s.

 

47. Black areas of accomplishment under-represented

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice:  A

In analyzing the productive accomplishments of older Blacks, Simonton discovered that most of the research left them out because of failure to consider areas such as _______ in measuring productivity:

  1. law
  2. finance
  3. art
  4. politics

 

48. Famous firsts- choice

 

Difficulty:  Moderate

Correct choice: D

Examples of eminent non-White agers known as _________ play an important role in African American reference works but not in majority counts of productivity and creativity.

  1. talented innovators
  2. pioneer achievers
  3. successful minorities
  4. famous firsts

 

49. Lack of attention to women

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The group of productive older individuals given credit mainly for their contributions to childrens literature in studies of aging and creativity consists primarily of:

  1. Native Americans.
  2. British authors.

 

 

Successful aging: Final perspectives

50. Passionate commitment to the discipline- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

Which qualities define the sense of passionate commitment among productive older adults?

  1. Ability to follow a single path.
  2. Support from close friends and family.
  3. Desire to overcome adversity.
  4. High levels of flexibility and curiosity.

 

 

 

Short answer questions

What is successful aging?

  1. What are the three components of successful aging according to Rowe and Kahn definition?
  2. How does the Rowe and Kahn definition of successful aging differ from the WHO model of active aging?
  3. What is successful cognitive aging?
  4. What factors promote successful aging?

 

 

Creativity and aging

  1. What are the three basic assumptions of Simontons model of creative productivity?
  2. What are the advantages of using career age rather than chronological age in understanding the effects of age on creativity?
  3. Describe three characteristics of the old age style.
  4. What factors appear to stimulate the development of old age style?

 

Successful aging: Final perspectives

  1. How would you define creativity with a lower-case c?
  2. How might creativity be expressed at the end of life in an ordinary older person?

Essay questions

  1. How does the WHO concept of active aging differ from the Rowe and Kahn definition?
  2. Provide an example from your own experience of the old age style. Indicate the nature of the work, why you think it exemplifies the old age style, and the factors that may have led to its creation.
  3. Did creative geniuses who experienced difficulties in old age, such as Picasso, Matisse, and OKeeffe fit psychologys definition of successful aging? Why or why not?

 

 

 

 

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