Rothrock: Alexanders Care of the Patient in Surgery, 14th Edition
Chapter 02: Patient Safety and Risk Management
|a.||The Joint Commission (TJC): Nonvoluntary bureau that tests healthcare institutions against evidence-based elements of performance|
|b.||Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP): Trends surgical site infection statistics|
|c.||American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA): Professional organization of anesthesia providers and technologists|
|d.||World Health Organization (WHO): United Nations based and supported authority on health throughout most of the world|
WHO was created by and functions within the United Nations (UN) as the directing and coordinating authority for health throughout UN member nations.
REF: Page 21
|a.||promote guidelines influencing patient safety.|
|b.||create professional OR nursing care delivery models.|
|c.||interpret healthcare statistics critical to perioperative nursing care.|
|d.||ensure risk reduction strategies are the foundation of perioperative education.|
The Association of Operating Room Nurses (now called the Association of periOperative Registered Nurses [AORN]) began organizing in the early 1950s. AORNs conferences and publications were replete with patient safety information. Its first conference in 1954 included programs on methods improvement, explosion prevention, bacteria destruction, the surgeon-nurse relationship, and positioning.
REF: Page 18
|a.||Chemical, thermal, and radiation burns|
|b.||Anxiety and knowledge deficit|
|c.||Lost or mislabeled specimen|
|d.||Breaches of confidentiality, privacy, and dignity|
A physical risk is some damaging or noxious element that comes into contact with the patient to cause harm, such as electrosurgical/laser beam, pooled prep solution, glutaraldehyde retained in an endoscope, or a retained foreign object.
REF: Pages 34, 37-38
|a.||allergies, history and physical report, level of anxiety.|
|b.||lab and imaging results, blood transfusion orders.|
|c.||signed consent, advance directives, and personal belongings.|
|d.||All of the options must be verified.|
Key features of the Universal Protocol for perioperative patient care are performing a preoperative verification process, marking the operative site, and conducting a time out immediately before starting the procedure. A properly performed time out includes information about the patient and the procedure.
REF: Page 19
|a.||the time-out is initiated by the surgeon.|
|b.||the entire team stops and focuses attention together.|
|c.||perioperative services has a physician champion and surgeon buy-in.|
|d.||someone simultaneously checks the patient ID band.|
All members of the team must introduce themselves by name and role and participate in sharing critical elements of care. The team includes the surgeon, anesthesia provider, and nursing staff, plus any allied or ancillary care providers contributing to the procedure when the time-out is performed.
REF: Pages 21, 24
|a.||establish cause and trends based on who was involved.|
|b.||determine precisely what happened and why.|
|c.||find out what needs to take place to prevent a recurrence of the event.|
|d.||uncover factors that contributed to the environment and the event.|
Root cause analysis is a systematized process to identify variations in performance that cause, or could cause, a sentinel event. The analysis phase of root cause analysis progresses from why questions to what can be done to prevent this questions that flow and ultimately result in an action plan. Root cause analysis concentrates on systems and processes, not individuals.
REF: Page 19
Select the quote that best relates perioperative nursing care to the NPSG.
|a.||Surgical nurses are the glue that holds surgical care together.|
|b.||A nurse is always there to be the patients advocate.|
|c.||The primary role of the surgical nurse is to protect the patient from the surgery.|
|d.||Primum non nocere (first do no harm).|
Most perioperative nursing interventions are aimed at protecting patients from the unintended insults of regular surgical care and the risks inherent in surgery. Tightly coupled systems are most prone to accidents, and surgical suites, emergency departments, and intensive care units are examples of complex, tightly coupled systems.
REF: Pages 18-20
|a.||PACU bed space number; anesthesia provider|
|b.||The names and roles of the perioperative nurse and anesthesia provider; receiving PACU nurse|
|c.||Patient identification; receiving PACU nurse|
|d.||Patient identification; anesthesia provider|
All patient encounters should begin with patient identification verification. The receiving healthcare provider bears the responsibility of obtaining all of the information needed to safely care for the patient before the transferring staff leave the area. Time for clarification and questioning must be provided. The purpose of hand-off communication and reports is to provide essential, up-to-date, and specific information about the patient. Standardized hand-off communication must include an opportunity to ask and respond to questions.
REF: Page 26
|a.||Wrong patient, wrong site, and wrong side surgery; site marking and presurgical checklists|
|b.||Electrical and thermal burns; alcohol-free prep solution|
|c.||Surgical site infection; flash sterilization|
|d.||Surgical airway fire; fire extinguishers in every OR|
Evidence shows that wrong site surgery not only can devastate the patient and family but also can impact the perioperative team adversely. All institutions accredited by TJC must follow the Universal Protocol for Preventing Wrong Site, Wrong Procedure, Wrong Person Surgery. The surgical team must agree that this is the correct patient and that the planned procedure is on the specified side and site. Marking the surgical site must be done so that the intended site of incision or insertion is clear and unambiguous.
REF: Page 31
|a.||Creating precounted laparotomy sets with only the few necessary instruments|
|b.||Performing radiologic surveillance on all conversion procedures at closure|
|c.||Counting all instruments including a laparotomy set before the laparoscopy|
|d.||Replacing or tagging sponges and laparotomy instruments with RFID chips|
At a minimum, all facilities should have a count policy that reflects AORNs Recommended Practices for Sponge, Sharp, and Instrument Counts. While standard counting prevented 82% of retained sponges, bar-coded and RFID-tagged sponges prevented about 97.5% of retained sponges. The bar-coded sponges were the most cost-effective. Researchers suggest that, given medical and liability costs of more than $200,000 per incident, sponge tracking technologies can substantially reduce the incidence of retained surgical sponges at an acceptable cost.
REF: Page 34
|a.||determine the potential for intravascular uptake of fluid or third spacing.|
|b.||estimate the likelihood for fluid puddles on the floor, causing a fall hazard.|
|c.||determine the potential for dependent pooling under the patient and subsequent electrical burn.|
|d.||determine the potential for dependent pooling under the patient and sacral maceration.|
Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may occur rapidly in the surgical patient, and can be caused by numerous factors, including preoperative fluid and food restrictions, intraoperative fluid loss, or the stress of surgery or uptake of surgery-infused diagnostic fluids. The surgical patient is unable to regulate body fluid and electrolyte requirements by normal activities of drinking, eating, excreting, and breathing unaided. It is therefore imperative that the perioperative nurse monitor and collaborate in controlling the fluid and electrolyte status of the patient intraoperatively.
REF: Pages 42-44
|a.||Neonates have extremely delicate skin prone to injury.|
|b.||Preoperative skin condition was not assessed and documented.|
|c.||The relieving nurse did not receive a hand-off report from the circulating nurse.|
|d.||All of these options are contributing factors.|
All of the above factors could have collectively contributed to the skin injury. The skin condition could also have been present on admission to the OR and not seen or noted. Findings from sentinel event reports over the last 2 decades demonstrate that the individual efforts of the best nurses, surgeons, and anesthesia providers, combined with a recognized need for teamwork, may not be sufficient in the perioperative setting.
REF: Page 19
|a.||Calculate all sponge weight results at the end of the case.|
|b.||Use the following to calculate loss: 1.5 grams = 1.2 milliliters = 1.5 cc.|
|c.||Consider saline-soaked sponges equal to blood-soaked sponges when urine is involved in the operative field.|
|d.||Combine sponge weight values with irrigation measurement values to calculate estimated blood loss.|
When blood loss estimates must be more accurate, weighing sponges provides a reliable means of judging the amount of blood lost and of gauging the need for transfusion. Add the amount of blood loss calculated from suction canisters to the total recorded from sponges to obtain accurate blood loss estimates.
REF: Pages 39-40
|a.||added the total from the suction canister.|
|b.||excluded the suction canister since cell salvage returned blood to the patient.|
|c.||included suction content, subtracting irrigation amount used.|
|d.||requested hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to quantify EBL.|
Measure blood in the suction canister(s) at regular intervals, subtracting the amount of any irrigating solution used.
REF: Page 39
|a.||Unreported patient diarrhea before surgery|
|b.||Unnoticed arterial bleeding from disconnected arterial line|
|c.||Sterile water from back table switched with heparinized saline|
|d.||Missed breast-feeding 2 hours before procedure|
Intravascular infusion of a hypotonic solution would cause hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypomagnesemia. Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia include cardiac effects, such as ectopy, dysrhythmias, conduction abnormalities, and altered sensitivity to digitalis. Sterile water is a hypotonic solution.
REF: Pages 42-44
|a.||obtain verbal consent when the written consent is unavailable.|
|b.||ensure that the consent is in the medical record, correct, signed and witnessed.|
|c.||withhold preoperative medication until the consent is witnessed.|
|d.||review the procedure and expected outcome with the patient.|
On the patients arrival in the OR, the circulating nurse and anesthesia provider are responsible for verifying that documentation of the consent is in the chart and is correct, properly signed, and witnessed before the administration of anesthesia.
REF: Page 45
|a.||Elective cosmetic surgical procedure|
|c.||Permission to photograph medically-related images during the procedure|
|d.||All of the options require consent.|
Except in emergencies, surgical procedures should not be performed without documentation of the patients consent on the chart. The patient also must be informed who will perform the procedure and when practitioners other than the primary surgeon will perform important parts of the procedure, even when under the primary surgeons supervision.
REF: Page 45
|a.||Verify informed consent for blood, separate blood bag from identification slips, sign slips, verify identification numbers and expiration dates with second licensed person, verify patient with blood tag and requisition slips|
|b.||Verify informed consent for blood, verify patient identification and blood type and unit numbers against blood tag and requisition slip with second licensed person, sign slips|
|c.||Check blood bag for damage, clots, and bubbles with second licensed person; identify patient and blood expiration date against all slips and tags; remove slips and tags from blood bag|
|d.||Verify patient identification, blood unit number, and blood type between patient chart and blood tags and slips; check blood for bubbles and clots; spike blood bag with filtered tubing; sign blood slip while still on blood bag; remove when bag is infused without reaction|
A patient having an elective surgical procedure for which blood has been requested should not be anesthetized without verification that the requested blood products are typed, crossmatched, and available and that informed consent to receive blood products has been documented. Before administration of any blood product, the circulating nurse and anesthesia provider (or a second licensed individual) must confirm the following: (1) The unit number on the blood product corresponds with the unit number on the blood requisition. Facilities using electronic records will return a transfusion card or cross-match card as verification that this unit can be given to this patient in lieu of the requisition. (2) The name, birth date, and number on the patients identification band agree with the name, birth date, and number on the blood product. (3) The patients name on the blood product corresponds with the name on the requisition. (4) The blood group indicated on the blood product corresponds with that of the patient. (5) The date and time of expiration has not been reached. (6) The blood product bag is free of leaks, damage, or signs of possible bacterial contamination (e.g., presence of fine gas bubbles, discoloration, clots, or excessive air in the bag). Both individuals who verify this information must sign the slip that comes with the blood product.
REF: Page 41
|a.||Label consecutive specimens in alphabetical order for lab efficiency.|
|b.||Send all specimens to the lab together as one pickup, including frozen sections.|
|c.||Avoid placing specimens for frozen section in formalin.|
|d.||Neutralize formalin/formaldehyde spills with glycerin sulfate and call the hazmat team.|
Specimens for frozen section should be sent fresh (e.g., without fixatives [formalin/formaldehyde]). Specimens for frozen section usually are placed on Telfa or into a dry specimen container. They are never placed in saline solution or formalin nor are they ever transported on a counted sponge. They should be sent immediately to the lab. Formalin, a combination of methanol, water, and formaldehyde, is frequently used to preserve specimens if they are not taken to the laboratory immediately.
REF: Page 37
|a.||another surgical procedure.|
|b.||improper specimen analysis.|
|c.||improper specimen preparation.|
|d.||All of the above|
Communication errors pose significant risks to patients in the misidentification of a surgical specimen before its arrival in the pathology lab. These errors include the following: specimen not labeled, empty specimen container, incorrect laterality, incorrect tissue site, incorrect patient, no patient name, no tissue site.
REF: Page 37
|a.||Joy counted the back table, Mayo stand, and sterile field while Ann counted the sponge bags and 3 in the kick bucket.|
|b.||Joy and Ann counted aloud together as Ann pointed to the sponges in the sponge bag and then as Joy touched each sponge, moving from back table to Mayo stand to sterile field.|
|c.||Ann and Joy each counted aloud as Joy pointed to items on the floor and kick bucket, and back table. To expedite the count Ann counted aloud as she pointed out the sponges in the sponge bag while Joy completed the back table.|
|d.||The surgeon searched the wound as Ann and Joy counted the floor, sponge bag, dip basin, kick bucket, back table, Mayo stand, sterile field, and the sponge wrapped around the new ostomy.|
As the first layer of closure begins, the scrub person and circulating nurse count all items consecutively in a standardized routine (e.g., proceeding from the sterile field to the Mayo stand to the back table and then off the field, or vice versa). The count is done audibly, visibly, and concurrently.
REF: Page 36
|a.||Count and verify suture packs, dump and count packs in sterile suture bag, check floor, check back table and Mayo stand, notify surgeon, and check linen and clean and red trash bags. Open clean trash bags tied up in the corner from sterile table setup.|
|b.||Recalculate numbers on white board, check back table and Mayo stand, dump and check linen and trash, verify suture packs, notify team of possible missing needle; however, it probably is an error in transcription.|
|c.||Notify team of needle discrepancy; recount needles on and off sterile field and white board; check sterile field, Mayo stand, and back table; check floor, under OR table, bottoms of shoes, pants cuffs, and sterile sleeve cuffs; check sponge bags and kick bucket.|
|d.||Recount needles on and off sterile field, check sterile field and Mayo stand and back table; check floor, wait to notify team until miscount verified; check red bag trash, compare empty suture packs, total number on white board.|
All incorrect closure counts should be reported immediately, and attempts made to resolve every discrepancy. If the count remains unresolved, the circulating nurse again notifies the surgeon of the unresolved count, and a search is made for the missing item, including the surgical wound, field, floor, linen, and trash (thus, the rationale that linen and trash not leave the OR until the end of the procedure). All personnel direct their immediate attention to locating the missing item.
REF: Page 36
|a.||Stop everything. Im missing a couple sponges. They are not in the trash or back table. Check the wound.|
|b.||I think you are missing 2 sponges. Shall I call x-ray while the scrub person checks her table again? Doctor, please check the incision.|
|c.||We have a count discrepancy. We started with 70 sponges and find only 68. We are missing 2 lap sponges. Everyone, please check your areas.|
|d.||Ive called x-ray because we are short 2 sponges. Ive called the charge nurse to get someone to help me check the trash and linen. The rapid response team is on their way.|
Note that the circulating nurse used SBAR format to alert the team of the critical situation. All incorrect closure counts should be reported immediately, and attempts made to resolve every discrepancy. If the count remains unresolved, the circulating nurse again notifies the surgeon of the unresolved count, and a search is made for the missing item, including the surgical wound, field, floor, linen, and trash (thus, the rationale that linen and trash not leave the OR until the end of the procedure). All personnel direct their immediate attention to locating the missing item. If it is not found, an x-ray film may be taken and read by the radiologist or surgeon as specified in institutional policy.
REF: Page 36
|a.||understanding and rights under the Patient Self-Determination Act.|
|b.||right to informed consent.|
|c.||autonomy to protect herself from negligence and malpractice.|
|d.||hope that everyone would honor HIPAA.|
Every adult has the right to determine what happens to his or her body. In perioperative practice settings, these rights are protected via informed consent processes for the procedure itself and/or for any research interventions, and via patient wishes expressed in advance directives for healthcare. The patient also must be informed who will perform the procedure and when practitioners other than the primary surgeon will perform important parts of the procedure, even when under the primary surgeons supervision.
REF: Page 45
|a.||Patient Self-Determination Act|
|d.||Patient Self-Determination Act and advance directives|
Many individual states had statutes that allowed patients to dictate their future healthcare wishes in a legally recognized fashion if they were unable to do so when a life-threatening situation arose. Then, in the wake of the first U.S. Supreme Court case to deal with the issueCruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990)the U.S. Congress in 1991 passed the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) to extend legal protection to all U.S. citizens and residents. Under the Act, patients have the legal right to accept or refuse medical treatment, including resuscitation, even if refusal will likely result in death.
REF: Page 45
Rothrock: Alexanders Care of the Patient in Surgery, 14th Edition
Chapter 14: Genitourinary Surgery
On the medial side of each kidney is a concave area known as the hilum, through which the renal artery and vein enter and exit. The renal pelvis, a funnel-shaped structure that lies within the kidney and posterior to the renal vascular pedicle, divides into several branches called calyces (Figure 14-3). The renal artery and vein with their accompanying nerves and lymphatics are referred to as the pedicle of the kidney.
REF: Page 478
|a.||The prostate sits adjacent to the urethra, is 2 to 4 cm in depth, and weighs about 25 g.|
|b.||The prostate sits below the urethra, is 2 to 3 cm in depth, and weighs 25 to 30 g.|
|c.||The prostate sits below the bladder, is 2 cm in depth, and weighs about 25 to 40 g.|
|d.||The prostate sits below the base of the bladder, is 4 cm at the base, and weighs 20 to 30 g.|
The prostate gland is a donut-shaped organ composed of fibromuscular and glandular components. It is located at the base of the bladder neck and completely surrounds the urethra. The gland is about 4 cm at the base, is about 2 cm in depth, and normally weighs 20 to 30 g (see Figures 14-5 and 14-7).
REF: Page 481
|b.||1 ml per kg body weight|
|d.||30 ml per hour|
The kidneys are highly vascular organs that process approximately one fifth of the entire volume of blood at any one time.
REF: Page 481
|a.||epinephrine; steroids and hormones|
|b.||steroids; adrenaline and hormones|
|c.||epinephrine; pituitary-stimulating hormone and adrenaline|
|d.||pituitary hormones; cortisol and norepinephrine|
Each adrenal gland has a medulla, which secretes epinephrine (adrenaline), and a cortex, which secretes steroids and hormones. Secretions from the adrenal cortex are influenced by the activity of the pituitary gland.
REF: Page 478
|a.||Normal intra-abdominal positive pressure promotes renal drainage.|
|b.||Slight distention of the renal pelvis initiates a wave of peristaltic contractions.|
|c.||Distention of the proximal ureter facilitates gravity drainage through signaling channels.|
|d.||Urine is propelled into the bladder when adrenal hormones bind with ureteral receptor sites.|
As urine accumulates in the renal pelvis, slight distention initiates a wave of muscular contractions. This peristaltic activity continues down the ureter, propelling urine into the bladder.
REF: Pages 478-479
|a.||The patient will be able to urinate before the bladder exceeds 350 ml of fullness.|
|b.||The patient will regain his or her normal pattern of urinary elimination.|
|c.||The patient will excrete 50 ml of urine per hour.|
|d.||All of the options are desired outcomes.|
The patient outcome related to the risk for urinary retention could be stated as follows: The patient will demonstrate or regain a normal pattern of urinary elimination. Normal urinary output for an adult is 0.5 to 1 ml/kg body weight/hour. Full bladder capacity is 350 to 700 ml.
REF: Page 484
|a.||The patient will be free from injury related to the surgical position.|
|b.||The patient will discuss fears and concerns regarding sexual function.|
|c.||The patient will demonstrate or regain a normal pattern of urinary elimination.|
|d.||This plan addresses all three outcomes.|
The outcome statement, The patient will discuss fears and concerns regarding sexual function is sensitive to the following nursing interventions: clarify the patients understanding of risks and benefits of the surgical procedure; provide an open, accepting environment for the patient to discuss potentially embarrassing issues; maintain patient privacy and dignity; consider making a referral for the patient to discuss options available to achieve sexual function.
REF: Page 485
|a.||monitoring and recording the volume of IV and irrigating fluids instilled.|
|b.||maintaining a closed urinary drainage system.|
|c.||providing the patient with information on preventing recurrent urinary tract infections.|
|d.||monitoring blood loss and volume replacement.|
Large amounts of irrigating fluids are often used during urologic procedures, which may impact the patients electrolyte status. Irrigating fluids should be monitored both for fluid infused and for fluid returned. Thorough knowledge of the potential hazards encountered intraoperatively is extremely important and close observation is essential. A sudden change in signs and symptoms may be suggestive of TURP syndrome, a severe hyponatremia caused by systemic absorption of irrigating fluid used during surgery. Minimum amounts of fluids should be given and urine output carefully monitored. Irrigation fluid should be under as little pressure as possible and the bladder emptied before it reaches full capacity to prevent intravesical pressure.
REF: Pages 485, 488
|a.||no response; the epinephrine will minimize bleeding and prolong the anesthetic action.|
|b.||tell the scrub person to write epinephrine 1:100,000 on the syringe and cup label.|
|c.||alert the team that lidocaine with epinephrine was accidentally placed on the back table.|
|d.||empty the cup and syringe and refill with 1% lidocaine without epinephrine.|
When medications are used intraoperatively the containers should always be labeled with the medication name, strength, and concentration (when needed). During hand-offs, the medication verification process should take place. Local anesthetics that contain epinephrine should be used with caution in urology. Many urologic interventions involve end-organs (the scrotum, testicles, and penis). The use of epinephrine in these areas can result in an ischemic situation and should be avoided. Shawna immediately notifies the team that an inaccuracy has been detected.
REF: Page 486
|a.||Slide an under-buttocks drape below his buttocks and pull out the fluid collection tray of the bed.|
|b.||Place leaded shields over his thyroid and chest and document their placement on the perioperative nursing record.|
|c.||Check, monitor, and document his position and body alignment.|
|d.||Initiate the time-out briefing with the surgeon and anesthesia provider.|
In some procedures involving stones of the kidneys or ureters, intraoperative fluoroscopy is used. When fluoroscopy (C-arm) is to be employed, the patient must be placed on an OR bed compatible with its use. Whenever possible, the perioperative nurse takes measures to protect the patient from undue radiation exposure to the thyroid and chest areas by using small leaded shields. In urologic procedures it generally is not feasible to shield the reproductive organs.
REF: Page 487
|a.||James should learn catheter care and measures to facilitate voiding after catheter removal.|
|b.||The nurse should teach James about catheter care and how to void when it is removed.|
|c.||James should be able to teach back proper catheter care to the nurse.|
|d.||The nurse should demonstrate proper catheter care techniques.|
Information provided should be presented in language the patient can understand (lay terms) and clarified with the patient by having the patient repeat back and/or teach back in his or her own words the information provided. Nursing interventions for the outcome statement, The patient will demonstrate or regain a normal pattern of urinary elimination include recommending that the nurse teach catheter care and measures to facilitate voiding after catheter removal as part of preoperative patient and family education and discharge planning. The nurse should then have James teach back proper catheter care and provide time for questions and clarification about home care.
REF: Pages 485, 493
|a.||65+ years old, African descent, father had prostate cancer|
|b.||50+ years old, Pacific Islander descent, brother has prostate cancer|
|c.||36 years old and Jamaican descent, low-fat diet, no family history|
|d.||45 years old, African descent, low-fat diet|
Early detection is important in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Information relating to a patients profile includes the following risk factors: Age: After 50 years old, the risk increases rapidly; about 64% of all prostate cancer cases are diagnosed in men age 65 and older. Race: African-American men and Jamaican men of African descent have the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world. Diet: High dietary fat is associated with a greater risk for developing cancer. Family history: Risk is increased for men who have first-degree relatives with prostate cancer.
REF: Page 512
|a.||Prostate cancer stages of severity|
|b.||Indications for selecting appropriate intervention|
|c.||Prognosis and potential for recovery|
|d.||All of the options define the AUA score system.|
The American Urological Association (AUA) recommends that starting at age 40 the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE) be offered to men at average risk. Clinical evaluation and an elevated PSA usually indicate the need for a transrectal ultrasound needle biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. When the results of the biopsy are positive for cancer, the AUA score measures the severity of the cancer: stage A = clinically unsuspected disease; stage B = tumor confined to the prostate gland; stage C = tumor localized to the periprostatic area; stage D = metastatic prostate cancer.
REF: Page 514 (Box 14-2)
|a.||A Gleason score between 8 and 10 is associated with indications for curative surgery.|
|b.||The first and second most common cell types are each given a score of 1 to 5, and the numbers are combined for a total score.|
|c.||The number of cells in a given space determines the score; the lower the number, the more aggressive the cancer.|
|d.||The Gleason score is determined by doubling the AUA score.|
The most commonly used system to grade prostate cancer is the Gleason score. To calculate the Gleason score, the pathologist evaluates the prostatic tissue to determine which type of cell is the most common and which type is the second most common and gives each of the two cell types a score from 1 to 5. The two scores are combined to determine the total score. Higher numbers are an indication of more abnormal, aggressive cancer cells. Men with a Gleason score of 2 to 4 are generally cured by surgery; scores from 5 to 6 indicate mildly aggressive cancer cells; a score of 7 indicates the cancer is moderately aggressive. Scores between 8 and 10 indicate highly aggressive tumors and are associated with a poor prognosis after surgery (Epstein, 2007).
REF: Pages 513-514
|a.||Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)|
|b.||Simple perineal prostatectomy|
|c.||Radical open prostatectomy with lymph node dissection|
|d.||No surgery. Wilber is not a candidate for surgery.|
PSA values greater than 10 ng/ml are highly suggestive of prostatic carcinoma. Gleason scores between 8 and 10 indicate highly aggressive tumors and are associated with a poor prognosis after surgery (Epstein, 2007). An AUA score of stage D2 indicates (1) metastatic prostatic cancer with pelvic lymph node metastases or ureteral obstruction causing hydronephrosis, or both, and (2) bone, soft tissue, organ, or distant lymph node metastases.
REF: Pages 484, 513
|a.||Segment of sigmoid colon|
|b.||Right colon and ileum|
|c.||Proximal right colon segment with cecum|
The orthotopic ileocolic neobladder, or Le Bag continent diversion technique, uses the right colon and ileum as an orthotopic bladder replacement. Contraindications include previous radiation therapy, bowel disease (e.g., diverticulosis, Crohns disease, colitis), and other major medical problems.
REF: Page 549
|a.||For palliative relief of obstruction for end-stage disease|
|b.||For symptom relief of obstruction before initiating other treatments|
|c.||For specimen retrieval for diagnostic cancer staging|
|d.||For men who cannot tolerate, or who are not candidates for, high-intensity focused ultrasound|
TURP is one surgical method of treating benign obstructive enlargement of the prostate gland. If the prostate gland is cancerous, a radical retropubic or radical perineal prostatectomy, in conjunction with open or laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection, is usually performed. TURP may also be used in men who cannot have a radical prostatectomy, or to relieve symptoms caused by prostate cancer before other treatments are initiated.
REF: Page 513
|a.||high-temperature nonionizing thermal energy.|
|b.||cavitation of the prostate cell cytoplasm by the implosion of microscopic bubbles.|
|c.||mechanical shearing force of ultrasonic waves.|
|d.||radiofrequency coagulation of prostatic cell nuclei.|
HIFU is highly focused into a small area, creating intense heat of 80 to 100 C, which is lethal to prostate cancer tissue. HIFU destroys tissue by heat, rather than by cavitation or mechanical shearing. Since ultrasound is nonionizing, there is no collateral tissue damage.
For the majority of patients, HIFU is indicated as a curative therapy. The best candidates are clinical/pathologic stages T1c to T3. Because of the limited focal length of HIFU, gland volume cannot be 40 ml or larger. Aside from primary therapy, HIFU can be used as salvage therapy,
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