An Introduction To Community Health 7th Edition By James F. Robert R. Test Bank

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An Introduction To Community Health 7th Edition By James F. Robert R. Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

An Introduction To Community Health 7th Edition By James F. Robert R. Test Bank

Chapter: Chapter02

 

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

 

  1. Historically, communities have always taken aggressive actions to deal with health issues.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  34

 

 

 

 

  1. Highly organized and developed resources in our national institutions and organizations can be a hindrance for communities to respond effectively to their own problems.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  34

 

 

 

 

  1. Funding that comes from the federal government to the state government is referred to as horizontal funding.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  34

 

 

 

 

  1. The most widely recognized international health organization today is the United Nations.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  35

 

 

 

 

  1. One of the World Health Organizations most noteworthy achievements was helping to eradicate smallpox.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  37

 

 

 

 

  1. The Department of Health and Human Services is the only entity under the federal government that plays a role in our nations health.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  39

 

 

 

 

  1. The Administration for Children and Families is responsible for carrying out the provisions of the Older Americans Act of 1965.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  42

 

 

 

 

  1. The Superfund legislation was enacted to deal with the cleanup of hazardous substances in the environment.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  43

 

 

 

 

  1. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is an institute under the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

 

Ans:  False

Page:  47

 

 

 

 

  1. The core functions of public health are utilized by state health agencies.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  48

 

 

 

 

  1. Local health departments are responsible for restaurant inspections.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  50

 

 

 

 

  1. The American Red Cross is classified as a quasi-governmental health organization.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  52

 

 

 

 

  1. Voluntary health agencies were created in Europe.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  54

 

 

 

 

  1. Voluntary health agencies are usually supported by paid staff and volunteers.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  54

 

 

 

 

  1. Philanthropic foundations spend most of their efforts on fundraising.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  57

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 

  1. Agencies that are funded primarily through tax dollars are referred to as
  2. A) governmental agencies
  3. B) voluntary agencies
  4. C) philanthropic foundations
  5. D) professional associations

 

Ans:  A

Page:  35

 

 

 

 

  1. The Secretary of Health and Human Services is
  2. A) elected by the general public
  3. B) appointed by the president
  4. C) hired by a board of directors
  5. D) appointed by the Centers for Disease Control

 

Ans:  B

Page:  40

 

 

 

 

  1. Which agency maintains records, analyzes disease trends, and publishes epidemiological reports on all types of diseases?
  2. A) National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  3. B) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
  4. C) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  5. D) Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

 

Ans:  C

Page:  43

 

 

 

 

  1. Which agency is a leading medical research center, and the federal focal point for medical research in the United States?
  2. A) National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  3. B) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
  4. C) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  5. D) Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

 

Ans:  A

Page:  47

 

 

 

 

  1. The power to arrest someone who refuses to undergo treatment for a communicable disease lies with
  2. A) a community health nurse
  3. B) a member of the local board of health
  4. C) a local health officer
  5. D) a scientist within the NIH

 

Ans:  C

Page:  51

 

 

 

 

  1. The potential for school health programs to make a significant contribution to community health is enormous because
  2. A) parents support all of the content presented in the coordinated school health program
  3. B) funding is substantial for the coordinated school health program
  4. C) students spend so much time in health classes while in school
  5. D) school attendance is required throughout the United States

 

Ans:  D

Page:  51

 

 

 

 

  1. An example of a quasi-governmental health organization is
  2. A) the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  3. B) a county health department
  4. C) the National Science Foundation
  5. D) the American Cancer Society

 

Ans:  C

Page:  52

 

 

 

 

  1. Nongovernmental health agencies are funded primarily by
  2. A) private donations
  3. B) tax dollars
  4. C) fees for services
  5. D) grants from the state health department

 

Ans:  A

Page:  53

 

 

 

 

  1. Most voluntary health agencies exist at the
  2. A) local level only
  3. B) local and state levels
  4. C) local, state, and national levels
  5. D) local, state, national, and international levels

 

Ans:  C

Page:  54

 

 

 

 

  1. Raising money to fund their programs, providing education, providing service to those affected, and advocacy are the basic objectives of
  2. A) philanthropic foundations
  3. B) voluntary health agencies
  4. C) professional health organizations
  5. D) social, service, and religious organizations

 

Ans:  B

Page:  54

 

 

 

 

  1. The mission of professional health organizations is to
  2. A) promote high standards of professional practice for their specific professions
  3. B) raise money for community health agencies
  4. C) provide services to people affected with various diseases and conditions
  5. D) expand worksite health promotion programs

 

Ans:  A

Page:  55

 

 

 

 

  1. The activities of philanthropic foundations are unique because
  2. A) they have so many staff members
  3. B) they have money to give away
  4. C) they are quasi-governmental agencies
  5. D) they reduce health care costs

 

Ans:  B

Page:  57

 

 

 

 

  1. The contributions of religious groups to community health have been
  2. A) substantial
  3. B) minimal
  4. C) relatively ineffective in the past 100 years
  5. D) expensive

 

Ans:  A

Page:  58

 

 

 

 

  1. The main reason for corporate involvement in community health is due to
  2. A) the federal mandates for employee wellness programs
  3. B) efforts to keep infectious disease rates low
  4. C) their tax status
  5. D) the provision of health care benefits to employees

 

Ans:  D

Page:  58

 

 

 

 

  1. The largest and most visible international health agency is the
  2. A) United Nations
  3. B) Department of Health and Human Services
  4. C) World Health Organization
  5. D) Pan American Health Organization

 

Ans:  C

Page:  35

 

 

 

 

Short Answer

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the organization of the World Health Organization (WHO).

Ans:  Membership is open to any nation that has ratified the WHO constitution and receives a majority vote of the World Health Assembly, which is comprised of member nations.  WHO is administered by staff including a director-general and nine assistant directors-general.  Staffing is done to ensure political balance.

 

Page:  35

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide four examples of the 22 core functions of the World Health Organization.

Ans:  1. Act as the directing and coordinating authority on international health work

  1. Assist governments, upon request, in strengthening health services
  2. Promote improved standards of teaching and training in the health, medical, and related professions
  3. Assist in developing an informed public opinion among all peoples on matters of health

 

Page:  36

 

 

 

 

  1. List at least two federal agencies other than the Department of Health and Human Services that contribute to the betterment of our nations health, and explain how they do this.

Ans:  The Department of Agriculture inspects meat and dairy products and coordinates the WIC program.  The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) addresses safety and health in the workplace.

 

Page:  39

 

 

 

 

  1. List and provide the key responsibility for at least three operating divisions of the Department of Health and Human Services.

Ans:  Administration on Aging-carries out the provisions of the Older Americans Act; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-provides research on health care quality, costs, outcomes, and patient safety; Indian Health Services-provides federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives.

 

Page:  42

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain one way a state health department can be at the disposal of local health departments.

Ans:  State health departments have laboratory services and diagnostic testing procedures available that are too expensive for local health departments to maintain.

 

Page:  49

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide at least four barriers to coordinated school health programs.

Ans:  Insufficient local administrative commitment, inadequately prepared teachers, too few school days to teach health in the school year, insufficient community and parental support.

 

Page:  51

 

 

 

 

  1. List three categories of nongovernmental health agencies.

Ans:  voluntary, professional, philanthropic, service, social, religious, corporate

 

Page:  54

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain why consumers should ask voluntary agencies how they spend their money prior to contributing.

Ans:  Some agencies spend very little money on the cause, and more on fundraising and overhead costs.  Well run agencies should spend less than 15% of what they raise on fundraising expenses.

 

Page:  55

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide at least two examples of social or service groups and explain their involvement in community health.

Ans:  The Shriners have established childrens hospitals and burn centers.  The Lions provide pilot dog programs and services to those who are visually impaired such as eyeglasses for low-income school-aged children.

 

Page:  58

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain corporate involvement in community health.

Ans:  Many corporations provide health insurance coverage for their employees.  To assist in keeping insurance costs down, companies may offer worksite health promotion programs to help keep workers healthy such as nutrition education, fitness programs, smoking cessation services, and substance abuse counseling.

 

Page:  58

 

 

Chapter: Chapter04

 

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

 

  1. Drugs, pesticides, and food additives are examples of chemical agents.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  97

 

 

 

 

  1. The common cold is an example of a chronic communicable disease.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  98

 

 

 

 

  1. AIDS and tuberculosis are examples of chronic communicable diseases.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  98

 

 

 

 

  1. Coronary heart disease is an example of a chronic noncommunicable disease.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  98

 

 

 

 

  1. In the communicable disease model, the cause of a disease or health problem is the host.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  99

 

 

 

 

  1. In the chain of infection, a disease-producing agent leaves its reservoir through a portal of entry.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  100

 

 

 

 

  1. Diseases for which the reservoir resides in animal populations are called anthroponoses.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  100

 

 

 

 

  1. Airborne, vehicleborne, and vectorborne are considered indirect modes of transmission.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  101

 

 

 

 

  1. Noncommunicable diseases have complex etiologies.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  102

 

 

 

 

  1. The center of the multicausation disease model is behavioral choices.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  103

 

 

 

 

  1. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the leading cause of death in the United States.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  102

 

 

 

 

  1. The ability of a biological agent to enter and grow in the host is pathogenicity.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  99

 

 

 

 

  1. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) is the single best way to prioritize prevention and control efforts.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  106

 

 

 

 

  1. The early diagnosis and prompt treatment of diseases before the disease becomes advanced and disability becomes severe is secondary prevention.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  107

 

 

 

 

  1. Mammography for breast cancer is an example of primary prevention.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  114

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 

  1. Appendicitis and poisoning are examples of
  2. A) acute communicable diseases
  3. B) acute noncommunicable diseases
  4. C) chronic communicable diseases
  5. D) chronic noncommunicable diseases

 

Ans:  B

Page:  98

 

 

 

 

  1. Osteoarthritis and diabetes are examples of
  2. A) acute communicable diseases
  3. B) acute noncommunicable diseases
  4. C) chronic communicable diseases
  5. D) chronic noncommunicable diseases

 

Ans:  D

Page:  98

 

 

 

 

  1. The capability of a communicable disease agent to cause disease in a susceptible host is
  2. A) pathogenicity
  3. B) infectivity
  4. C) etiology
  5. D) indirect transmission

 

Ans:  A

Page:  99

 

 

 

 

  1. A pathogenic agent enters a susceptible host through a
  2. A) portal of exit
  3. B) carrier
  4. C) portal of entry
  5. D) reservoir

 

Ans:  C

Page:  100

 

 

 

 

  1. Tuberculosis and influenza are examples of
  2. A) airborne diseases
  3. B) vectorborne diseases
  4. C) zoonoses
  5. D) vehicleborne diseases

 

Ans:  A

Page:  101

 

 

 

 

  1. When prioritizing prevention and control efforts, health officials use data from
  2. A) leading causes of death
  3. B) years of potential life lost
  4. C) economic cost to society
  5. D) all of the above

 

Ans:  D

Page:  106

 

 

 

 

  1. Health education and health promotion programs are examples of
  2. A) primary prevention
  3. B) secondary prevention
  4. C) tertiary prevention
  5. D) none of the above

 

Ans:  A

Page:  107

 

 

 

 

  1. To retrain, reeducate, and rehabilitate a patient who has already incurred a disability is
  2. A) primary prevention
  3. B) secondary prevention
  4. C) tertiary prevention
  5. D) none of the above

 

Ans:  C

Page:  109

 

 

 

 

  1. Health screenings are important measures in
  2. A) primary prevention
  3. B) secondary prevention
  4. C) tertiary prevention
  5. D) none of the above

 

Ans:  B

Page:  107

 

 

 

 

  1. Inspection of restaurants and immunization programs that reach all citizens are examples of
  2. A) primary prevention of communicable diseases
  3. B) primary prevention of noncommunicable diseases
  4. C) secondary prevention of communicable diseases
  5. D) secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

 

Ans:  A

Page:  109

 

 

 

 

  1. Self-diagnosis and treatment with nonprescription medication for the common cold is an example of
  2. A) primary prevention of communicable diseases
  3. B) primary prevention of noncommunicable diseases
  4. C) secondary prevention of communicable diseases
  5. D) secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

 

Ans:  C

Page:  111

 

 

 

 

  1. Adequate food supply and getting regular exercise are examples of
  2. A) primary prevention of communicable diseases
  3. B) primary prevention of noncommunicable diseases
  4. C) secondary prevention of communicable diseases
  5. D) secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

 

Ans:  B

Page:  114

 

 

 

 

  1. Communities implementing case-finding measures and providing adequate health personnel, equipment, and facilities for the community are examples of
  2. A) tertiary prevention of communicable diseases
  3. B) tertiary prevention of noncommunicable diseases
  4. C) secondary prevention of communicable diseases
  5. D) secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

 

Ans:  D

Page:  114

 

 

 

 

  1. Community efforts aimed at preventing the recurrence of an epidemic is an example of
  2. A) tertiary prevention of communicable diseases
  3. B) tertiary prevention of noncommunicable diseases
  4. C) secondary prevention of communicable diseases
  5. D) secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

 

Ans:  A

Page:  111

 

 

 

 

  1. Ones race and age are examples of
  2. A) modifiable risk factors
  3. B) unmodifiable risk factors
  4. C) bloodborne pathogens
  5. D) metastasis

 

Ans:  B

Page:  117

 

 

 

 

Short Answer

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the differences between communicable and noncommunicable diseases.

Ans:  Communicable diseases are those for which biological agents or their products are the cause and can be transmitted from one person to another. Communicable diseases follow an exact pathway as they spread.  Noncommunicable diseases cannot be transmitted from one person to another, and have complex causes.

 

Page:  97

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the difference between isolation and quarantine.

Ans:  Isolation is separating infected persons from persons who are susceptible.  Quarantine is limiting the movement of those who have been exposed to a disease and may be incubating it.

 

Page:  111

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the difference between acute and chronic diseases, and provide at least two examples of each.

Ans:  Acute diseases are short-term, lasting less than three months.  Chronic diseases are long-term, lasting more than three month.  Acute diseases include the common cold, a broken finger, and appendicitis.  Chronic diseases include heart disease, AIDS, and diabetes.

 

Page:  98

 

 

 

 

  1. In order, list the links in the chain of infection.

Ans:  Pathogen, reservoir, portal of exit, transmission, portal of entry, new host.

 

Page:  100

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe and provide at least two examples of direct transmission of communicable diseases.

Ans:  Direct transmission is the immediate transfer of a disease agent between an infected person and the susceptible new host by direct contact such as kissing or sexual intercourse.

 

Page:  101

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the multicausation disease model.

Ans:  The multicausation disease model demonstrates the complex causes of noncommunicable diseases.  At the center, the host is represented showing its unique genetic endowment. The host is surrounded by a complex environment.  The first layer of this environment is the hosts personality, beliefs, and behavioral choices that can impact health outcomes.  The outer layer represents factors that can contribute to disease process such as access to the health care system, air pollution, water quality, and infectious disease outbreaks.

 

Page:  102

 

 

 

 

  1. List and explain the three ways communities can prioritize prevention and control efforts.

Ans:  Leading causes of death focuses efforts on issues that have the largest number of people dying from those diseases; years of potential life lost focuses on years of life lost from life expectancy attributable to a particular cause, or premature death; economic cost to society focuses on the economic costs associated with particular diseases or health conditions.

 

Page:  106

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the difference between prevention and intervention, and tell which is more desirable.

Ans:  Prevention implies the planning for and taking of action to prevent or forestall the occurrence of an undesirable event, and is therefore more desirable than intervention, which is taking action during an event.

 

Page:  107

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide at least three examples each of how communities can prevent communicable diseases and how individuals can prevent communicable diseases.

Ans:  Communities can prevent communicable diseases by chlorinating the water supply, maintaining case records, and properly removing dead bodies.  Individuals can prevent communicable diseases through using condoms, properly cooking food, and allowing recovering to full health and normal activity after an infection.

 

Page:  109

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the difference between modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors to improve health?

Ans:  Unmodifiable risk factors are those individuals cannot do anything about but can have an impact on health. These include things such as race, age, genetic predisposition, and sex.  Modifiable risk factors are those contributing to health problems that can be altered by modifying behaviors or ones environment such as smoking, diet, exercise, and stress.

 

Page:  117

 

 

 

 

 

 

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