Andersons Caring for Older Adults Holistically 6th Edition by Tamara R. Dahlkemper Test Bank

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Andersons Caring for Older Adults Holistically 6th Edition by Tamara R. Dahlkemper Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Andersons Caring for Older Adults Holistically 6th Edition by Tamara R. Dahlkemper Test Bank

Chapter 2: The Aging Experience

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   The fastest growing segment of the population in the United States is

1) Teenagers
2) Babies
3) People older than 85 years of age
4) People between the ages of 20 and 40

 

 

____    2.   An 88-year-old retired school principal who lives alone has neighbors who believe his home is dark, dirty, smelly, and without modern conveniences. The neighborhood children think he is a crazy old man. What does this describe?

1) Racism
2) Sexism
3) Ageism
4) Patriotism

 

 

____    3.   Which statement reflects respect for people who are older?

1) Getting old is a hopeless downward spiral toward death.
2) As people get older, they become very self-centered.
3) Older people maintain unique and individual characteristics.
4) Older people become very rigid and are unable to learn new things.

 

 

____    4.   Normal physiological aging is

1) A predictable and uniform process
2) Reflective of individual diversity
3) Accompanied by extreme mood swings and predictable depression
4) Primarily related to chronic disease processes

 

 

____    5.   What is LEAST likely to affect the aging process?

1) Life experiences
2) Financial resources
3) Stress management style
4) Social support system

 

 

____    6.   The normal aging process is accompanied by

1) Potential problems in functional ability
2) Chronic disease processes
3) Regression from previous social activities
4) A characteristic depression related to multiple losses

 

 

____    7.   The leading cause of death in older adults is

1) Stroke
2) Heart disorders
3) Cancer
4) Pneumonia

 

 

____    8.   Which theory is NOT considered to be a psychological theory of aging?

1) Subcultural theory
2) Wear and tear theory
3) Developmental tasks theory
4) Continuity theory

 

 

____    9.   According to Erik Eriksons eight stages of life theory, the task of old age is

1) Integrity vs. Despair
2) Industry vs. Inferiority
3) Identity vs. Role Confusion
4) Generativist vs. Stagnation

 

 

____  10.   Which is NOT a characteristic of physiological theories of aging?

1) Genetics
2) Nutrition
3) Personality
4) Wear and tear of the body

 

 

____  11.   What is considered normal aging of the cardiovascular system?

1) Strengthened heart contractions
2) Decreased cardiac output
3) Flaccid and thinned heart valves
4) Dilation of blood vessels

 

 

____  12.   What determines an older adults ability to function?

1) Driving a car
2) Quality of life
3) Working, driving, shopping, and exercising as usual
4) Performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs, and quality of life

 

 

____  13.   Which does NOT contribute to increased residual lung volume in an older patient?

1) Kyphosis
2) Decreased elastic recoil
3) Decreased number of functioning alveoli
4) Decreased efficiency of gas exchange in the alveoli

 

 

____  14.   One of the best ways for the nurse to promote normal respiratory function with older adults is to

1) Encourage daily walks.
2) Encourage frequent naps and rest periods.
3) Discourage strenuous lifting and physical activity.
4) Teach the use of inhalers in case of respiratory emergencies.

 

 

____  15.   Which is NOT an expected age-related change affecting the respiratory status of an older patient?

1) Weakened abdominal muscles
2) Elongation of the thoracic spine
3) Increased rigidity of the rib cage
4) Increased thickness of the alveolus capillary membrane

 

 

____  16.   Which is NOT considered a common complication of inactivity in an older adult?

1) Decreased energy
2) Decreased bone mass
3) Decreased muscle mass
4) Decreased joint range of motion

 

 

____  17.   What effect do age-related changes of the skin have on an older patient?

1) Effects joint mobility
2) Alters temperature regulation
3) Impacts the ability to ambulate
4) Influences clothing style choices

 

 

____  18.   Which is one of the most effective ways to minimize the aging changes of the skin?

1) Wash the skin daily with soap.
2) Avoid excessive sun exposure.
3) Use a vitamin E-fortified lotion every day.
4) Use rose milk lotion on the skin every day.

 

 

____  19.   What can slow musculoskeletal changes in an older adult?

1) Exercising
2) Restricting calcium intake
3) Napping throughout the day
4) Eating a diet high in carbohydrates

 

 

____  20.   What is the best advice for an older person who complains of never being hungry?

1) Try eating six small meals throughout the day.
2) Force yourself to eat at least three meals a day.
3) As people get older, they may need to eat only one meal a day.
4) Avoid eating roughage and drinking large amounts of fluid.

 

 

____  21.   Which body system is most highly influenced by previous life patterns and environmental conditions?

1) Circulatory
2) Integumentary
3) Respiratory
4) Gastrointestinal

 

 

____  22.   Which statement is most true about enlargement of the prostate gland in older men?

1) It is a normal aging change.
2) It indicates the presence of cancer.
3) It is related to a high incidence of impotence for older men.
4) It decreases the incidence of urinary incontinence for older men.

 

 

____  23.   Incontinence is a problem for many older women. The normal aging change that contributes to stress incontinence for older women is

1) Decreased bladder capacity
2) Decreased renal blood flow
3) Reduced glomerular filtration rate
4) Loss of mass and strength of perineal muscles

 

 

____  24.   Painful intercourse and vaginal infections can be associated with

1) Loss of pubic hair
2) Urinary incontinence
3) Decreased vaginal secretions
4) Decreased perineal muscle mass

 

 

____  25.   What sleep pattern change is most stressful to older adults?

1) Frequent wakening
2) Shorter sleeping time at night
3) Inability to nap during the day
4) Feeling of being less rested after sleeping all night

 

 

____  26.   Which are the most common gastrointestinal problems for older adults?

1) Indigestion, diarrhea, and anorexia
2) Constipation, bulimia, and indigestion
3) Indigestion, constipation, and anorexia
4) Flatulence, diarrhea, and intestinal cramps

 

 

____  27.   How do older adults adapt to their slowed response time?

1) Giving up activities such as driving
2) Increasing accuracy of their responses
3) Avoiding situations that require quick responses
4) Using ambulation aids to decrease the chance of falling

 

 

____  28.   Decreased tearing of the eyes increases the incidence of

1) Glaucoma
2) Eye infections
3) Corneal abrasions
4) Cataract formation

 

 

____  29.   Which is an age-related change in hearing for older adults?

1) Loss of low-frequency tones
2) Loss of high-frequency tones
3) Generalized loss of all frequencies
4) Loss of high-frequency and low-frequency tones

 

 

____  30.   What should the nurse do to help an older patient improve hearing?

1) Speak loudly.
2) Speak slowly in a normal tone.
3) Speak slowly with an increased pitch.
4) Mouth words slowly so that the older adult can read lips.

 

 

____  31.   Which are the preferred colors to use for signs, curb markings, and stair edgings for older adults?

1) Red and green
2) Blue and green
3) Yellow and red
4) Blue and yellow

 

 

____  32.   Which change in the aging eye increases risk of falling?

1) Decreased tearing
2) Yellowing of the lens
3) Increased sensitivity to glare
4) Decreased dark and light accommodation

 

 

____  33.   A 78-year-old patient has both ears impacted with cerumen. Why is the incidence of cerumen impaction increased for older adults?

1) Increased keratin in cerumen
2) Increased production of cerumen
3) Decreased bathing because of skin dryness, so ears do not get cleaned as often
4) Older adults are less likely to be in the habit of using cotton-tipped applicators to clean out their ears

 

 

____  34.   An 84-year-old patient is experiencing decreased reaction time while driving and some dizziness when getting out of his car. What should the nurse realize about this patients symptoms?

1) Secondary to diet
2) Indicative of senile dementia
3) Part of the normal aging process
4) Indicative of decreased mental capabilities

 

 

____  35.   Which is NOT included during the assessment of ADLs?

1) Eating
2) Moving
3) Cooking
4) Dressing

 

 

____  36.   Which would NOT be included when assessing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)?

1) Toileting
2) Cleaning
3) Managing finances
4) Taking medications

 

 

____  37.   Which are NOT considered to be signs of wear and tear on the body as the result of aging?

1) Slow gait
2) Replaced knees
3) Use of a walker
4) Chronic diseases

 

 

____  38.   What information does NOT need to be collected when first interviewing an elderly patient?

1) Nutrition
2) Family history
3) Chronic diseases
4) Number of friends

 

 

____  39.   Why is it common for an older adult to feel colder and have decreased diaphoresis, even with an elevated body temperature?

1) Increased body fluid
2) Alterations in appetite
3) Decreased subcutaneous fat
4) Difficulty with bowel elimination

 

 

____  40.   An older patient is experiencing skin breakdown. What should the nurse identify as the reason for this health problem?

1) Clustering of melanocytes
2) Decreased sweat production
3) Decreased subcutaneous fat
4) Dryness and reduced skin elasticity

 

 

____  41.   What should the nurse realize is the reason for an older patient to have an increase in blood pressure?

1) Reduced blood volume
2) Increased rigidity of heart valves
3) Increased rigidity of vascular walls
4) Diminished strength of cardiac muscle

 

 

____  42.   An older patient is experiencing a drop in blood volume. What should the nurse realize is the age-related reason for this?

1) Decreased physical activity
2) Increased daily urine output
3) Reduced oral intake of fluids
4) Decreased amount of total body water

 

 

____  43.   What should the nurse identify as the reason for an older patient to have a decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels?

1) Increased oral fluid intake
2) Decreased rigidity of heart valves
3) Increased rigidity of blood vessels
4) Reduced bone marrow production

 

 

____  44.   The nurse is preparing to assess the respiratory status of an older patient. What should the nurse realize about this status in relation to cardiovascular functioning?

1) The degree of changes within both systems will be minimal.
2) The changes within both systems appear suddenly, causing acute health problems.
3) Changes in the respiratory system are gradual and the older patient will compensate.
4) Changes in the cardiovascular system are gradual and the older patient will compensate.

 

 

____  45.   An older patient has osteoporosis. What effect should the nurse expect this health problem to have on the patients respiratory status?

1) Improved cough reflex
2) Improved lung capacity
3) Reduced lung space and air flow
4) No change to the respiratory status

 

 

____  46.   What impact do good nutrition, exercise, and stress control have on longevity according to the genetic theory of aging?

1) Experiencing an early death
2) Adding 15 years to life expectancy
3) Reducing risk factors for chronic disease
4) Prolonging or improving the quality of life

 

 

____  47.   What concept is used to describe todays nursing homes?

1) Hospice care
2) Palliative care
3) Custodial care
4) Rehabilitative care

 

 

____  48.   Which nursing statement takes the concept of ageism into consideration when caring for an 85-year-old patient with renal failure?

1) Mr. Martin, how are you doing this morning?
2) Now, you know you shouldnt do that, baby doll.
3) Hon, how would you like your eggs in the morning?
4) You are doing such a good job with dialysis, sweetie.

 

 

____  49.   The nurse is caring for an 80-year-old patient with lung disease. Which action indicates that the nurse understands the wear and tear theory of aging when caring for this patient?

1) Reviews the importance of a daily intake of adequate calcium
2) Asks the patient at what age the patients mother and father passed away
3) Stops and rests for a few seconds when walking with the patient down the hall
4) Suggests that the patient use a wheelchair to reduce the time needed to get to physical therapy

 

 

____  50.   An older patient used to be a teacher but after being diagnosed with a health problem the patient began to write educational materials. Which theory explains this patients actions?

1) Continuity
2) Subculture
3) Wear and tear
4) Developmental tasks

 

 

____  51.   Which statement can be used to define health for an older adult?

1) Expecting to enjoy perfect health until death
2) Realizing that no one leaves this life alive and death occurs to us all
3) Understanding that the body wears out and nothing can be done about it
4) Functioning at the highest potential in the presence of age-related changes

 

 

Multiple Response

Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.

 

____  52.   The nurse suspects that an older patient is having difficulty with the developmental task of integrity vs. despair. Which behaviors caused the nurse to make this clinical determination? Select all that apply.

1) Anger
2) Depression
3) Reading the newspaper
4) Feelings of inadequacy
5) Laughing with grandchildren

 

 

____  53.   What should the nurse realize about the normal aging process? Select all that apply.

1) Normal aging does not indicate decline.
2) People become more diverse as they age.
3) Age-related changes are the same in everyone.
4) Normal aging and disease cannot be separated.
5) Adapting to the aging process is accomplished by many adults.

 

 

____  54.   An older patient is experiencing shortness of breath with household activities. Which respiratory changes with aging could explain this patients symptoms? Select all that apply.

1) Loss of lung elastic recoil
2) Larger and thinner alveoli
3) Increased surface area for gas exchange
4) Thickening of the alveolar-capillary membrane
5) Reduction in the number of functioning alveoli

 

 

____  55.   The nurse is concerned that an older patient is experiencing age-related changes to the gastrointestinal system. What findings caused the nurse to have this concern? Select all that apply.

1) Loose teeth
2) Poor appetite
3) Feeling thirsty
4) Weak gag reflex
5) Feeling of fullness

 

 

____  56.   An older patient is experiencing functional changes caused by decreased bladder capacity. What should the nurse assess for in this patient? Select all that apply.

1) Nocturia
2) Frequency
3) Incontinence
4) Renal calculi
5) Urinary retention

 

Chapter 2: The Aging Experience

Answer Section

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. ANS:  3

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 1. Define the term ageism.

Chapter page reference: 21

Heading: Introduction

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Diversity; Nursing

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 Teenagers are not the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population.
2 Babies are not the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population.
3 People older than 85 years of age are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population.
4 People between the ages of 20 and 40 are not the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Diversity | Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  3

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 1. Define the term ageism.

Chapter page reference: 23

Heading: Ageism

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive level: Analysis [Analyzing]

Concept: Diversity; Nursing

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
1 Racism is believing that one race is superior to another.
2 Sexism is believing that one gender is superior to another.
3 Ageism is a systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people simply because they are old.
4 Patriotism is upholding the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen of a country.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Diversity | Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  3

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 1. Define the term ageism.

Chapter page reference: 24

Heading: Ageism

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Diversity; Nursing

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 Getting older is not a hopeless spiral toward death. This statement does not respect older people.
2 Believing that older people are self-centered does not respect older people.
3 Older people do have unique and individual characteristics. This statement respects older people.
4 Older people are not rigid and unable to learn new things. This statement does not respect older people.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Diversity | Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  2

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 2. Discuss six common theories of aging.

Chapter page reference: 25

Heading: Normal Aging Process

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 Individuals age in different ways.
2 Although aging is a universal experience, each individual older person represents a different pattern of aging.
3 Older adults may experience depression, but this is not a normal aging experience.
4 Older adults may experience chronic diseases, but these are not normal aging experiences.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  2

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 2. Discuss six common theories of aging.

Chapter page reference: 25

Heading: Physiological Theories of Aging

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Stress; Nursing

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 How a person ages depends on life experiences.
2 Aging is not dependent on a persons financial resources.
3 How a person ages depends on stress management style.
4 How a person ages depends on social support systems.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  1

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in body systems.

Chapter page reference: 27

Heading: Normal Physiological Changes According to Body Systems

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 Changes in functional ability, or the ability of the older adult to perform activities of daily living, can be influenced by normal aging changes.
2 Many older adults have chronic disease processes, but disease processes are not a normal consequence of aging.
3 Aging is often viewed as a series of losses. The process is gradual, and older adults generally adapt well and maintain their social activities.
4 Older adults are not generally depressed by the aging process.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  3

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems. Cardiovascular

Chapter page reference: 28

Heading: Normal Physiological Changes According to Body Systems

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Cellular Regulation

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 Cardiovascular diseases leading to strokes used to be a leading cause of death among older adults, but older people have learned to take better care of themselves.
2 Cardiovascular diseases leading to heart disorders used to be a leading cause of death among older adults, but older people have learned to take better care of themselves.
3 Cancer is now the leading cause of death among older adults.
4 Pneumonia is not a leading cause of death, however, it is a serious concern in older adults.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Cellular Regulation

 

  1. ANS:  2

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 2. Discuss six common theories of aging.

Chapter page reference: 26

Heading: Psychological Theories

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 The subculture theory of aging describes aging as being a subculture complete with cultural norms, standards, beliefs, and expectations.
2 The wear and tear theory is a physiological theory of aging.
3 Erikson developed the developmental stages theory, which states that people work through various stages of development through life.
4 The continuity theory states that as people age, their basic personalities do not.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  1

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 2. Discuss six common theories of aging.

Chapter page reference: 26

Heading: Psychological Theories

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Development; Nursing

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 The task for old age, according to Erikson, is integrity vs. despair. If older adults can find meaning in the life they have lived and are living, they will have the ego integrity to adjust to the process of aging.
2 Industry vs. inferiority is a task for a school-age person.
3 Identity vs. role confusion is a task for adolescence.
4 Generativity vs. stagnation is a task for a middle-aged adult.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Development | Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  3

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 2. Discuss six common theories of aging.

Chapter page reference: 24

Heading: Physiological Theories of Aging

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 One physiological theory of aging focuses on genetics, stating that people are born with a genetic program that predetermines life span.
2 One physiological theory of aging focuses on a persons nutrition during his or her life span.
3 Personality does not relate to a physiological theory of aging.
4 One physiological theory of aging focuses on the fact that bodies are all fine-tuned machinery and that body parts wear out or become less effective as they are repeatedly used.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing

 

  1. ANS:  2

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Cardiovascular

Chapter page reference: 28

Heading: Cardiovascular System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing; Perfusion

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 The aging heart is slower and weaker.
2 Cardiac output is decreased as a result of the slowed heart rate and weaker cardiac contractions. This is not usually a noticeable problem unless older persons are exposed to stressors that exceed their reserves.
3 Heart valves in the aging heart are thicker and more rigid.
4 Blood vessels in the aging cardiovascular system thicken and become less elastic.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Perfusion

 

  1. ANS:  4

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes to the body systems.

Chapter page reference: 28

Heading: Normal Physiological Changes According to Body Systems

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 Driving a car might be an instrumental activity of daily living, however, function is more than performing this one function.
2 Quality of life is one aspect of functioning.
3 The level of functioning may not be as it was when the person was younger.
4 The definition of function is the ability to perform ADLs and instrumental ADLs, taking into consideration quality of life.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Promoting Health

 

  1. ANS:  4

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Respiratory

Chapter page reference: 29

Heading: Respiratory System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing; Oxygenation

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 Kyphosis is a normal change in aging that increases residual lung volume in an older patient.
2 Decreased elastic recoil is a normal change in aging that increases residual lung volume in an older patient.
3 A decreased number of functioning alveoli is a normal change in aging that increases residual lung volume in an older patient.
4 Decreased efficiency of gas exchange in the alveoli affects the efficiency of oxygen availability.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Oxygenation

 

  1. ANS:  1

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Respiratory

Chapter page reference: 29

Heading: Respiratory System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Nursing; Oxygenation

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
1 Exercise and activity are necessary to promote respiratory health.
2 Frequent naps and rest periods discourage physical activity.
3 Avoiding strenuous lifting and physical activity does not promote respiratory health.
4 The use of inhalers is not a routine intervention to promote respiratory health in an older adult.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Oxygenation

 

  1. ANS:  2

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Respiratory

Chapter page reference: 29

Heading: Respiratory System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Nursing; Oxygenation

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
1 In the normal aging process, abdominal muscles weaken, decreasing inspiratory and expiratory efforts.
2 With aging the thoracic spine shortens.
3 In the normal aging process, the rib cage becomes rigid because of calcification of cartilage.
4 In the normal aging process, alveolus capillary membranes thicken, decreasing the surface area for gas exchange

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Oxygenation

 

  1. ANS:  1

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Musculoskeletal

Chapter page reference: 29

Heading: Musculoskeletal System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Nursing; Mobility

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  Feedback
1 Exercise would increase an older adults energy level, but inactivity does not cause decreased energy.
2 Inactivity decreases bone mass.
3 Inactivity decreases muscle mass.
4 Inactivity decreases joint range of motion.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Mobility

 

  1. ANS:  2

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Integumentary

Chapter page reference: 30

Heading: Integumentary System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Nursing; Thermo-Regulation

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
1 This is a musculoskeletal system change.
2 The decrease in sweat production and loss of the insulating fat layer underlying the skin makes an older adult prone to hyperthermia and hypothermia.
3 This is a musculoskeletal system change.
4 Some older adults who are self-conscious of age spots on their arms may choose not to wear short-sleeved or sleeveless shirts. Older adults may find that because of changes in their muscle mass and fat distribution, their clothing does not fit as well.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Thermo-regulation

 

  1. ANS:  2

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Integumentary

Chapter page reference: 30

Heading: Integumentary System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Nursing; Skin Integrity

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
1 Washing the skin daily with soap will not guarantee that age changes of the skin will be less.
2 Sun exposure intensifies the normal aging changes and increases an older adults risk of developing skin cancer.
3 Using vitamin-E fortified lotion daily will not guarantee that age changes of the skin will be less.
4 Using rose milk lotion daily will not guarantee that age changes of the skin will be less.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Skin Integrity

 

  1. ANS:  1

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Musculoskeletal

Chapter page reference: 30

Heading: Musculoskeletal System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Nursing; Mobility

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
1 Exercise assists in increasing endurance and muscle strength, which affects functional ability.
2 Calcium supplements help prevent porous, brittle bones that are susceptible to fractures; this assists in functional ability.
3 Napping encourages inactivity, which does not contribute to maintaining a healthy musculoskeletal system.
4 A diet rich in carbohydrates would cause weight gain, placing greater strain on joints and bones.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Mobility

 

  1. ANS:  1

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Gastrointestinal

Chapter page reference: 31

Heading: Gastrointestinal System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Nursing; Digestion

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
1 Slowed gastric emptying may cause an older person to have feelings of fullness and a lack of appetite. Eating smaller, more frequent meals may decrease this discomfort.
2 Forcing oneself to eat is not good nutritional advice.
3 Eating one meal a day is not good nutritional advice.
4 Roughage and fluid are important to promote bowel function.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Digestion

 

  1. ANS:  2

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Integumentary

Chapter page reference: 30

Heading: Integumentary System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Nursing; Skin Integrity

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
1 The circulatory system is not the most influenced by previous life patterns and environmental conditions.
2 Exposure to sun, earlier health practices regarding diet, grooming, physical activity, genetic factors, and biochemical and environmental factors affect the integumentary system.
3 The respiratory system is not the most influenced by previous life patterns and environmental conditions.
4 The gastrointestinal system is not the most influenced by previous life patterns and environmental conditions.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Skin Integrity

 

  1. ANS:  1

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Genitourinary

Chapter page reference: 31

Heading: Genitourinary System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing; Urinary Elimination

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
1 Benign enlargement of the prostate is a normal aging change.
2 Prostate enlargement is not always related to the presence of cancer.
3 Prostate enlargement is not related to impotence.
4 Enlargement of the prostate can cause urethral obstruction and is the primary cause of overflow incontinence and urinary dribbling.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing | Urinary Elimination

 

  1. ANS:  4

Chapter number and title: Chapter 2 The Aging Experience

Chapter/learning objective: 3. Identify age-related changes in the following body systems: Genitourinary

Chapter page reference: 31

Heading: Genitourinary System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive level: Knowledge [Remembering]

Concept: Nursing; Urinary Elimination

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
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