Arnett 1st Edition Human Development A Cultural Approach Test bank

Arnett  1st Edition Human Development A Cultural Approach  Test bank
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Chapter 2 Genetics and Prenatal Development

Section 1 Genetic Influence on Development 128
Test Item File 128
Multiple Choice Questions 128
Short Answer Questions 163
Essay Questions 164
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank 166
Pre-Test 166
Post-Test 167
Chapter Exam 169
Quick Review 172
Video Guide Questions 176
Short Answer Questions 176
Multiple Choice Questions 176
Section 2 Prenatal Development and Prenatal Care 178
Test Item File 178
Multiple Choice Questions 178
Short Answer Questions 206
Essay Questions 207
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank 209
Pre-Test 209
Post-Test 210
Chapter Exam 212
Quick Review 215
Video Guide Questions 218
Short Answer Questions 218
Multiple Choice Questions 218
Section 3 Pregnancy Problems 223
Test Item File 223
Multiple Choice Questions 223
Short Answer Questions 247
Essay Questions 248
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank 250
Pre-Test 250
Post-Test 252
Chapter Exam 254
Quick Review 257
Video Guide Questions 262
Short Answer Questions 262
Multiple Choice Questions 262

Section 1 Genetic Influence on Development

Test Item File

Difficulty
1=Easy; 2=Moderate; 3=Difficult

Learning Objective number refers to the textbooks learning objectives.

MDL Parallel Question ID refers to the correlating question found in MyDevelopmentLab. For your convenience, the MyDevelopmentLab items for this chapter are included in this document after the Test Item File.
Pre=Pre-Test
Post=Post-Test
CE=Chapter Exam
QR=Quick Review
Multiple Choice Questions

1. The human body contains how many chromosomes?
a. 23
b. 46
c. 69
d. 92
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.1

2. The average human cell has ____ chromosomes.
a. 42
b. 46
c. 23
d. 26
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.1
% correct 84 a= 1 b= 84 c= 14 d= 1 r = .19

3. How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
a. 23
b. 46
c. 69
d. 92
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.2
% correct 76 a= 76 b= 24 c= 0 d= 0 r = .33

4. How many chromosomes from each pair of chromosomes are generally inherited from the father?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 46
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

5. According to the text, chromosomes are composed of complex molecules known as _____.
a. nucleotides
Incorrect. The complex molecules are known as DNA.
b. genes
c. DNA
Correct. DNA is a long strand of cell material that stores and transfers genetic information.
d. RNA
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 45
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.5

6. Chromosomes are composed of complex molecules known as ____.
a. DNA
b. nucleotide pairs
c. genetic
d. dominant recessive
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

7. Chromosomes are organized into segments called ____.
a. DNA
Incorrect. The segments are called genes.
b. RNA
c. genes
Correct. Genes are segments of DNA that contain coded instructions for the growth and functioning of an organism.
d. nucleotides
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

8. Genes contain paired sequences of chemicals called ____.
a. genes
b. RNA
c. DNA
d. nucleotides
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

9. Genes are made of ____.
a. protein segments
b. nucleotides
c. fatty cells
d. chromosomes
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.2

10. Approximately how many genes comprise the human genome?
a. 10,000
b. 23,000
c. 50,000
d. 100,000
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

11. How many nucleotide pairs comprise the human genome?
a. 100,000
b. 150 million
c. 3 billion
d. 5 trillion
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

12. The totality of an individuals genes is referred to as his or her ____.
a. phenotype
b. genotype
c. inheritance
d. environment
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.3

13. An individuals complete genetic makeup is his or her ____.
a. genotype
b. phenotype
c. allele
d. reaction range
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.4

14. A persons ____ is/are their genetic makeup, whereas a persons ____ is/are their characteristics.
a. phenotype; genotype
b. genotype; phenotype
c. nucelotides; DNA
d. DNA; nucleotides
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.3
% correct 88 a= 12 b= 88 c= 0 d= 0 r = .43

15. The expression of an individuals genetic material is referred to as his or her _____.
a. phenotype
b. genotype
c. inheritance
d. environment
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

16. A persons characteristics are known as his or her ____.
a. phenotype
b. genotype
c. chromosomes
d. DNA
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

17. The difference between an individuals genotype and its expression in his or her phenotype is a consequence of the persons ____.
a. genes
b. DNA
c. environment
d. parents
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 45
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.5

18. Fred was born into a family with high musical talent. Both his parents were professional musicians who encouraged and fostered his musical development. Throughout childhood he practiced the guitar whenever he could and eventually became a professional musician himself. Which of the following best describes Freds genotype?
a. Freds musical genes
Correct. Ones genotype is his or her complete genetic makeup.
b. Freds musical talent
Incorrect. Musical talent is the characteristic, or the phenotype.
c. Freds nurturing parents
d. Freds musical genes and musical talent
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 45
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.10, Post 2.1.10

19. Jills mother was an All-American in the 1,500m and qualified for the Olympic team in the marathon. Jill is a freshman in high school and does not think that she will need to train to become a member of the schools cross country team. Jill keeps telling you that her mother was a great runner, so she will also be a great runner. What do you think?
a. She is correct; she will be a great runner no matter what she does.
Incorrect. Jill will need to train to become a great runner; that is, she will need to interact with the environment to express those genes.
b. It is unlikely that Jill even has the genotype for running.
c. Jill might have the genotype for running ability, but she will need to train become a great runner.
Correct. The athletic ability that may be present in Jills genotype will not express itself if she does nothing to encourage it, such as training.
d. Jill has also inherited the genes for superior intelligence.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 4546
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

20. Alejandro was born into a family with high musical talent. Both his parents were professional musicians who encouraged and fostered his musical development. Throughout childhood he practiced the guitar whenever he could and eventually became a professional musician himself. Which of the following best describes Alejandros phenotype?
a. Alejandros musical genes
Incorrect. Alejandros musical genes are his genotype.
b. Alejandros musical talent
c. Alejandros nurturing parents
Correct. Alejandros genotype includes exceptional musical ability, but its his parents support of this ability that encouraged those genes to be expressed.
d. Alejandros practice of the guitar
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 46
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

21. Thomass biological mother and father are both gifted athletes. He was adopted by a couple who had no interest in him being involved in sports. Although Thomas likely inherited athletic ability, it was never expressed in his _____.
a. genotype
b. phenotype
Correct. Thomas likely inherited his biological parents genotype, but his adoptive parents disinterest in sports likely inhibited the development of athletic ability in Thomass phenotype.
c. genes
Incorrect. His genetic potential was not expressed in his phenotype.
d. alleles
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 46
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 89 a= 7 b= 89 c= 3 d= 2 r = .18

22. On every pair of chromosomes there are how many forms of each gene?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 46
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.1

23. Each form of a gene that is contained within a chromosome is referred to as a ____.
a. dominant gene
b. recessive gene
c. allele
d. single gene
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 46
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

24. What type of gene, if it is present, will be expressed in the phenotype?
a. recessive gene
b. dominant gene
Correct. Recessive genes will only be expressed when there is no dominant gene present.
c. expressed gene
d. controller gene
Incorrect. If a dominant gene is present it will be expressed in the phenotype.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 46
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

25. If having more than five fingers occurs because of a dominant gene, what needs to happen for a person to have more than five fingers?
a. A person must have that dominant gene.
Correct. If a dominant gene is present it will be expressed in the phenotype.
b. A person must have two recessive genes.
c. The gene must mutate.
d. Both dominant genes must be present.
Incorrect. For a dominant cell trait to be expressed, all that is needed is the presence of the dominant cell.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 46
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.6

26. If the gene for curly hair is dominant and the gene for straight hair is recessive, from a dominant-recessive pairing, which of the following would be an individuals phenotype?
a. straight hair
Incorrect. Straight hair is recessive.
b. curly hair
Correct. Since curly hair is a dominant trait and a heterozygotic pairing is present, the individuals phenotype would be the curly hair, because curly hair is dominant and straight hair is recessive.
c. dominant-recessive
d. their complete genetic makeup
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 46
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

27. Jills mother and father both have brown eyes yet she has blue eyes. She has come to believe that she is not her parents actual biological daughter. What would you tell her?
a. Her mother and father probably carry the recessive trait for blue eyes. Correct. The blue-eyed child of two brown-eyed parents probably inherited a recessive blue-eyed gene from each parent.
b. She is correct; there is no way that she would have blue eyes if she were really her parents biological daughter.
Incorrect. Her parents most likely carry the recessive trait from blue eyes.
c. Blue eyes are dominant, so her parents should have blue eyes too.
d. Only the environment determines eye color once the fetus has been born.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 46
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 97 a= 97 b= 2 c= 1 d= 0 r = .20

28. For a recessive gene to be expressed in the phenotype, it must be paired with a ____.
a. dominant gene
b. recessive gene
Correct. Two recessive genes must be present for that trait to be expressed.
c. expressed gene
Incorrect. It must be paired with another recessive gene to be expressed.
d. controller gene
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 46
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

29. What is occurring when the phenotype is influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene?
a. expression of the dominant gene
b. expression of the recessive gene
c. incomplete dominance
Correct. The sickle-cell trait that is common among black Africans and African Americans is an example.
d. failure of expression
Incorrect. Incomplete dominance occurs when the phenotype is influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 46
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

30. In a dominant-recessive pairing, which of the following genes would be expressed in a persons phenotype?
a. the dominant
Correct. In a dominant-recessive pairing, the dominant gene will express itself in a persons phenotype. For example, if you inherited a gene for curly hair from one parent and straight hair from the other, you would have curly hair, because curly hair is dominant and straight hair is recessive.
b. the recessive
Incorrect. The recessive trait would not be expressed in the presence of a dominant gene.
c. the dominant-recessive pairing
d. it is too complicated to know which genes will be expressed
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 46
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

31. Which of the following is an example of an incomplete dominant inheritance?
a. Down syndrome
Incorrect. Down syndrome is a genetic-linked disorder.
b. Fragile X
c. sickle-cell anemia
Correct. Incomplete dominance occurs when the phenotype is influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene. One example of incomplete dominance involves the sickle-cell trait that is common among black Africans and their descendants, such as African Americans.
d. HIV
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 46
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.7

32. Who is most likely to have sickle-cell anemia?
a. European and European Americans
b. Hispanics and Hispanic Americans
c. Asians and Asian Americans
Incorrect. Africans and African Americans are most likely to have sickle-cell Anemia.
d. Africans and African Americans
Correct. It also occurs more rarely in people whose ancestors came from India or the Mediterranean.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 46
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

33. What recessive disorder results in non-normal shaped blood cells that clog up blood vessels and cause pain, increased susceptibility to disease, and early death?
a. Tay-Sachs
b. trisomy-21
c. sickle-cell anemia
d. malaria
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 46
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

34. Sickle-cell anemia is an evolutionary defense against what disease?
a. sickle-cell trait
b. malaria
c. smallpox
d. Nile fever
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 47
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 88 a= 6 b= 88 c= 0 d= 6 r = .57

35. Single gene pairs play a crucial role in development. However, it is more common that developmental outcomes occur because of the interaction of multiple genes. This is known as _____.
a. inheritability
b. polygenic inheritance
Correct. Polygenetic inheritance accounts for characteristics such as height and weight as well as intelligence and personality.
c. bimodal inheritance
Incorrect. This type of inheritance is referred to as polygenic inheritance.
d. single dominance
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 47
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

36. Characteristics such as height, weight, and skin color are made up of a ____.
a. homogenetic inheritance
b. heterogenetic inheritance
c. dominant-recessive inheritance
d. polygenetic inheritance
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 47
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 47 a= 6 b= 18 c= 29 d= 47 r = .16

37. The chromosomes that determine if a fetus will be male or female are known as the _____.
a. sex chromosomes
Correct. These are called XX in females and XY in males.
b. gender chromosomes
Incorrect. The sex chromosomes determine the sex of the offspring.
c. male chromosomes
d. female chromosomes
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

38. If the fetus has the sex chromosomes XX, its genotype is ____.
a. female
Correct. Males have XY sex chromosomes.
b. male
Incorrect. XX genotype for the sex chromosome would be female.
c. undertermined
d. dimorphic
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

39. If the fetus has the sex chromosomes XY, its genotype is _____.
a. female
Incorrect. XY genotype for the sex chromosome would be male.
b. male
Correct. Females have XX sex chromosomes.
c. undetermined
d. dimorphic
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

40. A person with an XY pairing of chromosomes is a ____, whereas a person with an XX pairing of chromosomes is a ____.
a. male; female
b. female; male
c. homogenetic inheritance; polygenetic inheritance
d. polygenetic inheritance; homogenetic inheritance
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 48
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

41. Which of the two sex chromosomes is significantly smaller and contains approximately 30% less genetic material?
a. X
Incorrect. The Y chromosome is notably smaller and contains less genetic material.
b. Y
Correct.
c. O
d. They are both the same
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

42. Of the following, which best describes the Y chromosome?
a. The Y chromosome is bigger than X chromosome.
b. The Y chromosome contains 30% less genetic material than the X chromosome.
c. The Y chromosome is responsible for determining the sex of the child.
d. There are no differences between the Y chromosome and the X chromosome.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 48
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

43. All ova contain which sex chromosome?
a. X
Correct. Females carry no Y chromosomes.
b. Y
Incorrect. All ova contain only the X chromosome.
c. O
d. None
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.2

44. All ova, a female reproductive egg, are ____.
a. X chromosome
b. Y chromosome
c. XY chromosome
d. XX chromosome
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

45. What determines the sex of the offspring?
a. the ovum
b. the first sperm cell to arrive at the ovum
c. egg re-arrangement at fertilization
d. time of the monthly cycle when fertilization occurs
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

46. What happens that determines the sex of the offspring?
a. The ovum contains the X chromosome and the sperm cells carry either the X or the Y. The sperm cell that is involved in fertilization determines the sex of the offspring.
Correct. The womans ova are not responsible for determining a childs sex as they carry only X chromosomes.
b. The sperm cells all carry the X chromosome. The ovum contains both the X and Y so it is the ovum that determines the sex of the offspring.
Incorrect. The sperm cell determines the sex of the offspring because it either carries the Y or the X chromosome.
c. The ovum and sperm cells both carry X chromosomes. The placenta carries both the X and Y and it determines the sex of the offspring.
d. The ovum and the sperm cells both contain the X chromosome. During the course of fertilization either an X or a Y will be created, which determines the sex of the offspring.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

47. Your older brother has a friend who was angry with his wife because they have two sons and he wanted to have a daughter. He thought that she was responsible for having two boys rather than a boy and a girl. What would you tell your brother?
a. His friend was correct, she was purposefully having sons instead of a daughter.
b. It was not anyones fault, but the sperm determined the sex of the offspring.
Correct. The sex of the offspring is determined by which chromosome is contributed by the sperm.
c. It was not anyones fault even though her ova determined the sex of the offspring.
Incorrect. The sperm cell determines the sex of the offspring.
d. Sex of the offspring is determined by day of the week. They both should have known what day they were trying to conceive.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 48
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 76 a= 6 b= 76 c= 12 d= 6 r = .17

48. While having a conversation with a friend who is pregnant, she says to you that since she is carrying high she will have a girl. Based upon the textbook, which of the following statements are you thinking?
a. There is no scientific evidence to support her belief.
Correct. This is a common misconception that has no scientific basis.
b. There are countless research studies that support her belief.
c. Statistically speaking she is correct.
Incorrect. Carrying high is folklore.
d. She is wrong, a pregnant woman who is carrying high a more likely to be carrying a boy.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 49
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

49. Who is more affected by X-linked inherited disorders?
a. females
Incorrect. Males are more likely to be affected by X-linked inherited disorders.
b. males
Correct. Males are more affected because they do not have a second X chromosome that may be carrying a dominant gene to block the expression of an X-linked inherited disorder.
c. children under one year of age.
d. adults with mutations
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 49
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

50. Who are generally carriers of X-linked disorders?
a. females
b. males
c. individuals who have been exposed to teratogens
d. individuals with a trisomy
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 49
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

51. Why are males more likely to have X-linked inherited disorders?
a. If the X chromosome contains the recessive gene for the disorder, their Y chromosome has no dominant gene to prevent it.
Correct. Males also would not have a second X chromosome that may contain a dominant gene to block the X-linked inherited disorder.
b. They are generally more immature at birth
c. Androgen is a hormone that causes disorders to occur
d. If the Y chromosome does not develop properly, the genes on this chromosome cannot prevent the disorder from occurring
Incorrect. If the X chromosome contains the recessive gene for the disorder, the Y chromosome does not have the genes to counteract the gene on the X chromosome.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 49
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A% correct 91 a= 91 b= 0 c= 0 d= 9 r = .20

52. Why are males more susceptible to X linked disorders?
a. Because males have an XX pairing of chromosomes; therefore, this increases their odds of a disorder.
b. Because males have an XY pairing of chromosomes and the Y chromosome is more likely to host a genetic disorder.
c. Because most genetic disorders are connected to the dominant gene and since men have an XY pairing a disorder is more likely to be expressed.
d. Because males have one X chromosome and if a recessive gene for a disorder is present he does not have another X chromosome that may contain a dominant gene to block its expression.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 49
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

53. Which of the following is an example of an X-linked disorder?
a. schizophrenia
b. hemophilia
c. bipolar Disease
d. enuresis
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 49
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

54. Your friend has hemophilia and was worried that he could pass it to his offspring when he had children. What would you tell him?
a. He is probably correct, he will pass hemophilia on
b. Hemophilia is an X-linked disorder and it would be impossible for him to pass it to any male offspring. It would be possible for his female offspring to be carriers though.
Correct. Since his male offspring would inherit his Y chromosome, he cannot pass along an X-linked disorder to them.
c. X-linked disorders are not inherited; he has no worries
Incorrect. X-linked disorders are inherited.
d. Since he has hemophilia, he is probably sterile and unable to father children.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 49
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

55. Which of the following is an example of an X-linked inheritance disorder?
a. autism
b. Down syndrome
c. hemophilia
d. Turners syndrome
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

56. Nature is to ____ as nurture is to ____.
a. conditioning; learning
b. learning; conditioning
c. environment; genetics
d. genetics; environment
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.2
% correct 82 a= 0 b= 6 c= 12 d= 82 r = .32

57. According to your text, what have researchers concluded about the naturenurture debate in terms of development?
a. Genetics is more important.
b. Environment is more important.
c. Both are important.
d. Genetics is more important in infancy and environment in childhood.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.4

58. Which the following statement best describes the naturenurture debate?
a. Most characteristics develop solely from nature or nurture, but not both.
b. Most characteristics develop from a combination of nature and nurture.
c. Most characteristics develop from only nature.
d. Most characteristics develop from only nurture.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

59. What field is concerned with the question of how much genes influence development?
a. embryology
b. behavior genetics
c. developmental psychology
d. genetics
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

60. A behavioral geneticist would use which of the following research methods to study the influence of genetics?
a. longitudinal studies
b. cross-sectional studies
c. quasi-experimental studies
d. twin and adoption studies
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

61. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are also known as _____.
a. fraternal twins
b. identical twins
c. dizygotic twins
d. conjoined twins
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.5

62. What percentage of their genes do monozygotic twins have in common?
a. 40%
b. 60%
c. 80%
d. 100%
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

63. Which of the following have a 100% genetic similarity to each other?
a. brother and sister
b. dizygotic twins
c. cousins
d. monozygotic twins
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.9

64. If temperament were genetically based, which of the following would have the greatest degree of similarity?
a. monozygotic twins
Correct. Monozygotic twins have a 100% genetic similarity.
b. dizygotic twins
Incorrect. Dizygotic twins have a 40 to 60% genetic similarity.
c. parents and children
d. cousins
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.6

65. Dizygotic (DZ) twins are also known as:
a. fraternal twins
Correct. Dizygotic twins result when a woman releases two ova and both are fertilized by sperm.
b. identical twins
Incorrect. Identical twins are monozygotic twins.
c. monozygotic twins
d. conjoined twins
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

66. You are pushing a stroller that has two babies in it. One boy, dressed in blue, and one girl, dressed in pink. Someone stops you tells you how beautiful your baby boy and girl are. Then they ask if they are identical twins. You tell them they are not, but what are you thinking?
a. It is impossible to have identical twins of different sexes.
Correct. Identical twins have exactly the same genotype, including sex.
b. They could be identical; that was a great question.
Incorrect. Identical twins share 100% of their genes, so they would both be of the same sex.
c. Fraternal twins are usually both girls.
d. Fraternal twins are usually both boys.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.14
% correct 85 a= 85 b= 13 c= 1 d= 1 r = .20

67. What percentage of their genes do dizygotic twins have in common?
a. 100%
b. 70 to 90%
c. 40 to 60%
d. 10 to 30%
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

68. Which of the following have a 40 to 60% similarity of genetic inheritance?
a. identical twins
b. fraternal twins
c. cousins
d. adopted siblings
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

69. What percentage of their genes do parents and their children have in common?
a. 10%
b. 30%
c. 50%
d. 70%
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

70. What type of study allows researchers to study whether certain behaviors or traits are more closely related to their genetics or their environment?
a. genetics
Incorrect. Adoption studies examine the effects of environment.
b. temperament
c. chromosomal
d. adoption
Correct. Adoption studies let researchers observe the behavior of parents and children who share no genetic material.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.10

71. ____ is an estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population.
a. Heritability
b. Reaction range
c. Genetic ratio
d. Environmental coefficient
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

72. What is the name of the statistic that ranges from 0 to 1.00 and is used to estimate the degree to which genes are responsible for differences among people from a specific population?
a. genetic correlation
b. heritability estimate
c. concordance rate
d. chromosomal correction
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

73. The heritability estimate ranges from ____.
a. 1 to 100
b. 0 to 1.00
c. 1 to 5
d. 0 to 20
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 50
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

74. Professor Glossner proposes that the heritability of temperament is .80. Which of the following statements does Professor Glossner propose?
a. A large portion of temperament is determined by genetics.
Correct. Heritability is an estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population. The value of the heritability estimate ranges from 0 to 1.00. The higher the heritability, the more the characteristic is believed to be influenced by genetics.
b. A large portion of temperament is determined by environment.
Incorrect. From the estimate provided, 20% is determined by the environment.
c. 80% of temperament is determined by the X chromosome.
d. 20% of temperament is determined by the X chromosome.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 50
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.7

75. Your friends mother is extremely intelligent. As a result, even though he usually does OK in school (2.8 GPA) he is convinced that he is a genius. What do you think?
a. Since heritability estimates for intelligence are .50, he is probably overestimating his intelligence.
Correct. Heritability estimates for intelligence are .50, so given his GPA, it is likely that he is exaggerating his level of intelligence.
b. He is definitely correct; he is likely a genius.
Incorrect. Heritability estimates for intelligence are .50, so given his GPA, it is likely that he is exaggerating his level of intelligence.
c. Actually, children of intellectually gifted adults are usually much lower in intelligence.
d. With a 2.8 GPA, he must be correct.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 51
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

76. According to your text, what percentage of variation of intelligence is estimated to be attributed to genetics?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 51
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.4

77. What measure allows researchers to estimate not just genetic influence, but of how much the environment allows the genes to be expressed?
a. genetic correlation
b. heritability estimate
Correct. Heritability is an estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population.
c. concordance rate
Incorrect. The heritability estimate includes not just genetics, but how much the environment allows the genes to be expressed.
d. chromosomal correction
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 51
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

78. Concordance rate is defined as _____.
a. the degree of similarity in characteristics among peoples of a cultural group
b. the influence of genes on development by comparing people who share different amounts of their genes
c. the percentage that indicates the degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members
d. the degree of difference as expressed by variations in environment
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 51
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 88 a= 6 b= 0 c= 88 d= 6 r = .29

79. If you were to design a research study that examines depression in relation to concordance rate, which of the following are the best groups to use for comparison?
a. identical twins to and fraternal twins
Correct. Monozygotic twins are identical with a 100% genetic similarity and dizygotic twins are fraternal with a 50% genetic similarity. Therefore, twin studies are important in estimating concordance rate.
b. college students and the general public
c. brothers and sisters
Incorrect. Brothers and sisters have a 50% genetic similarity. Therefore, a comparison with the same environment will be of little value.
d. parent(s) and children
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 51
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.8

80. When concordance rates are higher among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, this indicates which of the following?
a. There is partially a genetic basis.
b. There is partially an environmental basis.
c. There is a 100% environmental cause.
d. There is a 100% genetic cause.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 51
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

81. Which measure allows behavior geneticists to determine the percentage of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members and is used mostly to examine mental disorders?
a. genetic correlation
b. heritability estimate
Incorrect. Similarity of phenotypes is estimated with the concordance rate.
c. concordance rate
Correct. Concordance rates range from 0 to 100%. The higher the concordance rate, the more similar two persons are.
d. chromosomal correction
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 51
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

82. Which of the following pairs would have a higher concordance rate for schizophrenia?
a. monozygotic twins
b. dizygotic twins
c. adopted siblings
d. cousins
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 51
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.5
% correct 80 a= 80 b= 18 c= 1 d= 1 r = .38

83. If John has schizophrenia, how likely is it that his monozygotic twin brother will also have schizophrenia?
a. Johns brother will also have schizophrenia.
b. There is an 80% probability that Johns brother will have schizophrenia.
Incorrect. There is a 50% probability that his identical twin will also have schizophrenia.
c. There is a 50% probability that Johns brother will have schizophrenia.
Correct. The concordance rate for schizophrenia among monozygotic, or identical, twins is 50%.
d. Johns brother will not have schizophrenia.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 51
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

84. If John has schizophrenia, how likely is it that his dizygotic twin brother will also have schizophrenia?
a. Johns brother will also have schizophrenia.
b. There is a 38% probability that Johns brother will have schizophrenia.
Incorrect. There is an 18% probability that his fraternal twin will also have schizophrenia.
c. There is an 18% probability that Johns brother will have schizophrenia.
Correct. The concordance rate for schizophrenia among dizygotic, or fraternal, twins is 18%.
d. Johns brother will not have schizophrenia.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 51
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.8, CE 2.1.15

85. The ____ is when genes establish boundaries for environmental influences rather than specifically denoting a particular characteristic.
a. reaction range
b. nature-nurture debate
c. genetic ratio
d. concordance rate
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 52
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.4
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

86. Genes establish a potential of expression and environment determines where a persons phenotype will fall. What is this boundary of genetic influence?
a. Environmental influence
b. Gene boundaries
c. The inheritability estimate
Incorrect. The boundary of genetic influence is the reaction range.
d. The reaction range
Correct. The reaction range is when genes establish boundaries for environmental influences.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 52
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.4
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

87. The concept of reaction range proposes ____ establish(es) boundaries, whereas ____ determines where a person falls within that range.
a. genetics; environment
b. environment; genetics
c. phenotype; genotype
d. polygenetic inheritance; homogenetic inheritance
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 52
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.4
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.3
% correct 53 a= 53 b= 12 c= 0 d= 29 r = .48

88. Elizabeth was just born. Her father is 6 8 tall and her mother is 5 11 tall. It is quite likely that Elizabeth will be tall as well. However, the environment will play a role in her eventual height as well. The genetic potential for Elizabeths height is known as the ____.
a. environmental range
b. reaction range
Correct. The reaction range is when genes establish boundaries for environmental influences.
c. genetic range
Incorrect. Elizabeths genetic potential for height is her reaction range.
d. Interaction range
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 52
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.4
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.8
% correct 50 a= 9 b= 50 c= 32 d= 8 r = .40
89. Which of the following individuals illustrates a person who is closer to the peak of their reaction range?
a. Samir was born with a potential IQ of 145 (gifted IQ), was raised in an educationally enriching environment, and is a highly motivated learner.
Correct. Reaction range proposes that genetics establishes limits, whereas ones environment places them on that scale. This means that Samir was born with a potential of an IQ of 145 and he is living within an environment that allows him to reach his fullest potential.
b. Joseppi, who was born with a potential IQ of 145 (gifted IQ), was raised in an educationally deprived environment and is an unmotivated learner.
Incorrect. Joseppi has the genetic potential; however, his environment is limiting.
c. Susan was born with the potential IQ of 80 (below average IQ), was raised in an educationally deprived environment and is an unmotivated learner.
d. Iman, who was born with the potential IQ of 80 (below average IQ), was raised in an educationally enriching environment and is an unmotivated learner who makes little progress.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 52
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.4
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.9

90. In the past few decades, the average height of adults in Western countries has not changed much. This indicates that adult height for these countries has reached the upper boundary of their ____.
a. socio-economic range
b. health status
c. reaction range
Correct. Reaction range proposes that genetics establishes limits, whereas ones environment places them on that scale.
d. range of genetic dominance
Incorrect. Adult heigh in Western countries has reached the upper boundary of their reaction range.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 52
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.4
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.8

91. Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney proposed the theory of genotype environment effects. Which subtype occurs in biological families because parents provide both genes and environment for their children?
a. Passive genotype environment effects
Correct. Its difficult to separate genetic influences from environmental influences because parents provide both.
b. Evocative genotype environment effects
Incorrect. The genotype environment effect in this case would be passive genotype environment effect.
c. Active genotype environment effects
d. Inactive genotype environment effects
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 52
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.5
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.7

92. Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney proposed the theory of genotype environment effects. Which subtype occurs when a persons inherited characteristics bring about responses from others in their environment?
a. Passive genotype environment effects
Incorrect. The genotype environment effect in this case would be evocative genotype environment effect.
b. Evocative genotype environment effects
Correct. An example would be a parent who buys more books for a child who seems to enjoy reading and thereby encourages the expression of her inherited interest in reading.
c. Active genotype environment effects
d. Inactive genotype environment effects
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 53
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.5
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.9

93. Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney proposed the theory of genotype environment effects. Which subtype occurs when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics?
a. Passive genotype environment effects
b. Evocative genotype environment effects
c. Active genotype environment effects
Correct. An example would be an outgoing young adult seeking a career where she can interact with other people all day.
d. Inactive genotype environment effects
Incorrect. The genotype environment effect in this case would be active genotype environment effect.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 53
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.5
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 81 a= 7 b= 10 c= 81 d= 2 r = .37
94. What are the only cells in the human body that do not contain 46 chromosomes?
a. lens cells
b. neurons
c. hair cells
d. gametes
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 55
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.10
% correct 81 a= 4 b= 8 c= 7 d= 81 r = .31

95. Human sex cells, sperm and ova, each contain how many chromosomes?
a. 23
b. 46
c. 23 pairs
d. 46 pairs
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 55
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

96. Sperm and ova are produced by which of the following, respectively?
a. penis and uterus
b. scrotum and vulva
c. testes and ovaries
d. kidneys and pancreas
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 55
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

97. Through what process are gametes formed?
a. mitosis
b. meiosis
c. sex differentiation
d. dimorphic cell division
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 55
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.6

98. What is the process of regular cell division called?
a. mitosis
b. meiosis
c. sex differentiation
d. dimorphic cell division
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 55
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.3

99. ____ is known as the normal process of cell reproduction in which chromosomes duplicate themselves and the cells divide to become two cells.
a. Meiosis
b. Mitosis
c. Polar bodies
d. Crossing over
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 55
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

100. In the process of meiosis, how many chromosomes does the cell originally have and how many chromosomes are present when the gametes are formed?
a. 92, 46
b. 69, 46
c. 46, 23
d. 23, 23
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 55
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

101. At the conclusion of meiosis how many sperm cells have been formed?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 8
d. 16
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 56
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

102. At the conclusion of meiosis how may ova have been formed?
a. 1 with 3 polar bodies
b. 2 with 2 polar bodies
c. 3 with 1 polar body
d. 4 with no polar bodies
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 56
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

103. According to the text, why does the ovum have an excessive amount of cytoplasm?
a. so that there is ample room for the sperms nucleus once it arrives
b. to help protect against invading cells
Incorrect. Cytoplasm will be the main source of nutrition for the ovum.
c. so that the ovum can be easily found by the sperm cells
d. it will be the ovums main source of nutrition
Correct. Cytoplasm is the ovums source of nutrients for the first two weeks after fertilization.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 56
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

104. What is the process that allows mixing the combinations of genes in a single chromosome resulting in a virtually infinite possible combination of genes?
a. sampling from a large genetic pool
b. gamete swapping
c. crossing over
d. mitosis
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 56
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

105. The typical male ejaculation expels how many sperm?
a. 100 to 300
b. 100 to 300 thousand
c. 100 to 300 million
d. 100 to 300 billion
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 56
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

106. Males begin producing sperm ____, whereas females produce ova ____.
a. at puberty; at puberty
b. while in the womb; at puberty
c. at puberty; while in the womb
d. while in the womb; while in the womb
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 56
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.13

107. How many ova are present in a female adolescents ovaries in puberty?
a. 20,000
b. 40,000
c. 60,000
d. 80,000
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 56
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

108. Most women will run out of fertile ova by the time they reach their ____.
a. 30s
b. 40s
c. 50s
d. 60s
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 56
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.1

109. Lamar and Chandra recently got married and have been discussing how long they could wait to have children. Based upon the text, at what age, statistically speaking, will Chandra run out of fertile ova?
a. 30s
Incorrect. Most women run out of ova some time in their 40s.
b. 40s
Correct. By contrast, men produce sperm throughout their adult lives although the quality and quantity may decline with age.
c. 50s
d. 60s
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 56
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 2.6
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.9

110. How many days into the womans menstrual cycle does ovulation occur?
a. 2
b. 14
c. 28
d. 40
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 57
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.7
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.11

111. Fertilization is most likely to occur when intercourse occurs ____.
a. within 2 days before and on the day of ovulation
Correct. It can take sperm from a few hours to a whole day to travel up the fallopian tubes.
b. 2 days after ovulation
Incorrect. Fertilization is likely to occur within two days before and on the day of ovulation.
c. 5 days after ovulation
d. 1 week after ovulation
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 57
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.7
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.7

112. According to the text, how long can sperm live in the womans body after ejaculation?
a. 12 hours
b. 1 day
c. 5 days
d. 1 week
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 57
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.7
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.12

113. When the ovum and sperm cells unite and fertilization has occurred, what has just been formed?
a. the fetus
b. the embryo
c. the blastocyst
Incorrect. When the ovum and sperm cells unite, the zygote has been formed.
d. the zygote
Correct. The zygotes 46 paired chromosomes constitute the new organisms unique genotype.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 57
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 2.7
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.6

114. When the ovum is fertilized by the sperm this is called ____.
a. fertility
b. conception
c. cervix
d. gametes
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 57
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.7
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

115. Which of the following has increased due to advancements in fertility treatments?
a. monozygotic twins
b. dizygotic twins
c. conjoined twins
d. Siamese twins
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 57
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 2.7
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.4

Short Answer Questions

116. Give an example that explains the difference between phenotype and genotypes.
Answer: Two identical twins will have the same genotype because their genetic make up is exactly the same, but if they were adopted into homes with parents who had different views about health, they may have different phenotypes. One may be overweight because eating junk food is the norm, whereas the other twin may have a trim athletic build because fitness was always a part of the familys routine and involvement in sports was encouraged.
Page 45-46
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply

117. You have likely heard people say the father is the one who determines the sex of the child. Explain whether or not this is true.
Answer: Females eggs have two X chromosomes and males sperm contains either an x or a y. When a zygote is formed, it always gets an x from the female, but it can get either an x or a y from the male. If it gets a y, the result is a male, if it gets an x, it becomes a female.
Page: 48
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand

118. Although often viewed as the stronger sex, explain why males are actually more vulnerable.
Answer: Because the sex chromosome of females is composed of two Xs, if one of these Xs contains a recessive gene for a disorder or disease, it will not manifest itself due to the other X overriding it and not allowing it to be expressed. Since the sex chromosome make up of the male is XY, if there is a recessive gene for a disorder on his X chromosome it will express itself because there is not another X chromosome that may contain a dominant gene to block its expression.
Page: 49
Learning Objective: 2.2
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand

119. The concordance rate for schizophrenia among identical twins is .40; the concordance rate for Schizophrenia is only .10 if a persons parent has schizophrenia. Explain what these number mean. Include a discussion of nature and nurture in your response.
Answer: This means that if one MZ twin has schizophrenia, there is a 40% chance that the other twin will also develop this disorder, whereas there is only a 10% chance of developing it if your mother or father has it. The higher rate for identical twins means that there is a genetic component to schizophrenia. However, there is still a 60% of not getting schizophrenia if your MZ has it, so environment plays a greater role than genes.
Page: 51
Learning Objective: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Understand

120. What is a reaction range? Provide an example to illustrate.
Answer: A reaction range refers to the range of possibilities that a person is capable of as set forth by their genetic make up. It is similar to ones genetic potential. If a persons parents are both short in stature with a petite frame, it is genetically possible that the child have a body type suitable to be a jockey. However, the environment plays an important role; if the person eats a high fat diet and does not maintain her health, she may not have the trim, strong build required for this work.
Page: 52
Learning Objective: 2.4
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply

Essay Questions

121. Explain the phenomenon of incomplete dominance in sickle cell inheritance.
Answer: Incomplete dominance occurs when there is a dominant-recessive pair of genes and the phenotype is affected mostly by the dominant gene, but the recessive gene also becomes expressed partially. In sickle cell anemia, a person inherits two recessive genes for the sickle-cell trait and their blood cells are disk-shaped rather than round, causing clogging and a number of problems, such as pain. If the person only inherits one recessive gene for the sickle cell trait, they will not have sickle cell anemia, but some of their blood cells will be misshaped. This condition causes resistance to malaria, an often fatal disease that is common in Africa. It would be adaptive to carry this recessive trait in Africa, so this explains the higher prevalence of sickle-cell diseases among people of African heritage.
Page: 46-47
Learning Objective: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy Level: Apply

122. Explain how DZ and MZ twins are formed. Include a discussion of ethnic variations and factors that increase the chances of having twins.
Answer: DZ twins result when the female releases two eggs instead of one and each is fertilized with a sperm. MZ twins result when a zygote is formed and it divides. DZ twins are more common among Africans and least common among Asians. MZ twins are not more common in some ethnic groups. The chances of having DZ twins increase if they run in the family, if the person is in good health and if the mother is older. None of these variables predicts MZ twins.
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