BROCK BIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS 13TH EDITION BY MADIGAN TEST BANK

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BROCK BIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS 13TH EDITION BY MADIGAN TEST BANK

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WITH ANSWERS
BROCK BIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS 13TH EDITION BY MADIGAN TEST BANK

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.


1)
 

The presence of membrane-enclosed organelles is a characteristic of
 

1)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

prokaryotic cells.
 

  1. B)

 

viruses.

 

  1. C)

 

all cells.
 

  1. D)

 

eukaryotic cells.

 

 

 

2)
 

Prokaryotes are made up of which two groups?
 

2)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

Archaea and fungi
 

  1. B)

 

Bacteria and fungi

 

  1. C)

 

protozoa and animals
 

  1. D)

 

Bacteria and Archaea


 

 

3)
 

Protein-coding sequences of DNA are known as
 

3)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

genes.
 

  1. B)

 

histones.

 

  1. C)

 

chromosomes.
 

  1. D)

 

RNA segments.

 

 

 

4)
 

The Gram stain differentiates bacterial cells into gram positive and gram negative based on differences in the
 

4)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

cells metabolic capabilities.
 

  1. B)

 

cell wall structure.

 

  1. C)

 

presence of a plasmid.
 

  1. D)

 

genomic content.

 

 

 

5)
 

Disease-causing prokaryotes are found exclusively among the
 

5)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

viruses.
 

  1. B)

 

Bacteria.
 

  1. C)

 

Archaea.
 

  1. D)

 

fungi.

 

 

 

6)
 

Organisms most likely to be found in extreme environments are
 

6)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

fungi.
 

  1. B)

 

Bacteria.
 

  1. C)

 

viruses.
 

  1. D)

 

Archaea.

 

 

 

7)
 

Cyanobacteria are most closely related to the
 

7)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

gram-negative Bacteria.
 

  1. B)

 

Eukarya.

 

  1. C)

 

Archaea.
 

  1. D)

 

gram-positive Bacteria.

 

 

 

8)
 

Syphilis and Lyme disease are both caused by
 

8)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

spirochetes.

 

  1. B)

 

endospores from the Bacillus group.

 

  1. C)

 

toxins from the Streptomyces.

 

  1. D)

 

mycoplasmas.

 

 

 

9)
 

Which of the following organisms lives within the host cell as a means of avoiding destruction by the hosts immune response?
 

9)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis


  1. B)

 

Chloroflexus sp.


  1. C)

 

Streptococcus sp.


  1. D)

 

Deinococcus radiodurans


 

 

10)
 

At the present time, ________ phyla of the Archaea have been identified.
 

10)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

2
 

  1. B)

 

3
 

  1. C)

 

4
 

  1. D)

 

5

 

 

 

11)
 

Which statement is TRUE about the genus Natronobacterium?
 

11)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

They are halophilic and alkaliphilic.

 

  1. B)

 

They are halophilic and acidophilic.

 

  1. C)

 

They are acidophilic but not halophilic.

 

  1. D)

 

They are alkaliphilic but not halophilic.

 

 

 

12)
 

Which statement is TRUE?
 

12)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

Both yeasts and molds are degenerate plants.

 

  1. B)

 

Yeasts are fungi, whereas molds are degenerate plants.

 

  1. C)

 

Yeasts are degenerate plants, whereas molds are fungi.

 

  1. D)

 

Both yeasts and molds are fungi.

 

 

 

13)
 

In a lichen, the ________ is the phototrophic component, and the ________ provides the phototroph with an anchor and with protection from the elements.
 

13)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

alga / cyanobacterium

 

  1. B)

 

alga or cyanobacterium / fungus

 

  1. C)

 

fungus / alga

 

  1. D)

 

fungus / cyanobacterium

 

 

 

14)
 

The eukaryotic fruiting body is generally associated with the
 

14)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

trypanosome.
 

  1. B)

 

Paramecium.

 

  1. C)

 

yeast.
 

  1. D)

 

slime mold.

 

 

 

15)
 

Early branching Eukarya lack
 

15)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

genetic material.
 

  1. B)

 

mitochondria.

 

  1. C)

 

ribosomes.
 

  1. D)

 

nuclei.

 

 

 

16)
 

In relation to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells are generally
 

16)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

smaller.

 

  1. B)

 

about the same size.

 

  1. C)

 

larger.

 

  1. D)

 

There is no general rule about comparative cell size.

 

 

 

17)
 

Paired chromosomes are found in
 

17)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

viruses.
 

  1. B)

 

eukaryotes.

 

  1. C)

 

Archaea.
 

  1. D)

 

bacteria.

 

 

 

18)
 

Mechanisms for controlling gene expression are found
 

18)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic.

 

  1. B)

 

only in eukaryotes.

 

  1. C)

 

in some but not all prokaryotes and in some but not all eukaryotes.

 

  1. D)

 

only in prokaryotes.

 

 

 

19)
 

Ribosomal RNA-based studies reveal that
 

19)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

all eukaryotic organisms are related but that all prokaryotic organisms are not necessarily related.

 

  1. B)

 

all prokaryotic organisms are related but that all eukaryotic organisms are not necessarily related.

 

  1. C)

 

all organisms are thought to have diverged from a common ancestral organism (LUCA) or community of organisms.

 

  1. D)

 

the Archaea are most closely related to the viruses.

 

 

 

20)
 

Which statement is TRUE?
 

20)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

All natural and most synthetic compounds can be broken down by one or more microorganisms.

 

  1. B)

 

Most natural and most synthetic compounds can be broken down by one or more microorganisms.

 

  1. C)

 

All synthetic and most natural compounds can be broken down by one or more microorganisms.

 

  1. D)

 

All natural and all synthetic compounds can be broken down by one or more microorganisms.

 

 

 

21)
 

According to our present understanding, mitochondria and chloroplasts are ________ in origin.
 

21)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

archaeal
 

  1. B)

 

bacterial

 

  1. C)

 

eukaryotic
 

  1. D)

 

viral

 

 

 

22)
 

The model organism for microbial physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology is
 

22)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

Azotobacter sp.
 

  1. B)

 

Candida albicans.

 

  1. C)

 

Escherichia coli.
 

  1. D)

 

Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

 

 

 

23)
 

Which of the following groups of organisms is NOT gram positive?
 

23)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

Clostridium


  1. B)

 

Streptococcus


  1. C)

 

Pseudomonas


  1. D)

 

Lactobacillus


 

 

24)
 

RNA-based phylogenies have influenced which subdiscipline(s) of microbiology?
 

24)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

microbial ecology
 

  1. B)

 

clinical diagnostics

 

  1. C)

 

microbial classification
 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

 

 

25)
 

What type of energy-yielding metabolism is found ONLY in prokaryotes?
 

25)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

chemoorganotrophy
 

  1. B)

 

autotrophy

 

  1. C)

 

phototrophy
 

  1. D)

 

chemolithotrophy

 

 

 

26)
 

In which of the following habitats might an extremophile be isolated?
 

26)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

human skin
 

  1. B)

 

freshwater pond

 

  1. C)

 

garden soil at neutral pH
 

  1. D)

 

boiling hot springs

 

 

 

27)
 

Which organism has unusual cell walls, can reassemble its chromosome after it has been damaged, and has an innate resistance to high levels of radiation?
 

27)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

Pseudomonas


  1. B)

 

Chlamydia


  1. C)

 

Lactobacillus


  1. D)

 

Deinococcus


 

 

28)
 

How was it determined that mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes are actually ancestors of specific lineages of Bacteria?
 

28)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

molecular sequencing
 

  1. B)

 

visual inspection

 

  1. C)

 

clinical diagnosis
 

  1. D)

 

evolutionary studies

 

 

 

29)
 

The ultimate limit of what we are able to see with a microscope is dictated by
 

29)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

visual acuity.
 

  1. B)

 

magnification.

 

  1. C)

 

light intensity.
 

  1. D)

 

resolution.

 

 

 

30)
 

The most common type of microscopy for laboratory courses in biology and microbiology is done with the
 

30)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

electron microscope.
 

  1. B)

 

phase-contrast microscope.

 

  1. C)

 

dark-field microscope.
 

  1. D)

 

bright-field microscope.

 

 

 

31)
 

When the oil-immersion lens is used,
 

31)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

objects are held in place on the microscope slide.

 

  1. B)

 

light rays are scattered so unnecessary background material is not seen.

 

  1. C)

 

light rays are collected to increase clarity.

 

  1. D)

 

magnification of objects is increased by about tenfold.

 

 

 

32)
 

A tiny stylus positioned so close to a specimen that weak repulsive forces are established is used in
 

32)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

confocal scanning laser microscopy.

 

  1. B)

 

atomic force microscopy.

 

  1. C)

 

dark-field microscopy.

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above.

 

 

 

33)
 

The cytoplasmic membrane is the
 

33)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

primary support structure of the cell.

 

  1. B)

 

structure that identifies a cell as eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

 

  1. C)

 

permeability barrier of the cell.

 

  1. D)

 

source of nutrient production.

 

 

 

34)
 

If the magnification of an ocular lens of a particular microscope is 10 and the magnification of the objective on the same microscope is 47, the total magnification achieved is
 

34)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

4,700.
 

  1. B)

 

4.7.
 

  1. C)

 

470.
 

  1. D)

 

57.

 

 

 

35)
 

Fluorescent microscopy is commonly used in
 

35)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

cancer therapy.

 

  1. B)

 

clinical diagnostic microbiology.

 

  1. C)

 

the detection of chemical contaminants in a solution.

 

  1. D)

 

radiation biology.

 

 

 

36)
 

Bacteria stain as gram positive or gram negative because of differences in the cell
 

36)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

cytoplasm.
 

  1. B)

 

wall.

 

  1. C)

 

chromosome.
 

  1. D)

 

nucleus.

 

 

 

37)
 

What type of microscopy has found widespread use in microbial ecology because of its ability to resolve the different layered components of a biofilm?
 

37)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM)

 

  1. B)

 

scanning electron microscopy

 

  1. C)

 

dark-field microscopy

 

  1. D)

 

differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy

 

 

 

38)
 

Why is the presence of a cell wall significant from a clinical standpoint?
 

38)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

Animal cells do not have cell walls, so antibiotics that target cell walls can destroy invading microorganisms.

 

  1. B)

 

Only gram-negative Bacteria have cell walls.

 

  1. C)

 

All types of cells have a cell wall, and it makes identification of the causative agent of disease difficult.

 

  1. D)

 

The cell wall protects microorganisms from destruction by the immune system.

 

 

 

TRUE/FALSE.  Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.


39)
 

Microorganisms today are probably a degeneration of the earliest life forms.
 

39)
 

______

 

 

 

40)
 

Ribosomes function primarily in energy production.
 

40)
 

______

 

 

 

41)
 

Prokaryotic chromosomes are generally linear.
 

41)
 

______

 

 

 

42)
 

Meiosis is the process by which haploid gametes are formed.
 

42)
 

______

 

 

 

43)
 

Ribosomal RNAs can be used to study phylogenetic relationships between organisms.
 

43)
 

______

 

 

 

44)
 

Endosymbiosis is an explanation for the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells.
 

44)
 

______

 

 

 

45)
 

Phototrophs use light as an energy source.
 

45)
 

______

 

 

 

46)
 

Viruses necessarily cause disease in the organisms they infect.
 

46)
 

______

 

 

 

47)
 

Species of Archaea are more closely related to Eukarya than to Bacteria.
 

47)
 

______

 

 

 

48)
 

The waste products of chemoorganotrophs are often used for energy by chemolithotrophs.
 

48)
 

______

 

 

 

49)
 

The evolutionary significance of extreme thermophiles may be that they are modern descendants of very ancient cell lines dating back to a time when the planet was very warm.
 

49)
 

______

 

 

 

50)
 

Organisms of the genus Halobacterium can grow within salt crystals.
 

50)
 

______

 

 

 

51)
 

The Picrophilus are the most alkaliphilic prokaryotes known.
 

51)
 

______

 

 

 

52)
 

All known Archaea are extremophiles of one sort or another.
 

52)
 

______

 

 

 

53)
 

The cyanobacteria were the first oxygenic phototrophs to evolve on Earth.
 

53)
 

______

 

 

 

54)
 

The genus Chlamydia harbors respiratory and sexually transmitted pathogens of humans.
 

54)
 

______

 

 

 

55)
 

A differential stain is called differential because it does not stain all kinds of cells the same color.
 

55)
 

______

 

 

 

56)
 

In bright-field microscopy, contrast differences arise because different cells and cellular components absorb and scatter light in varying degrees.
 

56)
 

______

 

 

 

57)
 

In phase-contrast microscopy, the differences in refractive indices between organisms and their environments are utilized for better viewing of living specimens.
 

57)
 

______

 

 

 

58)
 

Light microscopy is an effective way of viewing objects in three dimensions.
 

58)
 

______

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.


59)
 

The distinct feature of the Planctomyces group is a(n) ________.
 

59)
 

_____________

 

 

 

60)
 

To say that an organism is an obligate intracellular parasite means ________.
 

60)
 

_____________

 

 

 

61)
 

One major difference between chromosomes and plasmids is that plasmids generally contain ________ rather than ________ genes.
 

61)
 

_____________

 

 

 

62)
 

A eukaryotic, chlorophyll-containing organism that can live in environments containing only a few minerals, water, carbon dioxide, and light is a(n) ________.
 

62)
 

_____________

 

 

 

63)
 

Two major roles of fungi are ________ and ________.
 

63)
 

_____________

 

 

 

64)
 

The entire span of heritable nucleotides, both protein-encoding and non-encoding regions, in an organism is collectively called the ________.
 

64)
 

_____________

 

 

 

65)
 

The evolutionary relationships between organisms are studied in the science of ________.
 

65)
 

_____________

 

 

 

66)
 

The three options by which an organism may obtain energy are: ________, ________, and ________.
 

66)
 

_____________

 

 

 

67)
 

The difference between chemoorganotrophy and chemolithotrophy is ________.
 

67)
 

_____________

 

 

 

68)
 

A cell that uses carbon dioxide as its carbon source is a(n)________.
 

68)
 

_____________

 

 

 

69)
 

The largest division (or phylum) of Bacteria is the ________.
 

69)
 

_____________

 

 

 

70)
 

The unique feature of the mycoplasmas is the ________.
 

70)
 

_____________

 

 

 

71)
 

The function of the chloroplast is to ________.
 

71)
 

_____________

 

 

 

72)
 

Lichens are called mutualistic organisms because ________.
 

72)
 

_____________

 

 

 

73)
 

The commonality linking the Aquifex and Thermotoga species is ________.
 

73)
 

_____________

 

 

 

74)
 

________ are a specialized cell type found in certain filamentous cyanobacteria that carry out a globally important process known as ________.
 

74)
 

_____________

 

 

 

75)
 

The ________ provides structural strength to plant cells and most microorganisms.
 

75)
 

_____________

 

 

 

76)
 

Cyanobacteria and their phylogenetic relatives undergo a process known as ________ in which molecular oxygen is liberated.
 

76)
 

_____________

 

 

 

77)
 

The two eukaryotic organelles involved in energy generation are ________ and ________.
 

77)
 

_____________

 

 

 

78)
 

The measure of the light-gathering ability of the objective lens is known as the ________.
 

78)
 

_____________

 

 

 

ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.


79)
 

What might you learn by taking a properly stained sample of water and placing it under a light microscope?

 

 

 

80)
 

Explain the similarities and differences between viruses and true cells.

 

 

 

81)
 

Why are the Archaea so difficult to study in the laboratory?

 

 

 

82)
 

Why are most of the early branching Eukarya pathogenic or parasitic?

 

 

 

83)
 

Explain the role of the methanogens in ecological studies.

 

 

 

84)
 

Compare and contrast algae and cyanobacteria.

 

 

 

85)
 

In what way are the Thermoplasma like the Mycoplasma?

 

 

 

86)
 

Explain the concept of domain in relation to the tree of life.

 

 

 

87)
 

Sketch a phylogenetic tree showing the domains and major branches.

 

 

 

88)
 

Elaborate on how chemolithotrophy and phototrophy have influenced microbial competition and, thus, microbial habitats.

 

 

 

89)
 

Explain why primary producers, especially those that undergo oxygenic photosynthesis, are essential for life on Earth.

 

 

 

90)
 

Compare and contrast the mechanisms of differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM).

 

 

 

91)
 

Compare and contrast both the purposes and the functions of the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope.

 

 

 

1)
 

D

 

2)
 

D

 

3)
 

A

 

4)
 

B

 

5)
 

B

 

6)
 

D

 

7)
 

D

 

8)
 

A

 

9)
 

A

 

10)
 

A

 

11)
 

A

 

12)
 

D

 

13)
 

B

 

14)
 

D

 

15)
 

B

 

16)
 

A

 

17)
 

B

 

18)
 

A

 

19)
 

C

 

20)
 

A

 

21)
 

B

 

22)
 

C

 

23)
 

C

 

24)
 

D

 

25)
 

D

 

26)
 

D

 

27)
 

D

 

28)
 

A

 

29)
 

D

 

30)
 

D

 

31)
 

C

 

32)
 

B

 

33)
 

C

 

34)
 

C

 

35)
 

B

 

36)
 

B

 

37)
 

A

 

38)
 

A

 

39)
 

FALSE

 

40)
 

FALSE

 

41)
 

FALSE

 

42)
 

TRUE

 

43)
 

TRUE

 

44)
 

TRUE

 

45)
 

TRUE

 

46)
 

FALSE

 

47)
 

TRUE

 

48)
 

TRUE

 

49)
 

TRUE

 

50)
 

TRUE

 

51)
 

FALSE

 

52)
 

FALSE

 

53)
 

TRUE

 

54)
 

TRUE

 

55)
 

TRUE

 

56)
 

TRUE

 

57)
 

TRUE

 

58)
 

FALSE

 

59)
 

distinct stalk allowing for attachment to a solid substratum

 

60)
 

the organism must live inside of another organism to survive

 

61)
 

genes conferring special properties / housekeeping (essential)

 

62)
 

alga

 

63)
 

any two of the following in any order: food / medicine / decay / recycling of nutrients / biodegradation in nature / recycling of organic matter

 

64)
 

genome

 

65)
 

phylogeny

 

66)
 

organic chemicals / inorganic chemicals / light (any order)

 

67)
 

Answers will vary, but chemoorganotrophs use organic compounds as an energy source and chemolithotrophs use inorganic compounds as an energy source.

 

68)
 

autotroph

 

69)
 

Proteobacteria


70)
 

lack of a cell wall

 

71)
 

carry out photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells

 

72)
 

they are composed of two organisms that live together for mutual benefit

 

73)
 

both groups grow at near-boiling-point temperatures

 

74)
 

Heterocysts / nitrogen fixation

 

75)
 

cell wall

 

76)
 

oxygenic photosynthesis

 

77)
 

mitochondria / chloroplasts (either order)

 

78)
 

numerical aperture

 

79)
 

Possible answers include cell abundance, cell associations either with other cells or abiotic particles, cell morphology, diversity estimation, multi-cellular or unicellular presence, and sterility of sample.

 

80)
 

Answers will vary, but one similar feature is that both have a nucleic-acid based genome. A difference that should be emphasized is how viruses depend on a host for metabolism.

 

81)
 

Answers will vary, but a theme should be the challenge of growing them in the lab due to their distinguishing characteristic of being extremophiles. Examples could include various harsh conditions such as boiling temperatures sustained in a liquid medium.

 

82)
 

Answers should generally include a statement about the organisms being unable to live a free and independent existence.

 

83)
 

Answers will vary, but methanogens should be highlighted as those microorganisms involved in the final stages of biomass decomposition, where the methane can be assimilated to begin remaking large carbon-containing molecules (in the carbon cycle).

 

84)
 

Answers will vary. Possible answers include: Algae are eukaryotes and cyanobacteria are prokaryotes. Both are photosynthetic.

 

85)
 

Answers will vary but should include a statement that they both lack a cell wall.

 

86)
 

Answers will vary but should include a description of unifying characteristics of a domain and how some characteristics are shared and therefore create a network (tree) of domains.

 

87)
 

Answers will vary, but the sketch should resemble the phylogenetic tree of life (Figure 2.17) in the textbook.

 

88)
 

Answers will vary. One possible discussion could focus on how these different ways of obtaining energy allow microorganisms to thrive in the same habitat and minimize competition for resources by having different physiologies.

 

89)
 

Answers will vary, but a theme should be how oxygen must be cycled back into a usable form for aerobes by organisms that evolve oxygen during photosynthesis as long as aerobic organisms continually use up gaseous oxygen.

 

90)
 

Answers will vary, but one unifying characteristic is both yield three-dimensional images. Differing features could include computational requirements, staining procedures, and the principles of how an image is observed.

 

91)
 

Answers will vary, but a major similarity that should be emphasized is the employment of electrons (rather than a light source) to greatly increase the limit of magnification and resolution. Contrastive examples could include sample preparation requirements and the different cell structures observable in each.

 

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.


1)
 

The first step of dissimilative nitrate reduction involves
 

1)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

nitrate oxidase.
 

  1. B)

 

nitrite reductase.

 

  1. C)

 

nitrite oxidase.
 

  1. D)

 

nitrate reductase.

 

 

 

2)
 

In terms of oxygen requirements, homoacetogens and methanogens are
 

2)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

strict anaerobes.
 

  1. B)

 

strict aerobes.

 

  1. C)

 

facultative aerobes.
 

  1. D)

 

facultative anaerobes.

 

 

 

3)
 

The key enzyme of the acetyl-CoA pathway is
 

3)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

carbon dioxide dehydrogenase.

 

  1. B)

 

homacetogen dehydrogenase.

 

  1. C)

 

acetyl dehydrogenase.

 

  1. D)

 

carbon monoxide dehydrogenase.

 

 

 

4)
 

The coenzymes F420 and 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB) are electron ________ in ________.
 

4)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

donors / acetogenesis
 

  1. B)

 

donors / methanogenesis

 

  1. C)

 

acceptors / acetogenesis
 

  1. D)

 

acceptors / methanogenesis

 

 

 

5)
 

Redox balance is achieved in fermentation by the production of
 

5)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

molecular oxygen.
 

  1. B)

 

electrons.

 

  1. C)

 

acids.
 

  1. D)

 

molecular hydrogen.

 

 

 

6)
 

Beta oxidation involves the
 

6)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

synthesis of a series of two-carbon compounds.

 

  1. B)

 

production of disaccharides.

 

  1. C)

 

cleaving of two-carbon units from fatty acid chains.

 

  1. D)

 

splitting of hexoses into two-carbon units.

 

 

 

7)
 

What product is energy conserving during anaerobic fermentation because it allows the organism to make ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation?
 

7)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

glucose
 

  1. B)

 

hydrogen

 

  1. C)

 

acetate
 

  1. D)

 

pyruvate

 

 

 

8)
 

The production of H2 during fermentation is associated with the activity of an iron-sulfur protein called
 

8)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

hydroxylamine oxidoreductase.

 

  1. B)

 

ferredoxin.

 

  1. C)

 

hydrogenase.

 

  1. D)

 

rusticyanin.

 

 

 

9)
 

When facultative anaerobes are exposed to oxygen, they
 

9)
 

_______

 

  1. A)

 

modify their gene expression to favor aerobic metabolism and downregulate anaerobic metabolism genes.

 

  1. B)

 

undergo both aerobic and anaerobic pathways simultaneously to maximize energy yields.

 

  1. C)

 

primarily manipulate enzyme activities through biochemical reactions.

 

  1. D)

 

perform both A and B.

 

 

 

10)
 

An example of syntrophy is
 

10)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

H2 production by one organism linked to H2 consumption by a different organism.

 

  1. B)

 

establishment of the proton motive force.

 

  1. C)

 

ATP production.

 

  1. D)

 

O2 evolution.

 

 

 

11)
 

The Entner-Doudoroff pathway is a variant of traditional glycolysis, where
 

11)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

both ATP and NADPH yields are half of glycolysis.

 

  1. B)

 

both ATP and NADPH yields are double relative to glycolysis.

 

  1. C)

 

ATP yield is half and NADPH yield is double relative to glycolysis.

 

  1. D)

 

ATP yield is double and NADPH yield is half relative to glycolysis.

 

 

 

12)
 

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of syntrophy?
 

12)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

The free energy change for the second reaction is positive.

 

  1. B)

 

The net ATP yields are often low.

 

  1. C)

 

It requires several different organisms.

 

  1. D)

 

Most are secondary fermentations.

 

 

 

13)
 

Some of the most common electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration is/are
 

13)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

carbon dioxide.

 

  1. B)

 

inorganic nitrogen compounds.

 

  1. C)

 

inorganic acids.

 

  1. D)

 

inorganic sulfur compounds.

 

 

 

14)
 

What two condition(s) must exist before the enzymes involved in nitrate (NO3-) reduction are fully expressed?
 

14)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

Nitrate must be present, and oxygen must be absent.

 

  1. B)

 

Both nitrate and oxygen must be present.

 

  1. C)

 

Both nitrate and oxygen must be absent.

 

  1. D)

 

Nitrate must be absent, and oxygen must be present.

 

 

 

15)
 

Most denitrifying prokaryotes are
 

15)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

microaerophiles.
 

  1. B)

 

facultative aerobes.

 

  1. C)

 

aerobes.
 

  1. D)

 

obligate anaerobes.

 

 

 

16)
 

The most oxidized form of sulfur is
 

16)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

sulfite.
 

  1. B)

 

sulfur hydride.

 

  1. C)

 

dihydrogen sulfide.
 

  1. D)

 

sulfate.

 

 

 

17)
 

All acetogens reduce CO2 to acetate by the
 

17)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

hydroxypropionate pathway.

 

  1. B)

 

reverse citric acid cycle.

 

  1. C)

 

acetyl-CoA pathway.

 

  1. D)

 

Calvin cycle.

 

 

 

18)
 

Most acetogens that produce and excrete acetate are
 

18)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

protists.
 

  1. B)

 

Archaea.

 

  1. C)

 

gram-negative Bacteria.
 

  1. D)

 

gram-positive Bacteria.

 

 

 

19)
 

Energy conservation in acetogenesis uses
 

19)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

oxidative phosphorylation.

 

  1. B)

 

photophosphorylation.

 

  1. C)

 

both substrate-level and oxidative phosphorylations.

 

  1. D)

 

substrate-level phosphorylation.

 

 

 

20)
 

What group of microorganisms carries out methanogenesis?
 

20)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

facultatively aerobic gram-negative Bacteria


  1. B)

 

gram-positive Bacteria


  1. C)

 

a group of strictly anaerobic gram-negative Bacteria


  1. D)

 

a group of strictly anaerobic Archaea


 

 

21)
 

Electrons for the reduction of CO2 to CH4 come mainly from
 

21)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

glucose.
 

  1. B)

 

ferric iron.

 

  1. C)

 

CO2.
 

  1. D)

 

H2.

 

 

 

22)
 

Methanogenesis is an example of
 

22)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

photophosphorylation.

 

  1. B)

 

anaerobic respiration.

 

  1. C)

 

aerobic respiration.

 

  1. D)

 

substrate-level phosphorylation.

 

 

 

23)
 

Which product(s) is/are formed from the disproportionation of thiosulfate?
 

23)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

an oxidized sulfate and a reduced hydrogen sulfide

 

  1. B)

 

two thiolate ions

 

  1. C)

 

two sulfonates

 

  1. D)

 

an oxidized thiolate and a reduced sulfonate

 

 

 

24)
 

Complete oxidation of fatty acids yields
 

24)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

NAD+ or NADP+.
 

  1. B)

 

acetyl-CoA.

 

  1. C)

 

CH4.
 

  1. D)

 

electron pairs.

 

 

 

25)
 

Which of the following is NOT true about cellulase enzymes? They
 

25)
 

______

 

  1. A)

 

produce more water-soluble products, such as glucose, than cellulose.

 

  1. B)

 

can be active in anoxic environments.

 

  1. C)

 

are rare in Bacteria but relatively abundant in Archaea.

 

  1. D)

 

can produce disaccharides such as cellobiose.

 

 

 

TRUE/FALSE.  Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.


26)
 

N2O can be abiotically converted to NO by sunlight.
 

26)
 

______

 

 

 

27)
 

Nitrate and sulfate reduction can be either assimilative or dissimilative.
 

27)
 

______

 

 

 

28)
 

Hydrogenase plays a role in sulfate reduction only if the organism is growing on an organic compound.
 

28)
 

______

 

 

 

29)
 

When lactate or pyruvate is the electron donor during dissimilative sulfate reduction, ATP is produced from the proton motive force and additional ATP is produced during the oxidation of pyruvate.
 

29)
 

______

 

 

 

30)
 

When growing autotrophically from H2, sulfate reducers use the acetyl-CoA pathway that incorporates CO2 into the cell.
 

30)
 

______

 

 

 

31)
 

Chlorinated compounds can function as electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration in the process known as oxidative dechlorination.
 

31)
 

______

 

 

 

32)
 

The oxidation-reduction balance referred to when discussing redox reactions is theoretical rather than real because the numbers of protons and electrons do not necessarily match.
 

32)
 

______

 

 

 

33)
 

Oxygenases are enzymes that catalyze incorporation of oxygen atoms from O2 into organic compounds.
 

33)
 

______

 

 

 

34)
 

In fermentation, ATP is typically synthesized by substrate-level phosphorylation.
 

34)
 

______

 

 

 

35)
 

The differences observed in the fermentation patterns of homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria are due to the presence or absence of the enzyme lactase.
 

35)
 

______

 

 

 

36)
 

Certain bacteria are able to obtain energy by fermentation of amino acids.
 

36)
 

______

 

 

 

37)
 

The fermentation of certain compounds yields insufficient energy to synthesize ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation, yet energy conservation leading to ATP synthesis still occurs.
 

37)
 

______

 

 

 

38)
 

Most syntrophic reactions are primary fermentations.
 

38)
 

______

 

 

 

39)
 

The concentrations of reactants and products in a reaction do not affect the energetics of the reaction.
 

39)
 

______

 

 

 

40)
 

The energy released from the oxidation of an electron donor using molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor is less than if the same compound is oxidized with an alternate electron acceptor.
 

40)
 

______

 

 

 

41)
 

Only a restricted variety of primarily prokaryotic organisms carry out dissimilative metabolism.
 

41)
 

______

 

 

 

42)
 

Microbes that can dissimilate sulfur can also assimilate it, but not all that assimilate sulfur can fully dissimilate it.
 

42)
 

______

 

 

 

43)
 

Mixed acid fermenters are capable of using several different acids as substrate to yield one fermentation product.
 

43)
 

______

 

 

 

44)
 

Despite being unable to conserve energy from the main reactions in glycolysis, Pyrococcus furiosus actually synthesizes more ATP from glucose than many other glucose fermenters.
 

44)
 

______

 

 

 

45)
 

Inorganic arsenic compounds can serve as electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration.
 

45)
 

______

 

 

 

46)
 

Long hydrocarbon chains (> C20) are more readily catabolized than are shorter hydrocarbon chains.
 

46)
 

______

 

 

 

47)
 

Oxygens only role in metabolic processes is to serve as an electron acceptor in energy-generating reactions.
 

47)
 

______

 

 

 

48)
 

A number of bacteria and several molds and yeasts can use hydrocarbons as electron donors to support growth under aerobic conditions.
 

48)
 

______

 

 

 

49)
 

Bacteria such as Dehalococcoides, which reductively dechloronate toxic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are attractive for bioremediation efforts.
 

49)
 

______

 

 

 

50)
 

Fatty acids can serve as electron donors, because they are already reduced.
 

50)
 

______

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.


51)
 

The primary means by which gaseous nitrogen is formed biologically is ________.
 

51)
 

_____________

 

 

 

52)
 

The two types of methanogenic coenzymes are ________ and ________.
 

52)
 

_____________

 

 

 

53)
 

TMAO and DMSO are both organic electron ________ that are found in ________ environments.
 

53)
 

_____________

 

 

 

54)
 

When adequate supplies of electron acceptors are not available in anoxic microbial environments, organic compounds will be catabolized by ________.
 

54)
 

_____________

 

 

 

55)
 

________ is the situation in which two different organisms can together degrade some substances that neither could degrade separately.
 

55)
 

_____________

 

 

 

56)
 

________ is the process involving the addition of an inorganic phosphate, which results in the formation of a hexose phosphate rather than free hexose.
 

56)
 

_____________

 

 

 

57)
 

Acetyl-CoA is an energy-rich compound because after it is converted to acetylphosphate ________ can be synthesized.
 

57)
 

_____________

 

 

 

58)
 

Two general mechanisms for the catabolism of organic compounds are ________ and ________.
 

58)
 

_____________

 

 

 

59)
 

In a number of fermentations, electron balance is maintained by the production of ________.
 

59)
 

_____________

 

 

 

60)
 

While some aerobic bacteria are capable of growth on acetate as a sole carbon source, many anaerobic bacteria produce acetate during ________.
 

60)
 

_____________

 

 

 

61)
 

Many pseudomonads use ________ for catabolism of sugars.
 

61)
 

_____________

 

 

 

62)
 

In the ________, one amino acid functions as the electron donor and is oxidized, whereas another amino acid is the electron acceptor and is reduced.
 

62)
 

_____________

 

 

 

63)
 

A minimal requirement for an energy-conserving reaction is that it must yield sufficient free energy to ________.
 

63)
 

_____________

 

 

 

64)
 

The direct synthesis of NADPH uses the ________ pathway.
 

64)
 

_____________

 

 

 

65)
 

Five-carbon sugars, called ________, must be synthesized if not bioavailable because they form the backbone of ________.
 

65)
 

_____________

 

 

 

66)
 

________ is a process in which some molecules of a substrate are oxidized while some are reduced.
 

66)
 

_____________

 

 

 

67)
 

When an inorganic compound is reduced for use in biosynthesis, the reduction process is called ________, whereas the reduction of the compound as an electron acceptor for energy metabolism in anaerobic respiration is called ________.
 

67)
 

_____________

 

 

 

68)
 

Catabolism of two- and three-carbon molecules such as pyruvate use CO2 and ATP to form a four-carbon oxalacetate, a key compound required in the ________ cycle that generates energy.
 

68)
 

_____________

 

 

 

69)
 

Sulfate is chemically quite stable and cannot be reduced without first being activated to ________.
 

69)
 

_____________

 

 

 

70)
 

When growing autotrophically with molecular hydrogen, sulfate-reducing bacteria use the ________ as a means of incorporating CO2 into cell material.
 

70)
 

_____________

 

 

 

71)
 

A key enzyme of the acetyl-CoA pathway is ________.
 

71)
 

_____________

 

 

 

72)
 

The biological production of methane is known as ________.
 

72)
 

_____________

 

 

 

73)
 

Energy conservation in methanogenesis is linked to the ________.
 

73)
 

_____________

 

 

 

74)
 

Anoxic degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons use oxygen in the form of ________ rather than molecular oxygen (gas) to begin catabolism.
 

74)
 

_____________

 

 

 

75)
 

Enzymes that catalyze incorporation of both oxygen atoms from O2 into organic compounds are called ________, and enzymes that incorporate one of the two oxygen atoms from O2 into organic compounds are called ________.
 

75)
 

_____________

 

 

 

ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.


76)
 

Compare and contrast the properties and carbon assimilation mechanisms of type I and type II methanotrophs.

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