Basics of Biopsychology by John P. J. Pinel test bank

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Basics of Biopsychology by John P. J. Pinel test bank

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Chapter 2 The Anatomy of the Brain:
The Systems, Structures, and Cells
that Make up Your Nervous System.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The two major divisions of the nervous system are the A) ANS and the CNS.
B) SNS and the CNS.
C) PNS and the CNS.
D) ANS and the PNS.
E) brain and the spinal cord.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) The CNS is composed of two major divisions: the A) ANS and PNS.
B) brain and brain stem.
C) SNS and ANS.
D) spinal cord and brain stem. E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
3) The ANS is part of the
A) sympathetic nervous system.
B) parasympathetic nervous system. C) brain.
D) CNS.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
30
4) The somatic nervous system A) is part of the PNS.
B) participates in sensory and motor interactions with the external environment. C) is part of the ANS.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
5) In general, afferent nerves carry sensory information A) to the CNS.
B) to the PNS.
C) from the CNS. D) from the cortex. E) from the brain.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
6) Neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are part of the A) somatic nervous system.
B) basal ganglia.
C) ANS.
D) peripheral nervous system. E) both C and D
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
7) The autonomic nervous system is part of the A) brain.
B) spinal cord.
C) peripheral nervous system. D) limbic system.
E) somatic nervous system.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
31
8) Which of the following generally acts to conserve the bodys energy? A) CNS
B) PNS
C) sympathetic nervous system
D) parasympathetic nervous system E) somatic nervous system
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
9) Heart rate is increased by excitatory signals from the A) somatic nervous system.
B) sympathetic nervous system.
C) parasympathetic nervous system.
D) afferent arm of the parasympathetic nervous system. E) afferent arm of the sympathetic nervous system.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
10) The sympathetic nervous system is part of the A) somatic nervous system.
B) ANS.
C) PNS.
D) all of the above E) both B and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
11) Which part of the PNS projects from only the cranial and sacral portions of the CNS? A) parasympathetic nervous system
B) sympathetic nervous system C) somatic nervous system
D) cranial nerves
E) autonomic nervous system
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
32
12) The sympathetic nervous system differs from the parasympathetic nervous system in that the sympathetic nervous system has
A) no first-stage neurons.
B) no second-stage neurons.
C) first-stage neurons that synapse at a substantial distance from the target organ.
D) first-stage neurons that synapse close to the target organ. E) both B and C
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
13) The first pair of cranial nerves are A) sensory.
B) the optic and auditory nerves. C) the facial and auditory nerves. D) motor.
E) the vagus and trigeminal nerves.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
14) The vagus nerve is
A) part of the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) the tenth cranial nerve. C) the longest cranial nerve. D) both sensory and motor. E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
15) The dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater are A) neurons.
B) neuroglia.
C) parts of the autonomic nervous system. D) meninges.
E) myelin.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
33
16) From outside to inside, the three meninges are the A) Nina, Pinta, and Santa-Maria.
B) arachnoid, dura, and pia. C) dura, pia, and arachnoid. D) dura, meninx, and pia. E) dura, arachnoid, and pia.
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
17) How many ventricles are there in the brain? A) 1
B) 3
C) 4
D) 2
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
18) The CSF circulates through the A) central canal.
B) lateral ventricles.
C) subarachnoid space. D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
19) The cerebral aqueduct connects the A) lateral ventricles.
B) third and fourth ventricles.
C) fourth ventricle and the central canal. D) circus maximus and the forum.
E) left and right hemispheres.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 40
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
34
20) The blood brain barrier is A) a spongy bone.
B) the arachnoid space and pia mater. C) an electrochemical organ.
D) absent in cases of hydrocephalus. E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 40
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
21) The blood brain barrier impedes the passage into brain neurons of A) proteins and other large molecules.
B) some hormones. C) glucose.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 40
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
22) Neurons are specialized to receive, conduct, and transmit A) action potentials.
B) axons.
C) synapses.
D) electrochemical signals. E) pizzas.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 40
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
23) The neuron membrane includes A) a lipid bilayer.
B) channel proteins. C) signal proteins. D) all of the above E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
35
24) Communications among mammalian neurons usually occur A) at points where their cell bodies contact one another.
B) across dendrites.
C) across synapses.
D) at points where their axons contact one another. E) at points where dendrites contact one another.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
25) Interactions between neurons commonly occur across junctions called
A) synapses. B) buttons. C) somas. D) vesicles. E) pits.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
26) Many neurons have a single long process emanating from the cell body. This is A) an axon.
B) a dendrite.
C) a button.
D) a protein.
E) a micrograph.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
27) Presynaptic neurons stimulate postsynaptic neurons by releasing A) a foul odor.
B) an electrical signal. C) an axon.
D) a neurotoxin.
E) a neurotransmitter.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
36
28) Most of a neurons DNA is in its A) nucleus.
B) buttons.
C) synaptic vesicles. D) axon.
E) axon hillock.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
29) Synaptic vesicles are most prevalent in the A) nucleus.
B) nodes of Ranvier.
C) postsynaptic membranes. D) synaptic clefts.
E) buttons.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
30) All neurons with an axon and several dendrites emanating from the soma are A) motor.
B) interneurons. C) multipolar. D) bipolar.
E) unipolar.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
31) Interneurons
A) integrate the activity within a single brain structure.
B) have two short axons.
C) have one long axon and one short dendrite. D) have several axons and no dendrites.
E) have bipolar axons.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
37
32) Clusters of neural cell bodies in the CNS are called
A) neurons. B) ganglia. C) nerves. D) nuclei. E) buttons.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
33) Tracts are to nuclei as nerves are to A) nuclei.
B) ganglia.
C) ganglion. D) nucleus.
E) cell bodies.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
34) What part of a neuron is sometimes myelinated? A) dendrites
B) axon
C) cell body
D) buttons
E) both A and B
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
35) CNS is to PNS as oligodendrocytes are to A) astrocytes.
B) oligodendroglia. C) glial cells.
D) Schwann cells. E) microglia.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
38
36) In the CNS, axons are myelinated by A) vesicles.
B) oligodrendrocytes. C) unipolar cells.
D) astrocytes.
E) Schwann cells.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
37) Myelination
A) causes cancer.
B) penetrates the blood brain barrier.
C) occurs only on Schwann cells.
D) increases the speed of axonal conduction.
E) increases the speed of synaptic transmission.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
38) PNS is to CNS as Schwann cells are to A) multiple sclerosis.
B) oligodendrocytes. C) astrocytes.
D) neuroglia.
E) satellite cells.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
39) The largest glial cells are A) astrocytes.
B) Schwann cells.
C) microglia.
D) magnoglia.
E) oligodendrocytes.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
39
40) Glial cells that engulf cellular debris and trigger inflammation are A) microglia
B) Schwann cells.
C) astrocytes.
D) oligodendrocytes. E) oligodendroglia.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
41) The Golgi stain colors neurons
A) violet. B) black. C) blue. D) red. E) yellow.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
42) The best thing about the Golgi stain is that it A) is opaque.
B) reveals the inner structure of the neuron. C) does not stain many neurons.
D) stains only Golgi neurons.
E) was developed by a Nobel prize winner.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
43) The discovery of the Golgi stain A) was accidental.
B) was one of the major early breakthroughs in the study of the nervous system. C) occurred in 1985.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
40
44) The first neural stain, which revealed the silhouette of a few neurons on a slide, is A) the Golgi stain.
B) red.
C) the Nissl stain. D) both A and B E) both B and C
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
45) The first neural stain that permitted neuroanatomists to view some aspects of the inner structure of a neuron was the
A) Nissl stain.
B) Golgi stain. C) Weigert stain.
D) amino acid autoradiography stain. E) electron microscope stain.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
46) The cresyl violet stain is used to
A) study the fine details of axonal structure.
B) determine the general distribution of cell bodies in the nervous system. C) study the dismal fog.
D) identify axosomatic synapses.
E) study the responses of Nissl bodies.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
47) The fine inner details of neuron structure can be studied best A) with a Nissl stain.
B) by electron microscopy. C) with cresyl violet.
D) with a Golgi stain.
E) with a microelectrode.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
41
48) The main advantage of the scanning electron microscope over the conventional electron microscope is that it
A) operates in light.
B) is capable of higher magnification than the ordinary electron microscope. C) produces three-dimensional electron micrographs.
D) uses more protons than electrons. E) requires fewer beams of electrons.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
49) The back of your head is
A) posterior. B) dorsal. C) inferior.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
50) The top of a dogs head is
A) anterior. B) ventral. C) caudal.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
51) The tip of your nose is A) superior and dorsal. B) caudal and anterior. C) medial and anterior.
D) anterior and posterior. E) ventral and dorsal.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
D) anterior.
D) dorsal.
E) ventral.
E) posterior.
42
52) The nose of a rat is A) rostral.
B) ventral.
C) anterior.
D) both A and C E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
53) The spine of a human runs just beneath the A) ventral surface.
B) anterior surface. C) dorsal surface. D) posterior surface. E) superior surface.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
54) Which of the following neuroanatomical directions is commonly used with reference to the brains of humans or other primates, but not with reference to the brains of four-legged creatures?
A) inferior B) caudal C) posterior D) medial E) lateral Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
55) Which of the following neuroanatomical directions is not commonly used with reference to the human brain?
A) inferior B) caudal C) posterior D) superior E) dorsal Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
43
56) A cut in which of the following planes would sever all of the commissures, the tracts that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres?
A) horizontal B) sagittal
C) midsagittal
D) frontal E) diagonal
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
57) Gray matter of the spinal cord is largely composed of A) cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons.
B) myelin.
C) myelinated axons. D) meninges.
E) cerebrospinal fluid.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
58) The H-shape of the spinal gray matter is most obvious in a A) midsagittal section.
B) sagittal section.
C) longitudinal section. D) lateral section.
E) cross section.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
59) The gray matter of the spinal cord is composed of A) glial cells.
B) cell bodies.
C) unmyelinated interneurons. D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
44
60) White matter is white because A) it is unmyelinated.
B) cell bodies are white.
C) satellite cells are gray.
D) axon membranes are white. E) myelin is white.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
61) The spinal gray matter has four arms; among these are the two A) ventral roots.
B) ventral routes. C) ventral horns. D) posterior horns. E) both B and D
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
62) How many individual dorsal roots are there in the human nervous system?
A) 12 B) 31 C) 62 Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
63) How many left ventral roots are there in the human body? A) 12 B) 31 C) 62
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
64) Neurons of the dorsal root synapse in the A) cortex.
B) spinal cord. C) limbic system. D) PNS.
E) ventral horn.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
D) 124
D) 124
E) none
E) none
45
65) How many sensory ventral roots are there in the human body?
A) 12 B) 31 C) 62 D) 124 E) none
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
66) The neurons of the dorsal roots are A) sensory.
B) motor.
C) tracts.
D) unipolar.
E) both A and D
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
67) Most neurons of the ventral roots A) are bipolar.
B) are unipolar.
C) have their cell bodies in white matter.
D) have their cell bodies in the ventral horn. E) are interneurons.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
68) The ANS neurons of the ventral roots project directly to A) body organs.
B) ganglia.
C) the sympathetic receptors.
D) the parasympathetic receptors. E) the heart.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
46
69) Many neurons of the ventral horn are A) part of the somatic nervous system.
B) unipolar.
C) part of the autonomic nervous system. D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
70) Encephalon means within the A) forebrain.
B) brain stem.
C) head.
D) hemispheres.
E) nervous system.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
71) Telencephalon refers to the A) cortex.
B) head.
C) cerebral hemispheres. D) brain.
E) brain stem.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
72) The large lateral outgrowths that compose the telencephalon are the A) eyes.
B) temporal lobes.
C) cerebral hemispheres. D) ventricles.
E) testes.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
47
73) The myelencephalon is often called the A) midbrain.
B) hypothalamus. C) brain stem.
D) medulla.
E) cortex.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
74) The caudal part of the forebrain is the A) telencephalon.
B) diencephalon.
C) myelencephalon. D) reticular formation. E) midbrain.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
75) The myelencephalon is A) the medulla.
B) part of the hindbrain. C) part of the brain stem. D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
76) Which of the following is not in the brain stem? A) myelencephalon
B) mesencephalon C) metencephalon D) medulla
E) telencephalon
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
48
77) The myelencephalon is composed largely of
A) ganglia. B) tracts. C) nerves. D) ventricles. E) colliculi.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
78) Which of the following structures is named after a term that means little net? A) reticular formation
B) mesencephalon C) medulla
D) cerebellum
E) hippocampus
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
79) The reticular formation is in the core of the A) mesencephalon.
B) myelencephalon. C) metencephalon. D) all of the above E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
80) The reticular formation is in the A) brain stem.
B) cortex.
C) thalamus.
D) olfactory bulb. E) spinal cord.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
49
81) Which of the following is visible on the dorsal surface of the human brain stem? A) pituitary
B) cerebellum
C) optic chiasm
D) hypothalamus
E) mammillary bodies
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
82) The midbrain is
A) part of the mesencephalon.
B) part of the metencephalon. C) the mesencephalon.
D) part of the brain stem.
E) both C and D
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
83) The inferior and superior colliculi compose the A) thalamus.
B) hypothalamus. C) tectum.
D) hippocampus. E) cerebellum.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
84) The four colliculi compose the A) tectum.
B) tegmentum. C) pons.
D) brain stem. E) cerebellum.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
50
85) The tectum is the roof of the A) metencephalon.
B) mesencephalon. C) myelencephalon. D) telencephalon. E) diencephalon.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
86) Which structure is not part of the tegmentum? A) superior colliculus
B) periaqueductal gray C) substantia nigra
D) red nucleus
E) cerebral aqueduct
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
87) The neural structure situated nearest the duct connecting the third and fourth ventricles is the A) substantia nigra.
B) periaqueductal gray. C) red nucleus.
D) superior colliculi.
E) cerebral aqueduct.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
88) Three major structures in the __________ of the brain are named after a color. A) medulla
B) mesencephalon C) tectum
D) tegmentum
E) thalamus
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
51
89) The lateral geniculate, medial geniculate, and ventral posterior nuclei are all nuclei of the A) midbrain.
B) spinal cord. C) cortex.
D) medulla.
E) thalamus.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
90) Most sensory nuclei of the thalamus project to the A) cortex.
B) reticular formation. C) cerebellum.
D) substantia nigra.
E) caudate.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
91) Which of the following thalamic nuclei relays visual information? A) pons
B) red nucleus
C) lateral geniculate D) substantia nigra E) caudate
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
92) Which of the following part of the diencephalon connects the two lobes of the thalamus? A) massa intermedia
B) hypothalamus
C) cerebral aqueduct
D) corpus callosum
E) hippocampal commissure
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
52
93) The lateral geniculate nuclei are A) diencephalic nuclei.
B) thalamic nuclei.
C) sensory relay nuclei. D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
94) The hypothalamus and thalamus compose the A) brain stem.
B) diencephalon. C) mesencephalon. D) medulla.
E) pituitary.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
95) Which part of the diencephalon controls the pituitary? A) snot gland
B) hypothalamus
C) medial geniculate D) cerebellum
E) nasal mucosa
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
96) Which of the following is an X-shaped structure? A) spinal white matter
B) reticular formation
C) structure that dangles from the diencephalon D) optic chiasm
E) substantia nigra
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
53
97) If a midsagittal cut were made through the human brain, all of the uncut axons running from the eyes to the brain would be
A) on the right side. B) ipsilateral.
C) contralateral.
D) decussating. E) bilateral.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
98) The mammillary nuclei are
A) bumps visible on the dorsal surface of the medulla.
B) visible on the inferior surface of the diencephalon.
C) sometimes considered to be nuclei of the hypothalamus. D) found only in females.
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
99) Which of the following is a point of decussation? A) optic chiasm
B) hippocampus
C) temporal lobe
D) substantia nigra E) superior colliculus
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
100) The pituitary gland is situated just inferior to the A) nose.
B) hippocampus. C) cerebellum.
D) thalamus.
E) hypothalamus.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
54
101) Most mammals with lissencephalic brains are A) accountants.
B) flexible. C) small. D) clever. E) old.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
102) The ridges between fissures are called A) sulci.
B) sulcuses.
C) gyri.
D) commissures. E) lobes.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
103) Big is to small as fissures are to A) gyri.
B) sulcus.
C) commissures. D) gyrus.
E) sulci.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
104) The largest cerebral commissure is the A) corpus callosum.
B) massa commissura.
C) massa intermedia.
D) humungus commissura. E) longitudinal commissure.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
55
105) The corpus callosum is the human brains largest A) neuron.
B) nucleus.
C) fissure.
D) commissure. E) hemisphere.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
106) Precentral is to postcentral as A) somatosensory is to motor.
B) auditory is to motor.
C) somatosensory is to auditory. D) motor is to somatosensory. E) auditory is to somatosensory.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
107) The functions of the occipital cortex are A) motor.
B) visual.
C) auditory.
D) somatosensory. E) olfactory.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
108) The most posterior lobe of the cerebral hemispheres is the A) occipital lobe.
B) temporal lobe. C) parietal lobe. D) frontal lobe. E) ear lobe.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
56
109) About what proportion of human cerebral cortex is neocortex?
A) 10 % B) 25 % C) 40 % D) 60 % E) 90 %
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
110) Which of the following are multipolar cortical neurons with long axons, apical dendrites, and triangular cell bodies?
A) stellate cells
B) chandelier cells C) pyramidal cells
D) granule cells E) fusiform cells
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
111) The longitudinal fissure separates the two hemispheres. Which lobe does not border it? A) temporal lobe
B) frontal lobe
C) parietal lobe D) prefrontal lobe E) occipital lobe
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
112) Between the frontal and parietal lobes is the A) central fissure.
B) lateral fissure.
C) corpus callosum.
D) temporal lobe.
E) longitudinal fissure.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
57
113) The lobe at the back of the brain, which serves a visual function, is the A) frontal lobe.
B) occipital lobe. C) temporal lobe. D) prefrontal lobe. E) parietal lobe.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
114) The hippocampus is
A) a neocortical structure.
B) in the frontal lobes.
C) six-layered.
D) shaped like a sea horse in cross section. E) in the diencephalon.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
115) A neural circuit that includes the septum, cingulate cortex, fornix, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus is thought to be involved in the regulation of motivated behaviors. This circuit is called the
A) basal ganglia. B) paleocortex. C) limbic system.
D) cranial nerves.
E) somatosensory system.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
116) The limbic system and basal ganglia are, for the most part, in the A) telencephalon.
B) diencephalon. C) mesencephalon. D) myelencephalon. E) metencephalon.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
58
117) Which of the following structures is not part of the limbic system? A) hippocampus
B) septum
C) cerebellum
D) fornix
E) hypothalamus
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
118) A major limbic system tract is the A) corpus callosum.
B) reticular formation. C) cingulate.
D) fornix.
E) septum.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
119) Two parts of the limbic system are cortical structures. These two structures are the A) septum and the frontal cortex.
B) hippocampus and the cingulate.
C) frontal cortex and the basal ganglia. D) hippocampus and the amygdala.
E) frontal cortex and the olfactory bulbs.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
120) The structure that is considered to be part of both the limbic system and the basal ganglia motor system is the
A) amygdala.
B) frenulum.
C) cingulate cortex.
D) hypothalamus. E) substantia nigra.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 57
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
59
121) The caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus compose the A) diencephalon.
B) limbic system.
C) somatosensory system. D) basal ganglia.
E) thalamus.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 57
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
122) The caudate and the putamen compose the A) limbic system.
B) globus pallidus. C) striatum.
D) amygdala.
E) uvula.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 72
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
123) Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is found in most cases of
A) Korsakoffs syndrome. B) Parkinsons disease. C) autism.
D) Asti Spumante. E) multiple sclerosis.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 72
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
1) The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system. Answer: central nervous
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) The arachnoid, pia mater, and dura mater are the three __________. Answer: meninges
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
60
3) Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain. Answer: ventricles
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
4) Between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the __________. Answer: axon hillock
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
5) Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________. Answer: tracts
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
6) Large, star-shaped glial cells are __________. Answer: astrocytes
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
7) The __________ stain colors entirely black a few neurons in each brain slice. Answer: Golgi
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
8) The opposite of dorsal is __________. Answer: ventral
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
9) It is __________ coating of many axons that gives white matter in the nervous system its glossy white sheen.
Answer: myelin
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
10) Sensory signals enter the spinal cord via the __________ roots.
Answer: dorsal
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
61
11) The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________. Answer: pons
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
12) The large, two-lobed structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________. Answer: thalamus
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
13) The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus. Answer: pituitary
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
14) The cerebral hemispheres are joined by tracts called cerebral __________. Answer: commissures
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
15) The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the __________ fissure. Answer: lateral
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
16) Pyramidal cells have large __________ dendrites. Answer: apical
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
17) The three-layered cortical structure of the medial temporal lobe is the __________. Answer: hippocampus
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
18) __________ is a neuroanatomical term that means ring. Answer: Limbic
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
62
19) The almond-shaped limbic nucleus of the anterior temporal lobe is the __________. Answer: amygdala
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
20) The putamen and __________ compose the striatum, an important structure of the basal ganglia.
Answer: caudate
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 57
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
21) The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system. Answer: central nervous
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
22) The arachnoid, pia mater, and dura mater are the three __________. Answer: meninges
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
23) Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain. Answer: ventricles
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
24) Between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the __________. Answer: axon hillock
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
25) Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________. Answer: tracts
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
26) Large, star-shaped glial cells are __________. Answer: astrocytes
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
63
27) The __________ stain colors entirely black a few neurons in each brain slice. Answer: Golgi
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
28) The opposite of dorsal is __________. Answer: ventral
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
29) It is __________ coating of many axons that gives white matter in the nervous system its glossy white sheen.
Answer: myelin
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
30) Sensory signals enter the spinal cord via the __________ roots.
Answer: dorsal
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50 Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
31) The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________. Answer: pons
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
32) The large, two-lobed structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________. Answer: thalamus
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
33) The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus. Answer: pituitary
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
34) The cerebral hemispheres are joined by tracts called cerebral __________. Answer: commissures
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
64
35) The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the __________ fissure. Answer: lateral
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
36) Pyramidal cells have large __________ dendrites. Answer: apical
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
37) The three-layered cortical structure of the medial temporal lobe is the __________. Answer: hippocampus
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
38) __________ is a neuroanatomical term that means ring. Answer: Limbic
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
39) The almond-shaped limbic nucleus of the anterior temporal lobe is the __________. Answer: amygdala
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
40) The putamen and __________ compose the striatum, an important structure of the basal ganglia.
Answer: caudate
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 57
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
Essay Questions
1) Describe the overall layout of the divisions and systems of the mammalian nervous system. Include a diagram or table in your answer. (Hint: The mammalian nervous system is a system of twos. )
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) There are several kinds of glial cells in the nervous system. Describe them and their functions. Diff: 3
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
65
3) Compare two different neuroanatomical stains, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
4) With the use of diagrams, describe all of directions in the vertebrate nervous system. Diff: 3
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
5) Draw a side view of the human brain. Label 6 structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
6) Draw a midsagittal section of the human brain and label 10 structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
7) Describe the structure of the human telencephalon. Include descriptions of its major parts and structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

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