Anatomy And Physiology 7th Edition By PattonThibodeau Test Bank

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Anatomy And Physiology 7th Edition By PattonThibodeau Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Anatomy And Physiology 7th Edition By PattonThibodeau Test Bank

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Biochemistry deals with the chemical makeup of living organisms and the underlying process of life activities.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines its atomic mass.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. The positively charged electrons are found in clouds outside the nucleus of an atom.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. Two shared pairs of electrons represent a single covalent bond.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. The digestion of food is an example of a decomposition reaction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The number and arrangement of electrons orbiting in an atoms outer shell determine its chemical activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An atom is chemically inert if its outermost shell has two pairs of electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An isotope of an element contains the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Electrovalent and ionic bonds are the same.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Radiation results from the breaking apart of the nucleus of an atom.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Radioactivity can cause an atom of one element to change to that of another element.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Ionizing radiation can be cancer-producing.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. A substance that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added is called a buffer.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Buffers

 

  1. The chemical reaction of an acid with a base always produces a salt and water.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Salts

 

  1. Water is the universal solvent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Water

 

  1. Electrolytes include acids, bases, and salts.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. All inorganic substances are free from carbon.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Electrolytes are characterized by having either a positive or a negative charge.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. Acids are electrolytes that produce OH+ ions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids

 

  1. pH stands for the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. Proteins are the most abundant of the carbon-containing compounds in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Glycogen and starch are both examples of polysaccharides.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. There are a total of 20 essential amino acids.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Steroids are often called tissue hormones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. DNA molecules are the largest molecules in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Adenine and thymine are referred to as purine bases, which are important constituents of a DNA molecule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Metabolism includes the processes of both anabolism and catabolism.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. The ability of proteins to perform their function depends on their shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Enzymes are proteins that function by the lock-and-key theory.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. ATP is broken down in an anabolic reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41           TOP:    Catabolism

 

  1. Catabolism and anabolism are major types of metabolic activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. Sodium chloride is an example of an ionic bond.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. The digestion of food is an example of a synthesis reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 40 | Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The pH scale indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Litmus paper will turn red in the presence of a base.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is also called the bad cholesterol.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 51 (Box 2-2)

TOP:    Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. The nonessential amino acids cannot be produced from the other amino acids or from simple organic molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The atomic weight of an atom is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. The mass of a proton is almost exactly equal to the mass of an electron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 33

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Hydrogen will react with other atoms to get 8 electrons in its outer energy level.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. A double covalent bond involves the sharing of 2 electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. Synthesis reactions release energy for use by the cell.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Electrolytes dissociate to form ions.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. As the hydrogen ion concentration increases, the pH value increases.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Sugars and starches are both considered to be carbohydrates.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. Glucose is a hexose and ribose is a pentose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. Nonessential amino acids are rarely used in the making of proteins in the human body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Fats, steroids, and prostaglandins are all considered lipids.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Lipids

 

  1. Fats are composed of three fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. Saturated fats are more likely than unsaturated fats to be liquids at room temperature.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 49

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. Phospholipids have a fat-soluble end and a water-soluble end.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids

 

  1. Prostaglandins are associated with the prostate gland and therefore are not found in women.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 51           TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. Chemistry can be defined as the science that deals with the structure, arrangement, and composition of substances and the reactions they undergo.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The nucleus of the atom will always have a positive charge.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. If an atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic weight of 25, it must have 13 neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Consider an atom that has an atomic mass of 18. For it to be electrically neutral, it must have 18 electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure, Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Atoms become positively charged by gaining protons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Inorganic compounds do not play an important role in living systems.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Acids release protons in solution.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids

 

  1. A denatured protein has lost its functional shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. RNA never exists in a double-stranded form.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 58

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. Glycoproteins contain both a fat molecule and a protein molecule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 60

TOP:    Combined Forms

 

  1. The terms molecule and compound mean the same thing.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Interaction Between Atoms

 

  1. Four elements are considered to be the major elements in the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. Dalton named the atom after the Greek word for invisible.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 electrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 neutrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons could have 25 neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. Oxygen has 8 electrons, but only 6 of them are in its outermost energy level.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds between atoms do not form molecules or compounds.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Attraction Between Molecules

 

  1. According to the general formula, in synthesis reactions, the number of reactants is usually greater than the number of products.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. According to the general formula, in decomposition reactions, the number of reactants is usually greater than the number of products.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40 | Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. According to the general formula, in exchange reactions, the number of reactants and the number of products are usually equal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 6 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 4.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 3 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 5.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. A sucrose molecule is formed by the synthesis reaction between glucose and fructose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. The quaternary structure of a protein contains more than one polypeptide chain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 55

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Both phospholipids and steroids are found in cell membranes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids and Steroids

 

  1. Steroids are the only lipid that contains a ring structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. Nucleotides are only used to make RNA or DNA molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 58

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. The distance between the sugar-phosphate structures in a DNA molecule is equal to the distance of one purine and one pyrimidine molecule.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 57           TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. When ATP is in short supply, muscles can use creatine phosphate for extra energy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 59

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. Because oxygen has 8 electrons, it has achieved its octet and will not react with other elements.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Both triglycerides and prostaglandins can contain a saturated fat.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 49 | Page 50

TOP:    Triglycerides and Prostaglandins

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following represents a trace element in the body?
A. Sulfur
B. Chlorine
C. Iron
D. Phosphorus

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Basic Chemistry

 

  1. The kind of element is determined by the number of:
A. proton.
B. neutrons.
C. mesotrons.
D. electrons.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Atomic weight is determined by the number of:
A. protons and electrons.
B. neutrons and electrons.
C. neutrons, protons, and electrons.
D. protons and neutrons.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Carbon has an atomic number of 6. The number of electrons found in the first shell is:
A. 2.
B. 4.
C. 6.
D. 8.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37 (Figure 2-6)

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. The atomic number of carbon is 6. How many unpaired electrons are in its outer shell?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37 (Figure 2-6)

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. A negatively charged subatomic particle that moves around the nucleus is a(n):
A. orbital.
B. proton.
C. neutron.
D. electron.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. When atoms combine, they may gain, lose, or share:
A. electrons.
B. protons.
C. neutrons.
D. nuclei.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Attraction Between Atoms: Chemical Bonds

 

  1. An ionic bond is formed by:
A. two or more positive ions combining.
B. two or more negative ions combining.
C. a positive and a negative ion attracting each other.
D. sharing of a pair of electrons.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. An example of an element would be:
A. Ne.
B. CO2.
C. C6H12O6.
D. H2O.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. An isotope of an element contains a different number of ____ than other atoms of the same element.
A. electrons
B. protons
C. neutrons
D. protons and neutrons

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Which of the following elements is least likely to combine with another element?
A. Hydrogen
B. Helium
C. Oxygen
D. Carbon

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 37 (Figure 2-6)

TOP:    Attraction Between Atoms: Chemical Bonds

 

  1. The hydrogen isotope tritium consists of:
A. one proton.
B. one proton and one neutron.
C. two protons and one neutron.
D. one proton and two neutrons.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38 (Figure 2-7)

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Which of the following bonds are the weakest?
A. Ionic bonds
B. Hydrogen bonds
C. Electrovalent bonds
D. Covalent bonds

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. The type of reaction in which substances are combined to form more complex substances is called a(n):
A. reversible reaction.
B. exchange reaction.
C. synthesis reaction.
D. decomposition reaction.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The process of the digestion of food is an example of which type of reaction?
A. Synthesis
B. Decomposition
C. Exchange
D. Reversible

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40 | Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Substances that accept hydrogen ions are called:
A. acids.
B. bases.
C. buffers.
D. salts.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Bases

 

  1. Acids:
A. are proton donors.
B. taste sour.
C. release hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution.
D. are all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids

 

  1. A solution that contains a greater concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) than hydrogen ions (H+) is a(n):
A. acidic solution.
B. alkaline (basic) solution.
C. neutral solution.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Bases

 

  1. In the presence of a base, red litmus paper will:
A. stay red.
B. turn blue.
C. turn green.
D. turn yellow.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. The most abundant and important compound(s) in the body is/are:
A. air.
B. water.
C. proteins.
D. nucleic acids.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Water

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of body weight is water?
A. 40%
B. 50%
C. 60%
D. 70%

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Water

 

  1. AB + CD  AD + CB is an example of a(n):
A. synthesis reaction.
B. exchange reaction.
C. decomposition reaction.
D. reversible reaction.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Which of the following represent(s) properties of water?
A. Cohesion
B. High heat of vaporization
C. Strong polarity
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Properties of Water

 

  1. The approximate pH of gastric fluid is:
A. 10.
B. 8.
C. 4.
D. 2.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 45 (Figure 2-15)  &nb

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