An Invitation to Environmental Sociology 5th Edition by Michael M Bell Loka L. Ashwood Test Bank

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An Invitation to Environmental Sociology 5th Edition by Michael M Bell Loka L. Ashwood Test Bank


Chapter 5: Population and Development
Test Bank

NOTE: the correct answer to each Multiple Choice, True/False, Short Answer, and Essay Questions are italicized.

Multiple Choice: Choose the BEST answer from the four foils provided.

1. According to Malthus, population grows: (p. 132)
a) incrementally, in fits and starts.
b) at a steady, measured pace.
c) arithmetically.
d) exponentially.

2. Currently the rate of world population growth: (p. 136)
a) is climbing exponentially.
b) is climbing arithmetically.
c) is falling gradually.
d) is plummeting as a result of development and birth control technologies.

3. It took more than 100 years for the worlds population to double from 1 billion to 2 billion. How long did it take for the worlds population to increase from 4 billion to 5 billion? (p. 136)
a) Fewer than 15 years as the result of exponential growth
b) Half the time of the first doubling, about 50 years
c) More than 100 years; 1 billion people are added each 100 years
d) The worlds population has not yet reached 5 billion

4. What percentage of the worlds current population growth is taking place in poor countries? (p. 136)
a) Only about 10%, because infant mortality rates are so high in these countries
b) About 25% due mostly to immigration patterns from poor countries to rich countries
c) About half, nearly 50%
d) Over 90%

5. A constant rate of growth means not only increasing effects, but compounding effects, say some theorists. This Malthusian argument applies to which of the following? (p. 154)
a) Population
b) Production
c) Consumption
d) All of the above

6. Standard provisions of structural adjustment programs include all of the following EXCEPT: (p.142)
a) reduction of education and public services.
b) increased subsidies.
c) liberalization of trade.
d) emphasis on export crops.

7. Amartya Sen argues that famine is primarily the result of: (p. 146)
a) absolute food shortages.
b) inability to access available food.
b) poorly organized food aid programs.
c) natural disasters.

8. Which of the following does Sen claim will NOT insure food availability? (p. 146)
a) Dependable food imports
b) Land reform
c) Steady employment
d) Democracy

9. According to the principle of substitutability: (p. 149)
a) the price of basic commodities has risen because they cannot be substituted by alternatives.
b) the five metals used in Simons and Ehrlichs wager have since been substituted for others.
c) human intellect devises creative ways to substitute new resources to solve resource scarcity.
d) people are substitutable; those who die of starvation and disease will always be replaced by new births that result from increased population.

10. What is the best contraceptive according to the slogan of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest? (p. 155)
a) Development
b) Abstinence
c) Education
d) Abortion

11. Unless checked, population growth tends to continue until it runs up against environmental limits causing poverty, hunger, misery and resource scarcityeventually leading to a population crash. This view was proponed by which thinker? (p. 132)
a) Thomas Malthus
b) Frances Moore Lapp
c) Paul Ehrlich
d) Julian Simon

12. According to Simon, the solution to resource scarcity is to increase the population because it will produce more brainpower and labor to work out technological solutions to scarcity, termed the (p. 148)
a) Dependable argument of labor
b) Entitlement system of population growth
c) Cornucopian argument about technology
d) Simonion view of development

13. Which of the following events might break down food entitlement systems? (p. 145)
a) Natural disasters
b) War
c) Displacement of land-holders
d) All of the above

14. What does Amartya Sen mean by entitlements to food? (p. 145)
a) Subsistence farmers are more entitled to food supplements than are those who grow cash crops.
b) Women are particularly entitled to nourishment.
c) International governance is responsible for providing food to all people.
d) Famines are not caused by lack of available food, but rather by a lack of access to food.

15. Why do critics refer to structural adjustment as shock therapy? (p. 142)
a) Because of the sudden bottom-up nature of coups
b) Because the IMF severely reduces social supports to supposedly develop a free market in poor countries
c) Because of the role that electricity plays in developing poor nations
d) All of the above

16. How might population controls contradict religious values? (p. 154)
a) Celibacy of the preisthood
b) Concern of population conflicts
c) Church acceptance of contraception
d) Sanctity of life arguments

17. As a result of massive development efforts since World War II, the gap between the
rich and poor has: (p. 154)
a) dramatically declined.
b) narrowed.
c) increased.
d) dramatically expanded.

18. According to Frances Moore Lapp, there___ correlation between population
density and hunger. (p. 145)
a) is little, if any
b) is a significant positive
c) is a declining
d) is a significant negative

True or False: Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false by circling the correct answer. Note to Instructors: If preparing an exam for electronic grading, these instructions should be modified to instruct students how to fill in their bubble sheets. For example, Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false by blackening the correct oval, 1 or A for True, 2 or B for False.

19. True False A country with a 3% rate of growth for one hundred years would experience a 3% increase in population each century. (p. 134)

20. True False A drop in fertility means that fewer children are born each year. (p. 134)

21. True False Population momentum results in an almost immediate slowdown in population growth. (p. 132)

22. True False A sharp decline in population will mean a sharp decline in negative environmental impacts. (p. 132)

23. True False The world produces enough grain to feed each individual person a minimum diet of 2,000 calories per day. 2,923 calories are produced, but currently 37-40% goes to feed livestock. (p. 146)

24. True False The World Bank is a not-for-profit charitable institution created to reduce the debt of poor nations. (p. 140)

25. True False According to Frances Moore Lapp, there is a direct correlation between population density and hunger. (p. 146)

26. True False According to Frances Moore Lapp, there is a direct correlation between the amount of cropland per person in a country and hunger. (p. 146)

27. True False According to Frances Moore Lapp, there is little if any correlation between the amount of cropland per person in a country and hunger. (p. 146)

28. True False In general, women do as much agricultural labor as men in the world. (p. 155)

29. True False Like women in the developed world, women in less developed countries tend to live longer than their male counterparts.

Short Answer: Provide a brief response, not to exceed one paragraph.

30. When the author states that Malthus presented his theory in a determinist way, what does this mean for the relationship between population and environment? (p. 131)
ANSWER: Malthus does not recognize other factors and makes population deterministic. For example, poverty may produce population growth because parents need a large family for labor, rather than population growth producing poverty.

31. Despite the decline in the rate of world population growth, population continues to grow rapidly. Explain why this might be the case. (p. 131)
ANSWER: There is a distinction between a populations rate of growth and its level of fertilitythe average number of children born to women in a population. A drop in fertility does not mean fewer numbers of children are born because earlier high levels of growth often result in a population with a large proportion of young adults in the prime of their childbearing years.

32. Briefly discuss the differences between dialogic relationships and determinist relationships. (p. 131)
ANSWER: Dialogic relationships look for balanced understandings of many different factors, rather than being deterministic with one explanation.

33. Why might poor countries submit to structural adjustment rather than forego World Bank and IMF loans? (p. 142)
ANSWER: Without such loans, countries cannot attract private foreign capital necessary for development.

34. Explain three events that led to the IMF food riots of the 1980s. (p. 141)
ANSWER: The wealthy appropriated land for export crops, poor people were displaced to marginal lands, deforestation and land degradation were rampant, less local food was produced, increasing poverty made food more expensive and harder to buy, raw materials were exported at low prices, value-added imports increased costs without the benefit of local value-added enterprises, trade liberalization institutionalized low-wage jobs, MNCs evaded environmental and labor laws.

35. Cite three ways that rapid population growth presents organization problems for cities and urban areas. (p. 145)
ANSWER: Low tax revenues are insufficient for maintenance of public services; health impacts rob resources and energy; difficult to attract private investment; low pay of service providers can lead to government corruption, unregulated or ill-enforced environmental protection.

36. Explain the three stages of demographic transition as theorized by Frank W. Notestein. (p. 154)
ANSWER: One: In premodern times, countries experienced high birthrates and morality rates that cancelled out each other; two: With the beginning of modernization new scientific discoveries lead to improved health and an increased food supply. Morality levels fall; three: Social norms and social institutions catch up with the fact that children are likely to survive, leading to a drop in birthrate.

37. The author cites four conditions that raise doubt about the applicability of the demographic transition to less developed countries: Describe and briefly discuss one of these conditions. (p. 154)
ANSWER: 1) higher initial growth rates, 2) poverty resulting in reliance on children as a labor supply, 3) development as economic and cultural imperialism, and 4) unsustainable levels of consumption.

38. The use of birth control in family planning is sometimes a controversial aspect of population control. Discuss at least one reason for the controversy as described in the text. (p. 131)
ANSWER: The Vatican has stance against artificial contraception.

39. The text cites an example of coerced reproduction in Romania. List some of the outcomes of Romanias illegalization of birth control. (p. 160)
ANSWER: Women had to undergo gynecological exams every three months to see if they were conforming with the law; birth rates initially doubled; then maternal morality doubled too because of 85 percent of deaths were due to abortion; cervical cancer rose because women did not want to go to the doctor; and infant mortality went up because parents abused and abandoned unwanted babies.

Essay: Provide a comprehensive response, not to exceed two pages. Several questions have more than one part to them; be sure to respond to each part of the question.

40. Lapp and Schurman argue that poor people have a strong incentive to have lots of children. Explain. (p. 146)
ANSWER: They use a power structures perspective to explain how poor people regard children as an economic resource. By working in the fields and around the home, children free up adults and elder siblings to earn outside income.

41. Defend or critique Julian Simons argument that people are the ultimate resource and therefore the solution to resource scarcity is actually to increase population. (p. 148)
ANSWER: Simon neglected issues of social inequality. Although the lives of many have improved, the percentage of the worlds population who live in poverty and face hunger, hasnt declined much. The sheer number living in poverty has doubled. His argument that more people means more brainpower does to explain how innovativeness depends on social circumstances that encourage creative thinking, not simply more people. His optimism about technology is also questionable. Sometimes it is helpful, like reduce the use of fossil fuel; at other times it creates unintended damages, like HCFCs.

42. Defend or critique Julian Simons principle of substitutability with regard to land, habitat, water, and air. (p. 142)
ANSWER: He argues that when we are exposed to scarcity, humans apply their collective brainpower and find new sources for scarce resources and new techniques for extracting them. He disputes the significance of acid rain, global warming, the ozone hole, and species loss arguing that these issues are exaggerated. He ignores examples of failed technology like the green revolution that has resulted in much water pollution and loss of habitat.

43. The author argues that contrary to stereotypes about the greater physical capabilities of men, women in fact do the bulk of the worlds physical work. Do you agree or disagree? Defend your argument. (p. 157)
ANSWER: (Agree) Rich and poor women work more than men. In wealthy countries, it averages about 20 minutes more, in developing countries, it averages 57 minutes more. (Disagree) Men do more dangerous work; men bring in more money.

44. Describe the role social inequality plays in population growth. (p. 157)
ANSWER: Placing all the emphasis of environmental problems on birth control means that the implicit claim is that poor people need to have less children. And since most poor countries have people of color, this means that people of color are those who are demanded to have less children. This ignores the notion that poverty means that people need to have more children and rather suggests that having more children produces poverty.

45. Was Malthus right? Cite material from readings and lecture to justify your answer sociologically. (p. 154)
ANSWER: (Right) Increased populations are correlated with increased environmental impacts; the world is finite. (Wrong) World systems theory; core and periphery; substitutability principle; demographic transition theory.

46. Explain the structural adjustment trap cited in the text. What conditions lead to the trap, and what consequences does it have on developing countries? (p. 142)
ANSWER: Structural adjustment referred to a comprehensive program of radical free market changes, such as reducing public services, liberalizing trade, emphasizing export crops, eliminating subsidies, and curbing inflation through high interest rates and reduced wages. This result in a short of shock therapy that has devastated the marginal people of nearly every country that has been forced to adhere to structural adjustments.

47. Some researchers argue that there is enough food produced to feed everyone in the world, but problems with access to and distribution of food lead to hunger. Do you agree or disagree? Defend your answer, and cite Frances Moore Lappe and Amartya Sen in your argument. (p. 154)
ANSWER: (Agree) Lappe shows that there is little correlation between population density and hunger. She argues the world has plenty of food; critiques the use of grains for livestock. Sen argues that it is a lack of access to food, something she calls entitlements, and gives the Irish Potato Famine as an example. The country was exporting wheat, while people were starving. (Disagree) Sen and Lappe do not explain how some regions are more fertile than others and how this can impact availability of food; Does not explain other famines, such as those in Rwanda or the massive imports of food, for example, that is necessary to sustain Greece.

Identification: Please identify the following key terms, thinkers, and texts. The best identification answers will: 1) provide a succinct definition, explanation, or discussion of the term, thinker, or text; 2) give an example or elaboration; 3) where relevant, note the thinker with whom the term or text is associated, or the terms or texts with which the thinker is associated; and 4) note any closely related concepts or critiques. Items with asterisks (*) indicate those for which the thinker should be noted.

Key Terms
environmental determinism
exponential growth*
population momentum
inequality critique of Malthus
technologic critique of Malthus
demographic critique of Malthus
demographic competition*
modernization theory*
Bretton Woods
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
Bretton Woods institutions
multilateral banks
structural adjustment programs (SAP)
demand management
shock therapy
IMF food riots
Ithaca Hours
power structures perspective*
entitlements to food*
ultimate resource*
Boserup effect*
Green Revolution
development as the best contraceptive
women in development (WID)
feminization of labor
women as the new proletariat
National Population Policy in India
environmental determinism
environmental agency
cornucopian vision of technological change

Key Thinkers
Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi
Thomas Malthus
Friedrich Engels
Dorothy Stein
Talcott Parsons
John Maynard Keynes
Andr Gundar Frank
Amartya Sen
Frances Moore Lapp
Rachel Schurman
Julian Simon
Paul Ehrlich
Ester Boserup
James Scott
Frank W. Notestein
Wolfgang Sachs
Helena Norberg-Hodge
Sylvia Walby
Valentine Moghadam
Indira Gandhi
Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich
Fred Cottrel

Key Texts
An Essay on the Principle of Population (Malthus)
The Population Bomb (Ehrlich)
Womens Role in Economic Development (Boserup)

Matching: Please match the term, thinker, and/or text in column A with its complement or correspondent in column B, by placing the appropriate identification letter/number in the space provided. (You may use Fanswers more than once.) Note to Instructors: Scramble the items in column B before administering an exam. Also, if preparing an exam for electronic grading, the above instructions should be modified to instruct students how to fill in their bubble sheets.

Column A Column B

A Essay on the Principle of Population ____ Thomas Malthus
B Demographic competition ____ Dorothy Stein
C Modernization theory ____ Talcott Parsons
D Bretton Woods ____ John Maynard Keynes
E World Bank ____ International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development
F IMF and World Bank ____ Bretton Woods Institutions
G Julian Simon ____ Substitutability principle
H Frank W. Notestein ____ Demographic transition theory
I Ester Boserup ____ Womens Role in Economic Development
J Theories of Technological Change ____ Ester Boserup
K Anti-Malthusian Critics ____ Frances Moore Lapp & Amartya Sen
L Neo-Malthusian Biologist ____ Paul Ehrlich
M The Population Bomb ____ Paul Ehrlich
N The Population Explosion ____ Paul Ehrlich & Anne Ehrlich
O Environmental determinism ____ The view that the environment controls our lives and there is little we can do about it.
P Cornucopian view of social change ____ Julian Simon
Q Shock therapy ____ Structural adjustment programs

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