Aging And Society Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition By by Lori Campbell, Herbert C. Test Bank

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Aging And Society Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition By by Lori Campbell, Herbert C. Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Aging And Society Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition By by Lori Campbell, Herbert C. Test Bank

CHAPTER 2: THEORIES AND METHODS

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In 1980, the Gerontological Society surveyed 111 scholars to establish a core program for the field of gerontology. Though the experts disagreed as to the content and boundaries of the field, which of the following items did the scholars collectively believe?
a. Three areas of study should form the core of the curriculum.
b. The socioeconomic-environmental aspects of aging should be the main focus of courses at the introductory level.
c. A consensus on the definition must be reached before gerontology can grow as a discipline.
d. A comprehensive program would be difficult to construct because of problems in deciding what aspects of aging are the most important.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   22                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which area of study in gerontology examines the physiological and health changes that occur as people age?
a. physio-environmental studies
b. cohort medical studies
c. psycho-physiological studies
d. biomedical studies

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   22                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of a psychosocial study in gerontology?
a. formal social supports
b. causes of dementia
c. relationships between individuals and groups
d. effects of healthcare systems

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   22                  BLM: HO

 

  1. George is conducting research about the effects of aging on the educational structure as well as the effects of social structures on older people. Which area of gerontology is he studying?
a. psychosocial studies
b. socio-individual studies
c. multi-stage development social studies
d. socioeconomic-environmental studies

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   22                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which areas of research are combined in the field of social gerontology?
a. socioeconomic-environmental, psychosocial, and practice-related research
b. biomedical and socioeconomic-environmental research
c. psychosocial, social policy, and social sciences research
d. biological, psychological, and health sciences research

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   22                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which field looks at aging from the points of view of both the individual and the social system?
a. geriatrics
b. psychosocial studies
c. social gerontology
d. didactic-senescence

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   22                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Why do social gerontologists examine the biological and physical changes that occur in old age?
a. to adapt the research obtained to their field of study
b. to study the relationship between biological aging and personal relationships
c. to see how the changes affect the individual or society as a whole
d. to establish a unified basis for the studies of biomedical, psycho-social, and socioeconomic-environmental studies

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What do social gerontologists use to guide their research and interpret the results of studies?
a. statistics and demographics
b. test sampling
c. theories
d. focus groups

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23                  BLM: REM

 

  1. How is a theory deemed to be a valuable tool for a researcher?
a. It gives concrete and final answers to questions.
b. It provides practical information for the development of social programs and interventions.
c. It provides essential trivial information about aging.
d. It explains all the facts about aging.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   23                  BLM: HO

 

  1. According to the text, how does a researcher select a theory to use in order to explain a set of research findings?
a. according to the researchers sense of how the world works
b. according to the original hypotheses of the study
c. according to recent academic trends
d. according to journal preferences and peer reviews

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF: 23                    BLM: REM

 

 

  1. Kayla is examining a theory that focuses on individuals and their interactions with one another, such as a brief confrontation at a parents school meeting. Which of the following is Kayla studying?
a. micro-level
b. interpersonal
c. psychological
d. organic

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   23                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which theories focus on social structure, social processes and problems, and their interrelationship?
a. macro-level theories
b. socio-political interactive theories
c. global perspectives
d. micro-level theories

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   23-24             BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of a phenomenon explained by micro-level theories?
a. the effect of positive attitudes on older people
b. the effect of industrialization on older peoples social status
c. changes in memory with age
d. how gender and income affect older peoples well-being

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23-24             BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of micro-level theories?
a. They oversimplify social life.
b. They minimize the individuals ability to act.
c. They emphasize what people do rather than the economic and social conditions that cause them to act as they do.
d. They support a definition of old age as a time of decline.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   24                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of the theories that examine aging in terms of the social structures that influence behaviour?
a. that they are not well-supported by research
b. that they underestimate peoples ability to overcome the limits of social structures
c. that they focus too much on outcomes, and not enough on processes
d. that they focus too much on perceptions, and not enough on actions

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   24                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following methods assists social gerontologists to disentangle the effects of history,

biology, and the social life on the aging person?

a. theory
b. concept
c. evaluation
d. model

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   23-24             BLM: REM

 

  1. Which aspect of social life does the interpretive perspective mainly focus on?
a. micro-level
b. reorganization
c. problems
d. functions

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   24                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which perspective looks at how people define situations, create social order, and relate to one another?
a. normative perspective
b. interpretive perspective
c. social perspective
d. ethnomethodology

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   24                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which perspective has historically been used the least by social gerontologists and is now making a resurgence over the last few decades?
a. normative perspective
b. psycho-social perspective
c. associative perspective
d. interpretive perspective

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   24                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which type of theory exemplifies the interpretive perspective?
a. social pathophysiology
b. ethnocentrism
c. symbolic interactionist
d. disengagement

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   24                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Weber developed the social phenomenological theory. What does Weber say the researcher needs to do in order to understand a social phenomenon?
a. develop an unbiased description of the phenomena
b. understand the meaning that people in the situation attach to the events and their actions
c. develop a theory to clearly specify the relationships between people and events
d. examine the social structures that enable the phenomenon to occur

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   25                  BLM: REM

 

  1. The Elks Lodge is a Canadian club that has its foundations in social order and organization. The clubs first Canadian female Exalted Ruler, Debby Ray, follows which of the following concepts in which the individual is the originator of social order and organization?
a. the interpretive perspective
b. conflict theory
c. subculture methodology
d. face-to-face interactions

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   25                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a problem with the interpretive perspective?
a. It suggests that social life does not have quantifiable measures.
b. It talks of social order and organization, without considering their source.
c. It places subjective interpretations on objective phenomena.
d. It does not focus enough on macro-level social phenomena.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   25-26             BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following terms describes the theories within the interpretive perspective?
a. interpretation constructionism
b. situational constructionism
c. social constructionism
d. interactional constructionism

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   24                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What are the basic units at work in the social system as described by functionalist theories?
a. social institutions
b. families
c. individuals
d. ethnic groups and cohorts

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. According to structural functionalism, social institutions adjust to one another as the system responds to internal and external pressures to maintain which of the following?
a. social evolution
b. dynamic equilibrium
c. static balance
d. homeostasis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   26                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Structural functionalism sometimes draws an analogy between which of the following?
a. group interactions and the postal system
b. an individual and a social institution
c. society and a living organism
d. macro- and micro-level action

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an assumption made by structural functionalism?
a. Society changes and evolves in a negative direction more often than a positive direction.
b. Functionalism draws connections only between micro-social structures and individuals actions.
c. People conform to norms because of a belief in a societys underlying value system.
d. Social problems are natural responses, and should be allowed to resolve themselves.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. How are social problems described in structural functionalism?
a. as internal pressures for change
b. as dysfunctions that should be corrected by planning
c. as conflicts between social institutions
d. as the initial reaction to social change and evolution

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which perspective is used most often by gerontologists?
a. interactive perspective
b. age-stratification perspective
c. functionalist perspective
d. conflict perspective

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the focus of age stratification theory?
a. the pressure that leads to the formation of social status and classes
b. the transmission of social life from one generation to the next
c. the movement of age cohorts during the life cycle
d. how micro- and macro-level structures influence the individuals experience of old age

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26-27             BLM: REM

 

  1. Michael J. Fox was born in the 1960s during the height of events such as the Canadian Centennial in 196 and the introduction of colour TV in Canada. Fox is a member of an age cohort. Which of the following sentences describes an age cohort?
a. a group of people born at the same time
b. a unit of study in gerontology
c. a social institution
d. a social norm that is unique to a specific age group

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for a period of life defined by society, such as adolescence or childhood?
a. cohort
b. life stage
c. social age
d. age grade

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   27                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Why is the concept of age cohorts important in understanding aging?
a. because people born in the same period experience the same historical events at the same time in their life cycle
b. because it standardizes the effects of biology and history on the behaviours observed in the elderly
c. because longitudinal studies cannot control for the effects of cultural changes on behaviours, and therefore nested designs need to be employed
d. because qualitative, rather than quantitative, study designs are more effective in describing inter-cohort differences

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

 

  1. Which of the following does age stratification offer as an explanation of why society changes as people age?
a. Each generation of younger people reinvents social norms for itself and cannot rely on older cohorts for guidance.
b. The norms and roles learned by each new cohort change with society.
c. Social problems appear in predictable waves as each new age strata replaces the preceding cohort.
d. Social structures are not permanent, as predicted by structural functionalism, but are fluid and respond to changes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

  1. The text compares movement of age cohorts through the life cycle to movement on which of the following?
a. an airplane
b. an escalator
c. a ship
d. an elevator

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   27                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which theory relies on structural functionalist assumptions?
a. life course theory
b. cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory
c. activity theory
d. age stratification theory

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   27                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the dialectic between individuals and societal structures as described by age stratification theory?
a. Changes in values lead to changes in social organizations that influence the process of aging.
b. As people age, they take on the norms and roles of their age grade.
c. New institutions are the result of the institutions that preceded them.
d. Society is a homogeneous set of structures and functions that most people experience in the same way.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of the dialectic between individuals and societal structures described by age stratification theory?
a. gradual change in radio station formats through market forces
b. growing acceptance of extramarital sex among the older population, and how the young define their values
c. effect of seniors needs on senior centre programs, and of programs on attitudes toward old age
d. interaction of family, caregivers, and researchers to create the concept of Alzheimers disease

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which theory provides new ways to explore differences related to time, period, and cohort?
a. structural investment theory
b. disengagement theory
c. age stratification theory
d. continuity theory

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following describes one of the problems with age stratification theory?
a. It overlooks inequality within age cohorts.
b. It does not examine the effects of a changing society on the values of its members.
c. It overemphasizes norms and values, and ignores the effects of folkways and mores.
d. It becomes inaccurate at the micro-level.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

  1. A limitation of the age stratification theory is that which of the following may have a greater influence on peoples lives than the norms and values related to their age grade?
a. political changes
b. socio-historical events
c. inequality within age cohorts
d. personal interpretations of the world

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27-28             BLM: HO

 

  1. What does the life course perspective accomplish by incorporating social interaction and social structure within a functionalist perspective?
a. It completely explains the observed differences in equality between age groups.
b. It bridges the micro- and macro-levels of analysis.
c. It avoids addressing issues related to conflicts between social groups.
d. It provides a holistic approach to the study of gerontology.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   28                  BLM: HO

 

 

  1. What occurs in the life course approach at the micro-level?
a. It studies later life in relation to early events and conditions.
b. It focuses on the struggles between social classes.
c. It tries to explain the conflict within social classes.
d. It shows how social change can create differences between age grades.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   28                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Why is the life course approach an improvement upon older functionalist theories?
a. It more accurately describes the roles of older people in modern societies.
b. It accounts for differences in life course patterns due to differences between and within age cohorts.
c. It incorporates physiological, psychological, and social processes into a unified process.
d. It links physical changes to specific social stages.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   28                  BLM: HO

 

  1. The life course approach specifically studies lives in terms of which of the following?
a. dialectics
b. work, family, and the individual
c. transitions and trajectories
d. shared norms and values

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   28                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Within the life course approach, what are transitions considered to be?
a. positive processes that enable achieving a healthy old age
b. negative processes that prevent achieving a healthy old age
c. relatively stable periods between life-cycle crises
d. changes in social status or social roles

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   28-29             BLM: REM

 

  1. In the life course approach, what are trajectories?
a. long-term patterns of stability and change
b. a sequence of two or more transitions
c. branch points on the continuum of the life cycle
d. differences within age cohorts that affect aging

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF: 28-29                          BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a trajectory in the life course approach?
a. a lifelong marriage
b. retirement
c. parenthood
d. death

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   29                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following involves the view that society consists of problems between dominant and subordinate social groups?
a. the normative perspective
b. engagement theory
c. modernization theory
d. the conflict perspective

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   29                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Political economy theory grew out of the work of which of the following theorists?
a. Weber
b. Goffman
c. Marx
d. Durkheim

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF: 30                    BLM: REM

 

  1. What does Marxist theory predict regarding older workers?
a. They use their experience and knowledge to hold on to resources and power in industry.
b. They are less valuable to industry, and will be fired or retired to make room for faster, cheaper workers.
c. They move up in a company until they reach their level of optimum effectiveness.
d. They are more socially disadvantaged than most workers because of the stigma of old age.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   30                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to political economy theory, what can the origins of older peoples problems be traced to?
a. the political and economic structure of capitalist society
b. ageism
c. the decline in health and intelligence that occurs as people age
d. the influence of middle-aged, middle-class values on social support programs

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   30                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to the political economy theory, social programs and policies for older people most benefit which of the following groups?
a. retirees aged 6574
b. elderly widows
c. industrialists and the bourgeoisie
d. middle-aged, middle-class professionals

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   30                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is a strength of the political economy approach to aging?
a. It accurately explains micro-level phenomena.
b. It openly discusses the poverty and other problems older people face, and it offers solutions.
c. It incorporates the experiences of individuals to explain the differences between cohorts.
d. It looks beyond the individual to understand the forces that shape individual aging.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF: 30                    BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a problem with the political economy approach?
a. It does not offer viable solutions to social problems.
b. It pays too much attention to an individuals interpretations of social life.
c. It can overemphasize the poverty and problems older people face.
d. It becomes inaccurate at the micro-level.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF: 30                               BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following describes the feminist perspective of aging?
a. It distorts the importance of gender in relation to other factors (such as race and social class).
b. It states that gender defines life experiences, including aging.
c. It reverses the traditional perspective by examining aging in terms of strengths, rather than weaknesses.
d. It describes how women have distinct social advantages over men when it comes to aging.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF: 30-31                          BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a strength of the feminist theory of aging?
a. It is congruent with most mainstream feminist theories.
b. It illustrates an ability to control for gender, and thereby focus on other social characteristics (such as race and social class).
c. It acknowledges the feminization of aging.
d. It recognizes the importance of social structure and individual characteristics.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   31                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Period effects cause changes in old age due to which of the following?
a. similar background experiences
b. age group differences
c. the time of measurement
d. physiological changes

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  BLM: HO

 

 

 

  1. What is the term for the interpretive theory that is concerned with the social consensus that underlies issues between the generations?
a. symbolic-interactionism
b. moral economic theory
c. conflict theory
d. disengagement theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   32                  BLM: REM

 

  1. A researcher is examining the shared moral assumptions held by the members of a society to describe the effect of the societys values on policy. Which of the following is the researcher using?
a. moral economy theory
b. phenomenology
c. symbolic interactionism
d. cross-sectional theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   32                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What does critical gerontology highlight?
a. conflict between age groups over economic resources
b. the transition from traditional to modern society
c. movement from one age grade to the next
d. limitations in mainstream gerontological theory

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   32                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Gerontologists describe three causes for changes in old age. Which of the following is one of these effects?
a. economic effects
b. period effects
c. somatic effects
d. social effects

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  BLM: REM

 

  1. As a cause for change in later life, age effects are due to which of the following?
a. the effects of the aging population on a society
b. changes within a culture that affect the aging process
c. differences between people of different ages
d. physical decline

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   33                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following are cohort effects?
a. the observation that no two people or age groups are exactly alike
b. changes in culture that affect the development of groups differently
c. shared backgrounds and experiences of people born around the same time
d. researchers confusing age differences with age changes

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a period effect?
a. genetic differences between age groups
b. historical events
c. wrinkled skin
d. increased use of medication

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   33                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What must the researcher be careful to do when conducting a study on the effects of aging?
a. allow for a large margin of error due to variability in performance
b. acknowledge the difference between age groups and changes due to aging
c. use at least three methods of data analysis
d. use only the cross-sectional methods of analysis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following defines age-group differences?
a. differences in age between specific groups of people
b. differences between cohort effects
c. similarities of characteristics due to differing age groups
d. differences due to the effects of aging

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

 

  1. Which of the following defines age changes?
a. the changes that occur between groups of people due to differences in aging
b. age effects
c. changes in characteristics due to aging
d. differences due to the results of aging

 

 

  1. The influence of factors such as educational differences between cohorts on studies of aging confound observed age changes. What are these influences known as?
a. mediators
b. cohort variables
c. differences between age groups
d. socialization factors

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Researchers such as Baltes and Schaie (1982) found that a large part of the intelligence difference between younger and older people was due to which of the following?
a. test biases
b. biased subject sampling techniques
c. differences in health status
d. educational differences

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   34                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the main problem with a cross-sectional method of analysis in investigating aging?
a. It is very expensive.
b. It requires a long period of time to show significant results.
c. It confuses cohort effects with age changes.
d. It cannot distinguish between cohort effects and environmental effects.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which method of analysis looks at a single group of people through two or more points in time?
a. cross-sectional analysis
b. longitudinal research designs
c. maturational change analysis
d. time-lag comparison

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Dr. Phillips is doing memory and reaction-time studies on a group of college graduates, and plans to re-test them when they retire. What is the term for this type of study?
a. phenomenological experiment
b. cross-sectional methodology
c. longitudinal design
d. test retest validation

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the main benefit of longitudinal research designs?
a. They avoid comparing different cohorts.
b. They avoid environmental effects.
c. They can isolate and study period effects.
d. They give relatively accurate data quickly and at a low cost.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   34                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following describes a problem with longitudinal studies?
a.

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