Basic Marketing A Strategic Marketing Planning Approach 19th Edition by Perreault Test Bank

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Basic Marketing A Strategic Marketing Planning Approach 19th Edition by Perreault Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Basic Marketing A Strategic Marketing Planning Approach 19th Edition by Perreault Test Bank

Chapter 05

Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior

 

True / False Questions

1. The economic-buyer theory assumes that consumers know all the facts and logically compare choices.

True    False

 

2. Most economists assume that consumers are economic buyers who logically evaluate choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.

True    False

 

3. Economic needs include such things as self-respect, accomplishment, fun, freedom and relaxation.

True    False

 

4. The economic buyer view of consumers says that individuals will only buy the cheapest goods and services availableregardless of quality.

True    False

 

5. Economic needs are concerned only with getting the best quality at the lowest price.

True    False

 

6. The median income of U.S. families in 2010 was about $49,445.

True    False

 

7. In 2010, half of all American households earned more than $75,442.

True    False

 

8. By 2010, after taking inflation into account, the median income in the U.S. declined by 7 percent in the previous decade.

True    False

 

9. In 2010, 50 percent of U.S. families received less than $49,445 in income.

True    False

 

10. Discretionary income is what is left after paying taxes.

True    False

 

11. Discretionary income is the income from investments.

True    False

 

12. Discretionary income is the income adjusted to take out the effects of inflation.

True    False

 

13. Discretionary income is an elusive concept because the definition of necessities varies from family to family and over time.

True    False

 

14. Most marketing managers think that the economic-buyer theory explains buyer behavior very well.

True    False

 

15. According to the text, consumer buying decisions are influenced by economic needs, psychological variables, social influences, and the purchase situation.

True    False

 

16. Motivation, perception, learning, attitudes, trust, and lifestyle are psychological variables which affect consumer buying.

True    False

 

17. Family, social class, reference groups, and culture are the psychological variables that affect a consumers buying decisions.

True    False

 

18. Wants are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something.

True    False

 

19. Wants are needs which are learned during a persons life.

True    False

 

20. A drive is a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce a need.

True    False

 

21. Food, liquid, sex, and rest are examples of physiological needs.

True    False

 

22. Examples of personal needs include self-esteem, accomplishment, fun, freedom, and relaxation.

True    False

 

23. The hierarchy of needs model suggests that most products must fill more than one need at the same time.

True    False

 

24. According to the Hierarchy of Needs, consumers are motivated to first satisfy their higher-order needs, then they will focus on their lower-level needs.

True    False

 

25. Motivation theory suggests that a consumer would not try to satisfy physiological and safety needs until social and personal needs have been completely satisfied.

True    False

 

26. Motivation theory suggests that only one need can be satisfied at a time.

True    False

 

27. Consumers do not usually see or hear all the stimuli that come their way.

True    False

 

28. In selective exposure we screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

True    False

 

29. Selective exposure refers to a persons ability to screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

True    False

 

30. Learning is a change in a persons thought processes caused by prior experience.

True    False

 

31. According to learning theory, a cue is likely to result in a consumer response only if there is a drive to satisfy.

True    False

 

32. Reinforcement of a response decreases the likelihood of the same response the next time the drive occurs.

True    False

 

33. Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between the cue and the response.

True    False

 

34. Adding lemon scent to Pledge furniture polish is an example of using a positive cue.

True    False

 

35. A perfume ad that suggests that people who use the product have more appeal to the opposite sex is an example of a positive cue.

True    False

 

36. That new car smell that includes an aroma of leather and wood is an example of using a positive cue.

True    False

 

37. Many needs are culturally (or socially) learned.

True    False

 

38. Americans preoccupation with deodorants is an example of a culturally learned need.

True    False

 

39. An attitude is a persons point of view about something, and usually involves liking or disliking.

True    False

 

40. The main difference between attitudes and beliefs is that beliefs always involve liking or disliking, but attitudes dont necessarily involve liking or disliking.

True    False

 

41. Beliefs are not as action-oriented as attitudes.

True    False

 

42. Beliefs are more action-oriented than attitudes.

True    False

 

43. Beliefs may help shape a consumers attitudes but dont necessarily involve any liking or disliking.

True    False

 

44. A consumers belief about a product may have a positive or negative effect on his or her attitude about the product.

True    False

 

45. Attitudes are very good predictors of intention to buy.

True    False

 

46. It is easier for a marketer to work with existing attitudes than to try to change them.

True    False

 

47. It is possible for marketing managers to change or create new attitudes about goods and servicesbut overcoming negative attitudes is a really tough job.

True    False

 

48. An expectation is an outcome or event that a person anticipates or looks forward to.

True    False

 

49. Consumers may evaluate a product not just on how well it performs but on how it performs relative to their expectations.

True    False

 

50. In light of the relationships between consumer expectations and satisfaction, its usually best for promotion to slightly over promise what the firm can actually deliver.

True    False

 

51. Trust is the confidence a person has in the promises or actions of another person, brand, or company.

True    False

 

52. Highly trusted people, brands, and companies have many disadvantages in the marketplace.

True    False

 

53. Activities, Interests and Opinions are the AIO variables used in lifestyle analysis.

True    False

 

54. Attitudes, Income and Opinions are the AIO variables used in lifestyle analysis.

True    False

 

55. Psychographics is the analysis of a persons day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that persons Activities, Interests, and Opinions.

True    False

 

56. The VALS approach to understanding consumer behavior considers values, attitudes, and lifestyles.

True    False

 

57. Marital status, age, and the age of any children in a household are the three demographic dimensions that determine stage of family life cycle.

True    False

 

58. In international marketing, its important to rely on intuition and to generalize the cultural influences on consumer behavior from one country to another.

True    False

 

59. Its hazardous to rely on intuition in generalizing about cultural influences on consumer behavior from one country to another.

True    False

 

60. Stage of family life cycle is usually determined by two demographic dimensionsincome and number of children.

True    False

 

61. Singles and young couples seem less willing to try new products because they earn less.

True    False

 

62. Younger families with no children are a good market for durable goods such as automobiles and furniture.

True    False

 

63. Older people seem to be more open to new products and brands than younger people.

True    False

 

64. Families with teenagers tend to spend more on durables than younger families.

True    False

 

65. Teens play an increasingly minor role in shaping family purchases.

True    False

 

66. Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways.

True    False

 

67. Empty nesters is a term that refers to young couples with no children.

True    False

 

68. Consumer buying decisions are affected by social influences such as motivation, perception, learning, attitudes, and personality.

True    False

 

69. Buying responsibility and purchase influence between husband and wife vary greatlydepending on the product and the specific family.

True    False

 

70. Income by itself is usually a pretty good measure of social class.

True    False

 

71. According to the text, the U.S. social class system is much more rigid than those in most countries.

True    False

 

72. According to the text, the U.S. social class system is usually measured in terms of occupation, education, and housing arrangements.

True    False

 

73. People who have the same amount of incomebut who are in different social classestend to spend their income in the same way.

True    False

 

74. Given the same income, consumers in different social classes will handle themselves and their money very differently.

True    False

 

75. The group of people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic is his reference group for that topic.

True    False

 

76. A person normally has several reference groups.

True    False

 

77. Reference group influence is likely to be greater for products which will not be seen by other individuals.

True    False

 

78. Reference groups are more important when others will be able to see which product or brand were using.

True    False

 

79. An opinion leader is usually wealthier and better educated than the people he or she influences.

True    False

 

80. Opinion leaders for one subject or product are also usually opinion leaders for many other subjects or products.

True    False

 

81. Word-of-mouth publicity from opinion leaders can be favorable or unfavorable.

True    False

 

82. Marketers who want to aim at people within several different cultures usually will be able to use the same marketing mix for all of them.

True    False

 

83. In the U.S., ethnic submarkets are growing at a faster rate than the overall population.

True    False

 

84. Both the birthrate and the buying power of ethnic groups in the U.S. are increasing.

True    False

 

85. In ethnic markets within the U.S., the median age is higher and the birthrate is lower than the overall population.

True    False

 

86. Hispanic Americans are now the largest and fastest-growing ethnic group in the U.S.

True    False

 

87. Asian Americans are the largest and fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States.

True    False

 

88. Of all the major ethnic groups in the U.S., Asian Americans have the highest median family income.

True    False

 

89. African Americans have the highest median family income of the major ethnic groups.

True    False

 

90. The buying power of Hispanics and African Americans exceeds $1 trillion a year.

True    False

 

91. Planning for cultural differences in international markets is easier than in domestic markets.

True    False

 

92. The reaction of Italian women to Swiffer is an example of cultural influence.

True    False

 

93. Needs, benefits sought, attitudes, motivation, and even how a consumer selects certain products all vary depending on the purchasing situation.

True    False

 

94. Different purchase situations may require different marketing mixes, even though the same target market is involved.

True    False

 

95. The consumer decision process begins when a consumer becomes aware of an unmet need.

True    False

 

96. As part of the basic problem-solving steps, a consumer searches for information, identifies alternatives and what factors are important, and then evaluates one or more products before deciding how best to meet a need.

True    False

 

97. How much effort is put into a buying decision depends on the economic needs, psychological variables, social influences, purchase situation, and the amount of risk involved.

True    False

 

98. Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put SOME effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.

True    False

 

99. Consumers use limited problem solving when they put MUCH effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.

True    False

 

100. Limited problem solving is used by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need.

True    False

 

101. A consumer interested in making a low involvement purchase is most likely to use limited problem solvingrather than one of the other levels of problem solving.

True    False

 

102. Limited problem solving is used when the consumer has a lot of experience in meeting a need and has no need for additional information.

True    False

 

103. Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases.

True    False

 

104. Finding her favorite brand of shampoo temporarily out of stock, a supermarket shopper is more likely to take part in routinized response behavior than limited problem solving.

True    False

 

105. The idea of a decision process implies that consumers always apply rational processes in their buying decisions.

True    False

 

106. Dissonance takes place when an individual is NOT confident about the rightness of a decision.

True    False

 

107. After making a purchase, buyers often wonder if they made the right choice. The resulting tension is called dissonance.

True    False

 

108. The power of negative purchase experiences is greater than that of positive experiences.

True    False

 

109. The adoption process refers to the steps individuals go through on the way to accepting or rejecting a new idea.

True    False

 

110. The steps in the adoption process are awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

True    False

 

111. In the evaluation stage of the adoption process, a consumer begins to give the product a mental trial, applying it to his or her personal situation.

True    False

 

112. In the confirmation stage of the adoption process, the adopter continues to rethink the decision and searches for support for the decision.

True    False

 

113. In the adoption process, the confirmation step usually precedes the decision step.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

114. Which of the following would be most helpful for predicting why a final consumer selects one of several similar brands?

A. population data

 

B. consumer spending patterns

 

C. behavioral science theories

 

D. consumer income

 

E. all would be equally helpful

 

115. Which of the following is not a need that affects the buying behavior of economic buyers?

A. Economy of purchase or use

 

B. Convenience

 

C. Dependability in use

 

D. Motivation

 

E. Efficiency in operation or use

 

116. Discretionary income is the portion of a persons income that pays for:

A. rent.

 

B. food.

 

C. luxuries.

 

D. taxes.

 

E. insurance.

 

117. The appeal that has the most relevance to an economic buyer is:

A. Im lovin it (McDonalds).

 

B. Expect great things (Kohls).

 

C. Live for now (Pepsi).

 

D. Who doesnt want 50% more cash? (Capital One Rewards Card).

 

E. Relentlessly protecting your identity (LifeLock).

 

118. An economic buyer is a person who

A. logically compares choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending time and money.

 

B. makes buying decisions based only on price.

 

C. will not pay extra for convenience.

 

D. always buys products at the lowest price possible.

 

E. is averse to spending time and money.

 

119. An economic buyer is a person who:

A. Makes buying decisions based on behavioral needs rather than economic needs.

 

B. Logically compares choices to get the greatest satisfaction from expenditures of time and money.

 

C. Always buys the product that has the lowest price.

 

D. Is not willing to pay extra for convenience.

 

E. All of these are characteristics of an economic buyer.

 

120. Economists economic-buyer theory assumes that:

A. income data are very useful for predicting consumer behavior.

 

B. buyers logically compare choices in order to maximize their satisfaction.

 

C. consumers should purchase only low-priced products.

 

D. buyers focus primarily on price.

 

E. None of these is correct.

 

121. _____ are concerned with making the best use of a consumers time and moneyas the consumer judges it.

A. Economic needs

 

B. Psychological needs

 

C. Social influences

 

D. Behavioral influences

 

E. Perceptual needs

 

122. Which of the following is an economic need?

A. Desire for self-satisfaction and convenience.

 

B. Desire for efficiency in the use of the consumers money.

 

C. Desire for efficiency in the use of the consumers time and money.

 

D. Desire for prestige and paying a high price for the best quality.

 

E. Desire for status and paying a high price for the best quality.

 

123. Which of the following is NOT an economic need?

A. Dependability in use

 

B. Hunger

 

C. Economy of use

 

D. Convenience

 

E. Efficiency in use

 

124. Which of the following is NOT an economic need of consumers?

A. Convenience.

 

B. Dependability in use.

 

C. Economy of purchase.

 

D. Efficiency.

 

E. Hunger.

 

125. At Home Depot, a customer can purchase a gallon of one-coat paint that contains the ingredients for both a primer and a color. What is the primary economic need being satisfied by this type of paint?

A. Dependability in use

 

B. Economy of purchase

 

C. Improvement of earnings

 

D. Convenience

 

126. A magazine ad for GEICO car insurance shows the GEICO gecko lying down while the copy reads, Dont take high car insurance rates lying down. What primary economic need is being satisfied in this magazine ad?

A. Convenience

 

B. Improvement of earnings

 

C. Dependability in use

 

D. Economy of purchase

 

127. An application for the iPhone that includes voice directions for a built-in GPS system can be helpful in finding a motel that is off the beaten track. What is the primary economic need being satisfied by this app?

A. Economy of purchase

 

B. Dependability in use

 

C. Efficiency in use

 

D. Convenience

 

128. In a television commercial for Maytag appliances, the spokesperson Old Lonely acts bored because no one is calling him to schedule a repair of their appliances. What is the primary economic need being illustrated in this TV ad?

A. Dependability in use

 

B. Convenience

 

C. Economy of purchase

 

D. Improvement of earnings

 

129. A busy mom stops at a 7-Eleven store on the way home from work to purchase some bread, milk, and ice cream. What primary economic need is being satisfied by the 7-Eleven?

A. Dependability in use

 

B. Economy of purchase

 

C. Efficiency in operation

 

D. Convenience

 

130. The economists view of buyers

A. puts a great deal of emphasis on differences in buying behavior related to individual differences among consumers.

 

B. is based on the idea that consumers value time and select the first alternative they learn about.

 

C. assumes that consumers always buy the lowest-price alternative.

 

D. emphasizes psychological variables rather than social influences.

 

E. None of these answers is correct.

 

131. The percentage of U.S. families with incomes above $49,445 in 2010 was:

A. about 50.

 

B. about 75.

 

C. 20.

 

D. 10.

 

E. less than 5.

 

132. The median family income in the U.S. in 2010 was about:

A. $30,000.

 

B. $40,000.

 

C. $50,000.

 

D. $75,000.

 

E. $100,000.

 

133. Discretionary income is defined as:

A. total market value of goods and services produced.

 

B. gross domestic product per capita.

 

C. income available after taxes.

 

D. income available before taxes.

 

E. income available after taxes and necessities.

 

134. Discretionary income:

A. is a familys income AFTER taxes.

 

B. is a measure of a familys total purchasing power.

 

C. is the amount of income spent on durable goods.

 

D. is a familys income AFTER paying taxes and paying for necessities.

 

135. The amount of income a family has left after paying taxes and paying for its necessities is called its ______________ income.

A. personal

 

B. discretionary

 

C. marginal

 

D. family

 

E. modified

 

136. What is left of income after paying for taxes and paying for necessities?

A. Net income.

 

B. Real income.

 

C. Deductible income.

 

D. Gross income.

 

E. Discretionary income.

 

137. Misty Hancock is a sales rep for a computer producer. Her salary last year was $30,000, and she earned another $5,000 in sales commissions. She paid $6,000 in taxes, and spent $8,000 on food, housing, a car, and other necessities. What is Mistys discretionary income?

A. $21,000

 

B. $34,000

 

C. $15,000

 

D. $24,000

 

E. $8,000

 

138. A young working couple earned $55,000 last year. They paid $16,000 in taxes and $20,000 in rent, food, insurance and other necessities. What was their discretionary income for the year?

A. $39,000.

 

B. $55,000.

 

C. $30,000.

 

D. $35,000.

 

E. $19,000.

 

139. A young working couple earned $35,000 last year, and paid $10,000 in taxes. They spent $13,000 on rent, food, insurance, and other necessities. What is their discretionary income?

A. $12,000

 

B. $35,000

 

C. $22,000

 

D. $25,000

 

140. Keith McPherson earned $20,000 last year as a carpenter. He paid $6,000 for food, rent, medical expenses and other necessities. There was little construction work in February, so he took a trip to the Caribbean and spent $4,000. What was Keiths discretionary income last year?

A. $4,000

 

B. $20,000

 

C. $10,000

 

D. $12,000

 

E. There is not enough information to determine Keiths discretionary income.

 

141. As the owner of a womens clothing store, Caroline Lipscomb has an income of $75,000. She pays $30,000 per year in taxes and another $17,000 per year in grocery bills, house mortgage, and car payment. Last year she went to Italy and spent an additional $4,000. What was Carolines discretionary income last year?

A. $45,000.

 

B. $75,000.

 

C. $26,000.

 

D. $28,000.

 

E. $24,000.

 

142. A young working couple earned $50,000 last year. Of that, they paid $16,000 in taxes and $15,000 in rent, food, insurance and other necessities. Their discretionary income for the year was:

A. $35,000.

 

B. $50,000.

 

C. $19,000.

 

D. $34,000.

 

E. $15,000.

 

143. Ginny Paulson was just promoted to marketing manager for her company. She also gets a big raise with the promotion. Because Ginnys discretionary income will increase, which of the following products is MOST likely to benefit?

A. Furnace repairs.

 

B. Automobile insurance.

 

C. A CD stereo system.

 

D. Medical services.

 

E. Grocery staples.

 

144. As the owner of a Bluetooth specialties store, Alicia Fountainbleau has an income of $72,000. She pays $30,000 per year in taxes and another $22,000 per year in grocery bills, house mortgage, and car payment. Last year she spent an additional $4,000 on a two-week vacation at a Club Med in Rio de Janeiro. What was Alicias discretionary income last year?

A. $20,000.

 

B. $4,000.

 

C. $42,000.

 

D. $26,000.

 

E. $50,000.

 

145. Bart Thunderheart has an annual income of $75,000 a year. He pays $25,000 in taxes, and spends another $15,000 on his home, car, food, and other necessities. Last year, he decided to really enjoy his annual vacation, so he spent $5,000 to go skiing in Austria. What was Barts discretionary income last year?

A. $20,000

 

B. $5,000

 

C. $35,000

 

D. $30,000

 

E. $50,000

 

146. Manuel Acala is a marketing analyst, but made only $28,000 last year because he was employed only part of the year. He paid $5,000 in taxes, and spent another $10,000 for food, housing, a car, and other necessities. Manuels discretionary income was:

A. $28,000

 

B. $13,000

 

C. $23,000

 

D. $18,000

 

E. There is not enough information to tell.

 

147. Kira Johannsons salary as a sales rep was reduced to $32,000 last year, but she earned an additional $10,000 in sales commissions. Her tax bill was $14,000 and bills covering other necessities such as food, housing, and transportation amounted to $11,000. Kiras discretionary income last year was:

A. $17,000.

 

B. $11,000.

 

C. $32,000.

 

D. $28,000.

 

E. $42,000.

 

148. Alberto Romez earned $100,000 last year as a Mercedes sales rep. He paid $10,000 in taxes, and another $25,000 on food, housing and other necessities. Albertos discretionary income was _________________.

A. $75,000

 

B. $65,000

 

C. $55,000

 

D. $45,000

 

E. $35,000

 

149. According to the text, the economic-buyer theory

A. says that most consumers do not know the economic value of products they purchase.

 

B. explains why people behave the way they do.

 

C. includes psychological variables and social influences.

 

D. is too simplistic to explain consumer behavior.

 

E. assumes that consumers always buy the lowest price alternative.

 

150. The economic-buyer model:

A. is seen as too simplistic by most marketing managers.

 

B. assumes that consumers are affected by psychological variables and social influences.

 

C. suggests that men and women behave differently as buyers.

 

D. assumes that buyers dont have enough information to make logical choicesand as a result buy products that are not a good value.

 

E. None of these is true of the economic-buyer model.

 

151. ADT commercials that advertise the value of having a home burglar alarm system appeals to consumers:

A. personal needs.

 

B. economic needs.

 

C. social needs.

 

D. safety needs.

 

E. physiological needs.

 

152. Firms most likely to attract consumers by making an appeal to social needs are:

A. tire companies.

 

B. online dating sites.

 

C. tax preparation services.

 

D. banks.

 

E. electric companies.

 

153. Many consumers mentally block out marketing messages that do not interest them. This phenomenon is part of a persons _____.

A. motivation

 

B. needs

 

C. perception

 

D. attitudes

 

E. learning

 

154. Marketers cannot assume that a product that meets consumer needs in one country will do so in another. This is because:

A. some people do not have physiological or safety needs.

 

B. many needs are culturally learned.

 

C. economic needs do not influence purchases in many regions of the world

 

D. the purchase situations may be different.

 

E. family life cycles may be different.

 

155. ____ is one of the psychological variables that affects a persons buying behavior.

A. Perception

 

B. Family

 

C. Social class

 

D. Reference groups

 

E. Convenience

 

156. Which of the following is NOT a psychological variable?

A. Culture.

 

B. Personality.

 

C. Learning.

 

D. Perception.

 

E. Attitudes.

 

157. Which of the following is NOT a psychological variable?

A. Attitudes

 

B. Social class

 

C. Motivation

 

D. Learning

 

E. Perception

 

158. Regarding consumer motivation, the text states that:

A. wants are the basic forces which motivate people to do something.

 

B. all needs and wants are caused by drives.

 

C. wants are learned needs.

 

D. the terms needs and wants mean the same thing.

 

E. None of these alternatives is correct.

 

159. What are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something?

A. Desires.

 

B. Drives.

 

C. Actions.

 

D. Aspirations.

 

E. Needs.

 

160. Wants

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A. are an effort to satisfy a drive.