Anatomy & Physiology 8th Edition by Kevin T. Patton, Gary A. Thibodeau Test Bank

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Anatomy & Physiology 8th Edition by Kevin T. Patton, Gary A. Thibodeau Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Anatomy & Physiology 8th Edition by Kevin T. Patton, Gary A. Thibodeau Test Bank

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 02-A: The Chemical Basis of Life

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Biochemistry involves the chemical makeup of living organisms and the underlying process of life activities.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines its atomic mass.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

 

  1. The positively charged electrons are found in clouds outside the nucleus of an atom.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. Two shared pairs of electrons represent a single covalent bond.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. The digestion of food is an example of a decomposition reaction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The number and arrangement of electrons orbiting in an atoms outer shell determine its chemical activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An atom is chemically inert if its outermost shell has two pairs of electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An isotope of an element contains the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Electrovalent and ionic bonds are the same.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Radiation results from the breaking apart of the nucleus of an atom.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Radioactivity can cause an atom of one element to change to that of another element.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Gamma radiation has less mass than alpha or beta radiation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. A substance that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added is called a buffer.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Buffers

 

  1. The chemical reaction of an acid with a base will produce a salt and water.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Salts

 

  1. Water acts as a very effective solvent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Water

 

  1. Electrolytes include acids, bases, and salts.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. By definition, inorganic compounds do not contain carbon.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Electrolytes are characterized by having either a positive or a negative charge.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. Acids are electrolytes that produce OH+ ions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids

 

  1. pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. Proteins are the most abundant of the carbon-containing compounds in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Glycogen and starch are both examples of polysaccharides.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. There are a total of 21 essential amino acids.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Steroids are often called tissue hormones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. DNA molecules are the largest molecules in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Adenine and thymine are referred to as purine bases, which are important constituents of a DNA molecule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Metabolism includes the processes of both anabolism and catabolism.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. The ability of proteins to perform their function depends on their shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 54

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Enzymes are proteins that function by the lock-and-key theory.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 54

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. ATP is broken down in an anabolic reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41|Page 42

TOP:    Catabolism

 

  1. Catabolism and anabolism are major types of metabolic activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. Sodium chloride is an example of an ionic bond.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. The digestion of food is an example of a synthesis reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The pH scale indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Litmus paper will turn red in the presence of a base.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is also called the bad cholesterol.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 51 (Box 2-2)

TOP:    Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. The nonessential amino acids cannot be produced from the other amino acids or from simple organic molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The atomic mass of an atom is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

 

  1. The mass of a proton is almost exactly equal to the mass of an electron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

 

  1. Hydrogen will react with other atoms to get 8 electrons in its outer energy level.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. A double covalent bond involves the sharing of 2 electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. Synthesis reactions release energy for use by the cell.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Electrolytes dissociate to form ions.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. As the hydrogen ion concentration increases, the pH value increases.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Sugars and starches are both considered to be carbohydrates.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. Glucose is a hexose and ribose is a pentose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. Nonessential amino acids are rarely used in the making of proteins in the human body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Fats, steroids, and prostaglandins are all considered lipids.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Lipids

 

  1. Fats are composed of three fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. Saturated fats are more likely than unsaturated fats to be liquid at room temperature.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. Phospholipids have a fat-soluble end and a water-soluble end.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 49|Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids

 

  1. Prostaglandins are associated with the prostate gland and therefore are not found in women.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. Chemistry can be defined as the science that deals with the structure, arrangement, and composition of substances and the reactions they undergo.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The nucleus of the atom will always have a positive charge.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. If an atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic mass of 25, it must have 13 neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

 

  1. Consider an atom that has an atomic mass of 18. For it to be electrically neutral, it must have 18 electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure, Atomic Number, and Atomic Mass

 

  1. Atoms become positively charged by gaining protons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Inorganic compounds do not play an important role in living systems.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Acids release protons in solution.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids

 

  1. A denatured protein has lost its functional shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 54

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. RNA never exists in a double-stranded form.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. Glycoproteins contain both a fat molecule and a protein molecule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 59

TOP:    Combined Forms

 

  1. The aliveness of a living organism depends on the mixture of elements of which it is made.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. Four elements are considered to be the major elements in the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. Dalton named the atom after the Greek word for invisible.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 electrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 neutrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons could have 25 neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. Oxygen has 8 electrons, but only 6 of them are in its outermost energy level.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds between atoms do not form molecules or compounds.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Attraction Between Molecules

 

  1. According to the general formula, in synthesis reactions, the number of reactants is usually greater than the number of products.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. According to the general formula, in decomposition reactions, the number of reactants is usually greater than the number of products.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. According to the general formula, in exchange reactions, the number of reactants and the number of products are usually equal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 6 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 4.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 3 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 5.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. A sucrose molecule is formed by the synthesis reaction between glucose and fructose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. The quaternary structure of a protein contains more than one polypeptide chain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 53

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Both phospholipids and steroids are found in cell membranes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 49|Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids and Steroids

 

  1. Steroids are the only lipid that contains a ring structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. Nucleotides are used to make only RNA or DNA molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. The distance between the sugar-phosphate structures in a DNA molecule is equal to the distance of one purine and one pyrimidine molecule.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 56|Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids and Related Molecules

 

  1. When ATP is in short supply, muscles can use creatine phosphate for extra energy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 58

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. Because oxygen has 8 electrons, it has achieved its octet and will not react with other elements.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Both triglycerides and prostaglandins can contain unsaturated fat.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48|Page 50

TOP:    Triglycerides and Prostaglandins

 

  1. Trace elements in the body make up about 1% of the body weight.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. The atomic number of an atom determines its identity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Mass Number

 

  1. An ionic bond forms crystals whereas a covalent bond forms molecules.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38|Page 39

TOP:    Ionic Bonds and Covalent Bonds

 

  1. Electrons surround the nucleus of an atom in areas of probability rather than in defined orbits.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. The idea that electrons are found in areas of probability distribution around the nucleus was first proposed by Niels Bohr.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. The term atomic weight refers to the average mass number for a particular element based on the typical proportions of different isotopes found in nature.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. A molecule can be an element or a compound.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Attraction Between Atoms-Chemical Bonds

 

  1. There cannot be an electrically neutral ion.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Ions gain or lose electrons to try to attain four pairs of electrons in their outermost energy level.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds form as a result of the attraction between polar molecules.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. In a formula for a chemical reaction, the substances on the right of the arrow are referred to as products.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. A type of chemical reaction called hydrolysis is an example of an anabolic reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Catabolism

 

  1. During catabolic reactions, some of the energy is released as heat to help keep the body warm.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Catabolism

 

  1. A type of chemical reaction called dehydration synthesis is an example of an anabolic reaction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Anabolism

 

  1. A few inorganic compounds contain both C-C bonds but no inorganic compound has a C-H bond.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Fifty percent or more of a normal adults body weight is water.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Water

 

  1. One of the functions of water in the body is that of helping to maintain a constant body temperature.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Properties of Water

 

  1. One function of carbon dioxide is to help maintain proper pH balance in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

 

  1. A substance that releases an OH ion in solution is called a base.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Bases

 

  1. A solution containing the same number of H+ ions and OH ions would have a pH of zero.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. The three most common disaccharidessucrose, lactose, and maltoseeach contain at least one molecule of glucose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. A saturated fat is saturated with hydrogen atoms.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Types of Fatty Acids

 

  1. A triglyceride is composed of a glycerol molecule and three of the same type of fatty acid.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 49

TOP:    Formation of Triglycerides

 

  1. The body uses the steroid cholesterol to make hormones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. Proteins can be divided into functional proteins and structural proteins.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Amino acids get their name because they have an amino group (NH3+) and an acid group (COO).

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. When two amino acids are joined, a peptide bond is formed and an H+ ion is released.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The joining of amino acids in a peptide bond is an example of the process of hydrolysis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Chaperone proteins assist in the proper folding of other proteins so they can have the correct functional shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 53

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. RNA and DNA have the same pyrimidine bases but different purine bases.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. The function of transfer RNA is to select and adhere to a specific amino acid and place it in the correct sequence in the primary protein strand.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. If one side of the DNA molecule was CCTAGGC, the opposite side of the molecule would be CCTAGGC.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                        &nbs

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