Anatomy and Physiology From Science to Life 2nd Edition by Jenkins, Gail, Kemnitz, Christopher, Tortora, Gerard J. Test bank

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Anatomy and Physiology From Science to Life 2nd Edition by Jenkins, Gail, Kemnitz, Christopher, Tortora, Gerard J. Test bank

Description

1. This type of joint is held together by fibrous connective tissue.
A) Fibrous joint D) Both fibrous and cartilaginous joints
B) Cartilaginous joint E) All of the above
C) Synovial joint
Ans:A Difficulty:Easy

2. Which of the following factors is FALSE regarding the stability of the hip joint?
A) The articular capsule is very dense and strong tissue that extends from the rim of the acetabulum to the neck of the femur.
B) The acetabular labrum is a rim of fibrocartilage that increases the depth of the socket, thus making dislocation rare.
C) Several strong reinforcing ligaments include the iliofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments, which are made of dense regular connective tissue and provide support to the joint.
D) The hip joint is formed by the extremely stable articulation of the femur to the coxal bone via a cartilaginous joint consisting of hyaline cartilage.
E) Several large muscles cross the joint and contribute to its stability.
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

3. Synovial membranes are found lining the cavities of synovial joints, and are made of areolar connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium.
Ans:False Difficulty:medium

4. Which of the following synovial structural sub-classifications best describes the joint found between your carpal bone and the metacarpal of your thumb?
A) Condyloid B) Plane C) Hinge D) Saddle E) Symphysis
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

5. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the medial meniscus of the knee joint?
A) It is made of elastic cartilage.
B) It has a ligamentous attachment to the fibula.
C) It is firmly attached to the tibial collateral ligament.
D) It is easily healed if injured.
E) It is firmly attached to the femoral condyles.
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

6. Which of the following terms best describes the structural classification of the joint found between the first rib and the sternum?
A) Synovial D) Synarthrotic
B) Symphysis E) Gomphosis
C) Synchondrosis
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

7. Which of the following terms best describes the functional classification of the joint found between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a growing bone?
A) Synchondrosis D) Synovial
B) Symphysis E) Synostosis
C) Synarthrotic
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

8. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the synovial membrane?
A) It produces synovial fluid, which acts to reduce friction, absorb shock, and supply oxygen and nutrients to the chondrocytes within the articular cartilage.
B) It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue, with abundant collagen fibers.
C) It is the deepest layer of the articular capsule.
D) It is a component of all synovial joints.
E) It has no epithelial component.
Ans:B Difficulty:medium

9. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding synovial joints?
A) All synovial joints are diarthrotic joints.
B) Synovial joints are characterized by a joint cavity.
C) The fibrous layer of the articular capsule associated with synovial joints is made of areolar connective tissue.
D) Synovial fluid is rich in hyaluronic acid and serves to reduce friction by lubricating the joint.
E) An example of a synovial joint is the proximal radioulnar joint.
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

10. An immovable joint found between skull bones is called a:
A) Condyle D) Synovial joint
B) Cartilaginous joint E) Synchondrosis
C) Suture
Ans:C Difficulty:easy

11. This type of joint lacks a cavity.
A) Fibrous D) Both fibrous and cartilaginous joints
B) Cartilaginous E) All of the above
C) Synovial
Ans:D Difficulty:easy

12. This type of joint is freely movable.
A) Synarthrosis D) Both amphiarthrosis and diarthrosis
B) Amphiarthrosis E) All of the above
C) Diarthrosis
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

13. How is a suture classified functionally?
A) Synarthrotic D) Synovial
B) Amphiarthrotic E) Cartilaginous
C) Diarthrotic
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

14. In this type of fibrous joint, the connective tissue is arranged either as a bundle or as a sheet.
A) Suture D) Both suture and gomphosis
B) Gomphosis E) Both gomphosis and syndesmosis
C) Syndesmosis
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

15. Another term for this joint is dentoalveolar joint.
A) Syndesmosis D) Symphysis
B) Gomphosis E) Suture
C) Synchondrosis
Ans:B Difficulty:medium

16. The epiphyseal plate is an example of this type of joint.
A) Gomphosis B) Suture C) Symphysis D) Synovial E) Synchondrosis
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

17. The joint between the first rib and the manubrium of the sternum is classified as a
A) Synchondrosis D) All of the above
B) Synarthrosis E) None of the above
C) Cartilaginous joint
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

18. Where do symphyses occur?
A) Upper limbs D) Ankles
B) Lower limbs E) Knees
C) Midline of the body
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

19. Which of the following is FALSE regarding synovial joints?
A) are characterized by a joint cavity.
B) are freely moveable.
C) have bones covered in hyaline cartilage at their articulating ends.
D) include elastic cartilage.
E) have reinforcing ligaments.
Ans:D Difficulty:easy

20. Which of the following is made from dense regular connective tissue?
A) Ligaments D) Synovial membrane
B) articular E) Synovial fluid
C) Articular fat pads
Ans:A Difficulty:easy

21. Examples of these include the fibular and tibial collateral ligaments of the knee joint.
A) Synovial membranes D) accessory ligaments
B) Articular fat pads E) Tendon sheath
C) Menisci
Ans:D Difficulty:hard

22. Another term for menisci are
A) Articular fat pads D) Capsular fat pads
B) Articular discs E) Capsular discs
C) Articular spaces
Ans:B Difficulty:easy

23. Articular discs
A) maintain the stability of a joint
B) may be found in a synovial joint
C) are made of hyaline cartilage
D) are only found in the vertebral column
E) both a and b
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

24. These reduce friction in joints.
A) Bursae D) Elastic fibers
B) Synovial fluid E) Both a and b
C) Accessory ligaments
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

25. Which of the following is NOT used to reduce friction at joints?
A) Tendon sheaths D) Menisci
B) Synovial fluid E) All of the above reduce friction
C) Bursae
Ans:D Difficulty:hard

26. This type of motion results from relatively flat bone surfaces moving back and forth and from side to side with respect to one another.
A) Flexion B) Extension C) Gliding D) Circumduction E) Hyperextension
Ans:C Difficulty:easy

27. Type of movement where there is a decrease in the angle between articulating bones.
A) Flexion B) Extension C) Gliding D) Circumduction E) Rotation
Ans:A Difficulty:easy

28. Bending the trunk forward at the intervertebral discs is an example of what type of angular movement?
A) Flexion D) Hyperextension
B) Extension E) None of the above
C) Lateral flexion
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

29. Flexion and extension usually occur along which plane?
A) Frontal B) Transverse C) Sagittal D) Oblique E) None of the above
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

30. Examples of this type of movement include moving the humerus away from the midline of the body.
A) Lateral flexion D) Abduction
B) Hyperextension E) Gliding
C) Adduction
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

31. This type of movement is a continuous sequence of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction.
A) Gliding D) Circumduction
B) Lateral flexion E) Elevation
C) Hyperextension
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

32. Which of the following is not considered a special movement?
A) Depression B) Protraction C) Elevation D) Supination E) Flexion
Ans:E Difficulty:easy

33. Which of the following bones can NOT be elevated or depressed?
A) Hyoid B) Clavicle C) Ribs D) Maxilla E) Mandible
Ans:D Difficulty:hard

34. This special movement occurs when you roll back on your heels.
A) Inversion B) Eversion C) Dorsiflexion D) Plantar flexion E) Supination
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

35. This special movement includes the ability of your thumb to move across the palm to touch the tips of the fingers on the same hand.
A) Pronation B) Supination C) Eversion D) Retraction E) Opposition
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

36. Which of the following is not a structural category of synovial joint?
A) Planar B) Hinge C) Condyloid D) Inversion E) Saddle
Ans:D Difficulty:easy

37. In this type of joint, the rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament.
A) Pivot joint D) Ball-and-socket joint
B) Planar joint E) Saddle joint
C) Hinge joint
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

38. Which structural subclass best describes the tarsometatarsal joints?
A) planar B) pivot C) ball and socket D) condyloid E) saddle
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

39. What structural subclass best describes the atlanto-axial joint between the dens of the axis and the anterior arch of the atlas?
A) planar B) pivot C) ball and socket D) condyloid E) symphysis
Ans:B Difficulty:medium

40. In anatomical position, the antebrachium is:
A) pronated D) medially rotated
B) laterally flexed E) opposed
C) supinated
Ans:C Difficulty:easy

41. This refers to the range through which the bones of a joint can be moved.
A) Axial B) Biaxial C) Multiaxial D) Range of motion E) Disuse
Ans:D Difficulty:easy

42. Which of the following structures is associated with the glenohumeral joint?
A) Subacromial bursa D) Iliofemoral ligament
B) Radial collateral ligament E) Acetabular labrum
C) Medial meniscus
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

43. Which of the following structures is associated with the coxal joint?
A) Subacromial bursa D) Iliofemoral ligament
B) Radial collateral ligament E) Glenoid labrum
C) Medial meniscus
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

44. This structure is the:

A) Pubofemoral ligament D) Oblique Popliteal ligament
B) Coracohumeral ligament E) Ischiofemoral ligament
C) Iliofemoral ligament
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

45. Which of the following structures is NOT associated with the glenohumeral joint?
A) Subacromial bursa D) Articular capsule
B) Coracohumeral ligament E) Glenoid labrum
C) Oblique Popliteal ligament
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

46. This structure is the:

A) Pubofemoral ligament D) Oblique Popliteal ligament
B) Coracohumeral ligament E) Ischiofemoral ligament
C) Iliofemoral ligament
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

47. This structure is the:

A) Pubofemoral ligament D) Oblique Popliteal ligament
B) Coracohumeral ligament E) Ischiofemoral ligament
C) Iliofemoral ligament
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

48. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding this structure?

A) It is called the acetabular labrum.
B) It is composed primarily of fibrocartilage.
C) It contributes to the stability of the hip joint.
D) It is enclosed within the articular capsule.
E) It is a bony lip that extends around the head of the femur.
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

49. Identify this structure.

A) Subdeltoid bursa D) Subacromial bursa
B) Subcoracoid bursa E) Suprapatellar bursa
C) Subscapular bursa
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

50. Identify this structure.

A) Acetabulum D) Coracoid process
B) Glenoid cavity E) Humeral head
C) Acromion
Ans:B Difficulty:medium

51. Which one of these muscles is NOT part of the rotator cuff muscle group?
A) Supraspinatus D) Teres minor
B) Infraspinatus E) Teres major
C) Subscapularis
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

52. Which of the following structures is NOT associated with the coxal joint?
A) Iliofemoral ligament D) Ligament of the head of the femur
B) Glenoid labrum E) Ischiofemoral ligament
C) Pubofemoral ligament
Ans:B Difficulty:medium

53. Which of the following structures is associated with the elbow?
A) Subacromial bursa D) Iliofemoral ligament
B) Radial collateral ligament E) Acetabular labrum
C) Medial meniscus
Ans:B Difficulty:medium

54. Bending the foot at the ankle joint such as when you stand on your toes is called:
A) Plantar flexion D) Dorsiflexion
B) Pronation E) Opposition
C) Inversion
Ans:A Difficulty:easy

55. This structure is the:

A) Annular ligament of the radius D) Oblique Popliteal ligament
B) Coracohumeral ligament E) Ulnar collateral ligament
C) Radial collateral ligament
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

56. This structure is the:

A) Patellar ligament D) Oblique Popliteal ligament
B) Fibular collateral ligament E) Arcuate popliteal ligament
C) Tibial collateral ligament
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

57. This structure is the:

A) Patellar ligament D) Oblique Popliteal ligament
B) Fibular collateral ligament E) Arcuate popliteal ligament
C) Tibial collateral ligament
Ans:B Difficulty:medium

58. This structure is the:

A) Patellar ligament D) Oblique Popliteal ligament
B) Fibular collateral ligament E) Arcuate popliteal ligament
C) Tibial collateral ligament
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

59. This structure is the:

A) Medial meniscus D) Posterior cruciate ligament
B) Transverse ligament of the knee E) Fibular collateral ligament
C) Anterior cruciate ligament
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

60. This structure is the:

A) Medial meniscus D) Posterior cruciate ligament
B) Transverse ligament of the knee E) Fibular collateral ligament
C) Anterior cruciate ligament
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

61. The anterior cruciate ligament has an attachment to the:
A) posterior intercondylar area of the tibia
B) lateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur
C) tibial tuberosity
D) head of the fibula
E) medial surface of the lateral condyle of the femur
Ans:E Difficulty:hard

62. The posterior cruciate ligament has an attachment to the:
A) posterior intercondylar area of the tibia
B) medial surface of the medial condyle of the femur
C) tibial tuberosity
D) head of the fibula
E) lateral surface of the lateral condyle of the femur
Ans:A Difficulty:hard

63. What type of tissue makes up the fibrous portion of a synovial joints articular capsule?
A) Hyaline cartilage D) Areolar connective tissue
B) Dense irregular connective tissue E) Simple squamous epithelium
C) Dense regular connective tissue
Ans:B Difficulty:medium

64. In the above diagram of a suture joint, where is the spongy bone?

A) A B) B C) C D) Both a and c E) Both a and b
Ans:B Difficulty:easy

Use the following to answer questions 65-66:

65. In the diagram, which type of joint is represented?
A) Suture B) Syndesmosis C) Symphysis D) Cartilaginous E) Synovial
Ans:C Difficulty:easy

66. In the diagram, which type of joint is represented?
A) Suture B) Syndesmoses C) Symphysis D) Synovial E) Synchondrosis
Ans:E Difficulty:easy

Use the following to answer questions 67-73:

67. In the figure, which represents a saddle joint?
A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E
Ans:E Difficulty:easy

68. In the diagram, which one represents a pivot joint?
A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E
Ans:C Difficulty:easy

69. In the figure, which one represents a multiaxial joint?
A) B B) C C) D D) E E) F
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

70. In the figure, which represents a biaxial joint?
A) B B) C C) D D) E E) Both D and E
Ans:E Difficulty:medium

71. In the figure, which one is not monoaxial?
A) A B) B C) C D) E E) All are monoaxial
Ans:D Difficulty:medium

72. In the figure shown, which one represents a condyloid joint?
A) B B) C C) D D) E E) F
Ans:C Difficulty:medium

73. In the figure, which one permits only side to side, and back and forth gliding movements?
A) A B) B C) C D) Both a and b E) Both b and c
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

74. Which type of joint permits this type of movement?

A) Synovial B) Cartilaginous C) Fibrous D) Both a and b E) Both b and c
Ans:A Difficulty:medium

75. Which of the following shows a movement only seen in the intervertebral joints?

A) B B) F C) G D) D E) A
Ans:C Difficulty:easy

76. Briefly describe the structural classifications of joints.
Ans: Joints can be classified structural based on two criteria: 1) the presence or absence of a space between the articulating bones called a synovial cavity and 2) the type of connective tissue that binds the bones together. The structural types of joints include fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial.
Difficulty:medium

77. Describe the functions of synovial fluid
Ans: Synovial fluid reduces friction and absorbs shock. It also carries nutrients to and wastes away from the articular cartilages cell population.
Difficulty:easy

78. Briefly describe what is happening when a person cracks their knuckles.
Ans: When the synovial cavity expands, the pressure of the synovial fluid decreases, creating a partial vacuum. The suction draws carbon dioxide and oxygen out of the blood vessels in the synovial membrane, forming bubbles in the fluid. When the bubbles are forced to burst, as when the fingers are hyperflexed, the cracking or popping sound is heard.
Difficulty:medium

79. Briefly describe the three types of functional classifications of joints.
Ans: Joints can be classified functionally as synarthrosis, which is totally immovable, amphiarthrosis that has slight movement, and diarthrosis, which is a freely moveable joint.
Difficulty:medium

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