An Introduction to Theories of Personality by Olson 8th edition Test bank

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An Introduction to Theories of Personality by Olson 8th edition Test bank

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Chapter 2: Sigmund Freud
An Introduction to Theories of Personality
88) According to Popper, Freuds theory does not qualify as scientific because A) it is not based on empirical observations.
B) it is not falsifiable.
C) the predictions it makes are too risky.
D) it employs no mathematics and therefore its concepts cannot be precisely measured.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55 Skill: Applied
89) Freud theory has been praised for
A) demonstrating the importance of anxiety as a determinant of human behavior. B) showing that conflicts from childhood have lifelong consequences.
C) showing the importance of childhood sexuality in personality development. D) all of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 55
Skill: Applied
2.2 Questions for Essay or Discussion
1. Many students come to psychology courses with naive ideas about Freuds theory. After reading this chapter, which of your previously held ideas have been changed? Which have been confirmed?
2. Freuds theory places great importance on the role of unconscious processes. What evidence do you see from other areas in psychology or in your observations of human behavior to support the idea that people are often motivated by processes that are not under conscious control?
3. Discuss and develop examples from your own behavior that demonstrate the dynamics of cathexis, anticathexis, and displacement.
4. After reading about the ego-defense mechanisms, do you recognize any of these behaviors in yourself or others? Explain your answer with examples.
5. How would a Freudian use the concepts of fixation and regression to explain the behavior of a student who overeats during final examination week?
6. According to Freud, most humor will contain material that is either racist, sexist, or mean and insulting. Why is this the case?
7. How could it be possible for a therapist to create false repressed memories for a patient?
8. Freudian psychotherapy attempts to lead the patient to insights about unresolved childhood conflicts and unconscious processes. From your understanding of memory and the unconscious, is it possible for a patient to gain accurate insights into these processes? Why or why not?
9. Do you find Freuds view of human nature to be pessimistic or optimistic? Explain.
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Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3: CARL JUNG Chapter Outline
I. Biographical Sketch
A. Born July 26, 1875
B. Lonely, fantasy-filled childhood
C. Medical studies at the University of Baselmedical degree in 1900
D. Jungs first professional appointment at Burgholzli psychiatric hospital in Zurich
E. Married February 14, 1903
F. Died June 6, 1961
II. Jungs Early Dreams, Visions, and Fantasies A. Manikin
B. Stone
C. Phallus dream D. Throne vision
III. Jungs Early Professional Life
A. Developed interest in psychiatry during medical training
B. Left university and hospital work in 1914 to pursue private practice
IV. Jungs Relationship with Freud
A. Influenced by Freuds The Interpretation of Dreams
B. Initiated correspondence in 1906 and met in 1907
C. Freud claimed Jung as his successor
D. Relationship begins to fail due to Freuds resistance to explore dreams E. Relationship terminated in 1914very stressful for Jung
1. Jungs creative illnessperhaps precipitated by break with Freud V. Libido, and the Principles of Equivalence, Entropy, and Opposites
A. Libido
1. For Jung, a creative, biological life force
2. Driving force behind the psyche (personality)
B. Principle of equivalence (from first law of thermodynamics) 1. Total amount of psychic energy is fixed
C. Principle of entropy (from second law of thermodynamics)
1. Tendency for all components of the psyche to have equal energy
D. Principle of opposites
1. Every concept in Jungs theory has a polar opposite
VI. Components of the Personality
A. Ego (everything of which we are conscious)
1. Responsible for sense of identity
2. Similar to Freuds concept of ego B. Personal unconscious
1. Material that was once conscious but was repressed or forgotten
2. Complex: Personally disturbing constellation of ideas connected by common feeling 3. Development of the word-association test
C. Collective unconscious
1. Most mystical and most controversial concept
2. Collective experiences from human evolutionary past
3. Archetype: Inherited predisposition to respond to certain aspects of the world
33
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
An Introduction to Theories of Personality
VII. Persona, Anima, Animus, Shadow, and Self A. Persona: Ones public self
B. Anima: Female component of the male psyche
C. Animus: Masculine component of the female psyche D. Shadow: Darkest, deepest part of the psyche
E. Self: Attempts to harmonize all the other components
VIII. Eight Personality Types
A. Two general attitudes
1. Extroversion: Sociable, outgoing, interested in external events
2. Introversion: Quiet, imaginative, more interested in ideas B. Four functions of thought
1. Sensing: Detects the presence of objects
2. Thinking: Tells what an object is
3. Feeling: Determines an objects worth to the individual 4. Intuiting: Provides hunches when no data are available
C. Eight types created by crossing A with B
IX. Stages of Development (Defined by the focus of libidinal energy)
A. Childhood (from birth to adolescence)
1. Early: Energy directed toward survival skills 2. After age 5, more energy devoted to sexuality
B. Young adulthood (from adolescence to about age 40)
1. Energy directed toward work, marriage, children, community
C. Middle age (from about age 40 to the later years of life)
1. Most important phase
2. Orientation to cultural, philosophical, and spiritual values
X. Lifes Goal
A. Self-realization
1. Harmonious blending components and forces within the psyche B. Individuation
1. Life-long process of psychological maturity by which components of the
psyche are recognized and given expression XI. Causality, Teleology, and Synchronicity
A. Causality (attempt to explain adult personality in terms of prior experiences) B. Teleology (human behavior has a purpose)
C. Synchronicity (meaningful coincidence)
XII. Research Techniques
A. Word-association test
B. Self-study of dreams and visions
C. Study of psychotic patients
D. Wide, cross-cultural study of symbols, rituals, etc.
XIII. Jungs View of Human Nature
A. Humans as products of past, present, and future influences B. Optimistic with a spiritual emphasis
XIV. Evaluation
34
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
3.1 Multiple Choice Questions
1) ___________ was a strong theme running through Jungs early home life. A) Violence
B) Religion
C) Mental illness
D) Physical illness
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 64 Skill: Applied
2) The type of religion that Jung accepted as valid was the type that A) touched individuals emotionally.
B) perpetuated a specific dogma.
C) was Christian.
D) accepted demons and devils as well as saints.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 64 Skill: Applied
3) One of Jungs childhood fantasies was that he was A) two different people.
B) God.
C) rich and famous.
D) a great psychologist.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 64 Skill: Applied
4) When Jung was 10 years old, his best friend was A) a wooden manikin.
B) his father.
C) his mother.
D) a neighbor boy.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 65 Skill: Applied
5) Jungs prevented him from accepting Jesus as real and lovable. A) experience with his manikin
B) experience with the stone
C) phallus dream
D) throne vision
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 65, 66 Skill: Applied
35
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 3: Carl Jung

An Introduction to Theories of Personality
6) Jungs led him to believe that Jesus had a hideous underground counterpart. A) manikin
B) experience with the stone
C) throne vision
D) phallus dream
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 66 Skill: Applied
7) To a large extent, Jungs professional life was an attempt to understand the A) religion of his father.
B) origin of his childhood dreams, fantasies, and visions.
C) influence of learning on personality development.
D) cultural influences on personality development.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 67 Skill: Applied
8) Jungs first meeting with Freud A) was disappointing to both.
B) lasted only a few minutes.
C) lasted 13 hours.
D) made it clear that there were fundamental differences between them.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 68 Skill: Applied
9) Which of the following caused Jung to enter his dark years? A) the death of his wife
B) his deteriorating health
C) the reaction of American psychologists to his theory
D) his break with Freud
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 70 Skill: Applied
10) Jung emerged from his dark years with A) a theory much like Freuds.
B) a terrible hangover.
C) his own unique theory of personality.
D) utter despair and an inability to continue his work.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 71 Skill: Applied
36
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
11) It was disagreement concerning the nature of the that made Freud and Jung part company. A) psyche
B) soul
C) complexes
Chapter 3: Carl Jung
D) libido
Answer: D Diff: 2
Skill: Applied
Page Ref: 72
12) Jung viewed the libido as A) sexual energy.
B) aggressive energy.
C) a creative life force.
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 72 Skill: Applied
13) According to Jung, libidinal energy is applied to the satisfaction of A) biological needs.
B) spiritual needs.
C) both A and B
D) neither A nor B
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 72 Skill: Applied
14) The amount of energy in a system is essentially fixed, and if it is removed from one part of a system, it will surface in another. This statement describes the principle of
A) equivalence.
B) entropy.
C) opposites.
D) thermodynamics. Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 72 Skill: Conceptual
15) If one component of the psyche is overvalued, it is at the expense of the other components. This is the principle of
A) equivalence.
B) entropy.
C) opposites.
D) thermodynamics. Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 72 Skill: Factual
37
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
An Introduction to Theories of Personality
16) There is a constant tendency toward the equalization of energy within a system. This statement describes Jungs
A) principle of equivalence. B) principle of entropy.
C) principle of opposites. D) none of the above Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 72 Skill: Applied
17) The statement Everything carries within itself its own negation describes which of the following? A) principle of equivalence
B) principle of entropy.
C) principle of opposites.
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 72 Skill: Conceptual
18) According to Jung, the is everything of which we are conscious. A) complex
B) libido
C) ego
D) animus
Answer: C Diff: 1
Skill: Applied
Page Ref: 73
19) The
originally vivid enough to make a conscious impression.
consists of material that was once conscious but was repressed or forgotten or was not
A) shadow
B) ego
C) collective unconscious
D) personal unconscious Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 73 Skill: Factual
20) The personal unconscious contains clusters of emotionally loaded thoughts called A) archetypes.
B) racial memories.
C) complexes.
D) attitudes.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 73 Skill: Conceptual
38
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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