Becker World Of The Cell 9Th Ed By Jeff Hardin Test Bank

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Becker World Of The Cell 9Th Ed By Jeff Hardin Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Beckers World Of The Cell 9Th Ed By Jeff Hardin Test Bank

Beckers The World of the Cell, 9e (Hardin/Bertoni/Kleinsmith)

Chapter 2   The Chemistry of the Cell

 

2.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) What atom forms the backbone of almost all biological molecules?

  1. A) hydrogen
  2. B) nitrogen
  3. C) carbon
  4. D) sulfur
  5. E) phosphorus

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

2) Ribose has five carbon atoms, of which three are asymmetric. What is the maximum number of stereoisomers that may exist for ribose?

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 8
  5. E) 10

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G2, G7

 

3) Which of the following is not a fundamental property of carbon?

  1. A) Carbon-containing molecules are diverse.
  2. B) Carbon-containing molecules may form stereoisomers.
  3. C) Carbon-containing molecules are stable.
  4. D) Carbon has a valence of 4.
  5. E) Carbon atoms are most likely to form ionic bonds with one another.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

 

4) Which of the following is true of an asymmetric carbon atom?

  1. A) Only amino acids have asymmetric carbon atoms.
  2. B) A carbon with hydrogens attached at two locations is usually asymmetric.
  3. C) A carbon with hydrogens attached at three locations is usually asymmetric.
  4. D) Asymmetric carbon atoms create stereoisomers.
  5. E) Molecules may have only one asymmetric carbon atom.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G2, G7

5) Carbon can form ________ covalent bonds.

  1. A) single
  2. B) double
  3. C) triple
  4. D) single and double
  5. E) single, double, and triple

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G2, G7

 

6) Which of the following is a unit of energy?

  1. A) calorie
  2. B) bond
  3. C) watt
  4. D) mole
  5. E) both A and B

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

7) Biologically, which of the following is the least important characteristic of water?

  1. A) Water molecules are polar.
  2. B) Water molecules form numerous hydrogen bonds.
  3. C) Water is a good solvent.
  4. D) Water typically contains isotopes of hydrogen.
  5. E) Water has a temperature-stabilizing capacity.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

8) While fishing, you make the following observations:

  1. Water spiders appear to be able walk on the surface of the water.
  2. Flat rocks may be made to skip across the water.

Which of the following properties of water can explain these observations?

  1. A) Water is an excellent solvent.
  2. B) Water molecules are heavy.
  3. C) Water molecules are cohesive.
  4. D) Water molecules are polar.
  5. E) Both B and C

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

9) The moon lacks life and varies dramatically in temperature. If we could keep a layer of water spread on the surface of the moon, what effect would it have?

  1. A) Physical conditions would remain the same.
  2. B) Because water has a high heat of vaporization, the temperatures would rise to the upper extremes.
  3. C) The temperatures would drop to the lower extremes.
  4. D) Water would absorb and hold heat and moderate the temperature extremes.
  5. E) Life would be possible, but it would have to withstand these extremes in temperature.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

10) Why do ionic substances such as NaCl dissolve so readily in water?

  1. A) NaCl is a very dry powder, and the water is able to soak into the salt.
  2. B) The sodium ions repel the negative end of the water molecule.
  3. C) Water molecules form spheres of hydration around the sodium and chloride ions.
  4. D) The charged ends of the water molecules are able to surround the oppositely charged salt ion.
  5. E) Both C and D

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

 

11) In the lab, you choose to design a simple experiment to distinguish between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. You start by adding equal amounts of vinegar and oil to a container. After shaking, the vinegar and oil levels separate, based upon polarity and density. To this you add glucose and sodium citrate and shake again. Where do you expect to find the glucose and sodium citrate in greatest quantities?

  1. A) Both will concentrate in the oil layer.
  2. B) The glucose will concentrate in the vinegar, sodium citrate in the oil.
  3. C) Both will concentrate in the vinegar layer.
  4. D) Sodium citrate will concentrate in the vinegar, glucose in the oil.
  5. E) Both will be uniform throughout both layers.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

12) Which of the following is false regarding waters specific heat?

  1. A) The specific heat of water is 1.0 calorie per gram.
  2. B) Heat applied to water must initially break a number of hydrogen bonds.
  3. C) Waters high specific heat has a temperature-buffering effect.
  4. D) Water gains and loses heat more slowly than most other liquids do.
  5. E) The specific heat of water is similar to that of most liquids.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

13) Why is a selectively permeable membrane so important to living things?

  1. A) It allows cells to attach to adjacent tissues.
  2. B) It provides a good barrier between the inside and outside of the cell.
  3. C) Proteins will avoid a selectively permeable membrane.
  4. D) The membrane may absorb several times its weight in cholesterol.
  5. E) All of the above.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

 

14) The term amphipathic refers to those molecules that are

  1. A) hydrophilic.
  2. B) hydrophobic.
  3. C) charged at both ends but with opposite charges.
  4. D) nonpolar at both ends.
  5. E) charged at one end and nonpolar at the other.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

15) Which of the following molecules is most likely to cross the cell membrane directly by passive diffusion?

  1. A) Na+
  2. B) fructose (a sugar)
  3. C) a steroid hormone (a hydrocarbon)
  4. D) insulin (a polypeptide)
  5. E) fructose and insulin

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

16) How do large polar and charged molecules cross biological membranes?

  1. A) Large polar and charged molecules cant cross biological membranes.
  2. B) Large polar and charged molecules cross biological membranes via diffusion through the hydrophilic core of the membrane.
  3. C) Large polar and charged molecules must be hydrolyzed before they can cross a biological membrane.
  4. D) Large polar and charged molecules cross biological membranes via transport proteins that form hydrophilic channels through the membrane.
  5. E) Both A and C

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

 

17) The cell membrane can be described most accurately as

  1. A) permeable to all small molecules and ions.
  2. B) impermeable to larger molecules independent of their chemical characteristics.
  3. C) permeable to some molecules and impermeable to others.
  4. D) impermeable to all polar molecules.
  5. E) permeable to all molecules except water.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

18) Detergents are best able to dissolve oil from fabric or dishes during washing because

  1. A) the positively charged end is associated with water molecules, while the negatively charged end interacts with the oil droplet.
  2. B) the negatively charged end is associated with water molecules, while the positively charged end interacts with the oil droplet.
  3. C) the nonpolar end is associated with water molecules, while the charged end interacts with the oil droplet.
  4. D) the charged end is associated with water molecules, while the nonpolar end interacts with the oil droplet.
  5. E) detergents are nonpolar, they increase the size of the oil droplet, allowing the water to be more effective at removing the oil.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

19) While synthesizing a new blue pigment, a chemist notices that the new compound accumulates between an aqueous (water) environment and a hydrophobic environment. When added to a mixture of oil and water, the pigment creates a blue ring around the droplets of oil. Which of the following statements best describes this new pigment?

  1. A) The pigment is a polar molecule and is forming hydrogen bonds with both the water and oil molecules.
  2. B) The pigment is hydrophilic and will not form hydrophobic bonds with the oil.
  3. C) The pigment is amphipathic, having polar and nonpolar regions.
  4. D) The pigment is neither polar nor nonpolar; it is apolar.
  5. E) The pigment is probably hydrophobic and is attempting to bond with the oil.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

 

20) Which of the following statements concerning hydrocarbons is false?

  1. A) Octane is a hydrocarbon.
  2. B) Hydrocarbons are insoluble in water.
  3. C) Hydrocarbons are the most abundant organic molecules in cells.
  4. D) Only hydrogen atoms are used to complete the valence requirements of carbon in hydrocarbons.
  5. E) Phospholipids have hydrocarbon tails.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

21) Which of the following is important in protein folding after the formation of a polypeptide?

  1. A) hydrogen bonding
  2. B) ionic bonding
  3. C) van der Waals interactions
  4. D) hydrophobic interactions
  5. E) hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, van de Waals interactions, and hydrophobic interactions.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

22) Which one of the following biological polymers is mismatched with its monomer?

  1. A) DNA nucleotide
  2. B) enzyme amino acid
  3. C) chitin monosaccharide
  4. D) protein amino acid
  5. E) cellulose amino acid

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

23) Which of the following is not an activated monomer?

  1. A) adenosine triphosphate
  2. B) glucose-6-phosphate
  3. C) aminoacyl tRNA
  4. D) amino acid
  5. E) uracil triphosphate

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

24) Which of the following statements about the polymerization of macromolecules is false?

  1. A) Often the energy needed for polymerization is supplied by ATP.
  2. B) The polymer chain usually has two different ends.
  3. C) Water is added to join the monomers of the macromolecules.
  4. D) A monomer is usually activated by the coupling of the monomer to a carrier.
  5. E) Macromolecules are synthesized by the stepwise addition of monomers.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

25) Which of the following is a structural polysaccharide?

  1. A) glycogen
  2. B) fructose
  3. C) cellulose
  4. D) starch
  5. E) All of the above are structural polysaccharides.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

26) What inorganic precursors are needed to synthesize proteins?

  1. A) carbon, water, and oxygen
  2. B) carbon, water, oxygen, and phosphate
  3. C) carbon, water, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphate
  4. D) carbon, water, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur
  5. E) carbon, water, oxygen, sodium, and phosphate

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

27) Which of the following macromolecules is insoluble in water?

  1. A) lipids
  2. B) sugars
  3. C) amino acids
  4. D) disaccharides
  5. E) nucleic acids

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

28) The hierarchical nature of cellular structure is accurately illustrated in which of the following lists of substances (from smallest to largest)?

  1. A) nucleotides, chromosome, DNA, nucleus, cell
  2. B) cellulose, glucose, cell wall, cell
  3. C) nucleotides, nucleus, DNA, chromosome, cell
  4. D) nucleotides, DNA, chromosome, nucleus, cell
  5. E) protein, membrane, amino acids, chloroplast, cell

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

29) Which of the following sequences correctly lists the hierarchical nature of cellular structures, from smallest to largest?

  1. A) organic molecules, supramolecular structures, macromolecules, organelles, cells
  2. B) organelles, organic molecules, supramolecular structures, macromolecules, cells
  3. C) organic molecules, macromolecules, organelles, supramolecular structures, cells
  4. D) organic molecules, macromolecules, supramolecular structures, organelles, cells
  5. E) macromolecules, organic molecules, supramolecular structures, organelles, cells

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

30) An enzyme synthesized in the laboratory is found to have little activity when compared to the enzyme extracted from cell culture. Both enzymes were examined and have identical amino acid composition. What is the best explanation for the lack of activity of the synthesized enzyme?

  1. A) The van der Waals radius was altered during laboratory synthesis.
  2. B) The synthetic enzyme was not made of amino acids.
  3. C) The ATP required for self-assembly was present in the cell extract but not in the laboratory synthesis.
  4. D) Denaturation of the synthesized enzyme was not complete.
  5. E) The synthesized enzyme was not folded correctly because molecular chaperones were not present.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

31) A hypothetical automobile has 100 parts that are to be assembled by four workers. During the cars assembly, each worker constructs 25 parts individually, and then the 4 resulting components are assembled together. The manner in which the car was assembled is much like which cellular strategy?

  1. A) hierarchical assembly
  2. B) renaturation
  3. C) electrostatic assembly
  4. D) self-assembly
  5. E) assisted self-assembly

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

32) Which of the following biomolecules are long polymers of repeating monomers?

  1. A) polysaccharides
  2. B) nucleic acids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) lipids
  5. E) polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

33) Which of the following molecules is involved with assisted assembly?

  1. A) water molecules
  2. B) helper proteins
  3. C) molecular chaperones
  4. D) tobacco mosaic viruses
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

34) Ionic bonds are important in biological structures. Which of the following pairs of molecules would form an ionic bond?

  1. A) two water molecules
  2. B) two amino acids with oppositely charged functional groups
  3. C) two different stereoisomers of the same sugar
  4. D) two phospholipids
  5. E) a water molecule and a lipid

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

35) Self-assembly of some structures may depend on

  1. A) the size of the monomers.
  2. B) the presence of lipids in the cytosol.
  3. C) information supplied by preexisting structures.
  4. D) the time associated with forming noncovalent interactions.
  5. E) all of the above.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

 

36) All of the following are common functional groups found in biological molecules except

  1. A) phosphate groups.
  2. B) carbonyl groups.
  3. C) amino groups.
  4. D) sulfhydryl groups.
  5. E) butyl groups.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

37) Which of the following is an informational macromolecule?

  1. A) DNA
  2. B) ATP
  3. C) starch
  4. D) glycogen
  5. E) polypeptide

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

38) Monomers are removed from polymers by ________ reactions.

  1. A) condensation
  2. B) hydrolysis
  3. C) neutralization
  4. D) substitution
  5. E) redox

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

39) Self-assembly can be used for which of the following applications?

  1. A) nanotechnology
  2. B) quantum computing
  3. C) biosensors
  4. D) drug delivery systems
  5. E) all of these

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

40) Which of the following statements about self-assembly is false?

  1. A) The noncovalent interactions that drive supramolecular assembly processes are similar to those that dictate the folding of individual protein molecules.
  2. B) Self-assembly only occurs in structures composed of protein.
  3. C) Self-assembly requires specific chemical conditions.
  4. D) Molecular chaperones are sometimes required for the proper folding and assembly of complex proteins.
  5. E) All of the above.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

2.2   Matching Questions

 

Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

 

  1. A) ATP
  2. B) lipid bilayer
  3. C) hydroxyl group
  4. D) assists in protein assembly
  5. E) nucleic acid
  6. F) assists in lipid assembly
  7. G) glycogen
  8. H) methyl group
  9. I) cellulose
  10. J) spheres of hydration

 

1) molecular chaperone

Chapter Section: 2.4, 2.5

Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

2) important in hydrogen bonding

Chapter Section:  2.4, 2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome: 2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

3) structural polysaccharide

Chapter Section: 2.4, 2.5

Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis

Learning Outcome: 2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

4) informational macromolecule

Chapter Section:  2.4, 2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

5) membrane structure

Chapter Section:  2.4, 2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

 

6) storage polysaccharide

Chapter Section:  2.4, 2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

Answers: 1) D 2) C 3) I 4) E 5) B 6) G

 


Match the choice on the left with the choice on the right.

 

  1. A) lipase
  2. B) ribosome
  3. C) ethylene and carbon dioxide
  4. D) hydrolysis
  5. E) addition of monomer
  6. F) TMV self-assembly
  7. G) ionic bonds
  8. H) subassembly
  9. I) hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions
  10. J) nitrogen gas
  11. K) disassembly

 

7) important in protein folding

Chapter Section: 2.4

Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

8) degradation of polymers

Chapter Section: 2.4

Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis

Learning Outcome: 2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

9) condensation reaction

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO: G7

 

10) examples of double bonds

Chapter Section: 2.4

Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis

Learning Outcome: 2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

11) electrostatic interactions

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

 

12) requirement of hierarchical assembly

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

Answers: 7) I 8) D 9) E 10) C 11) G 12) H

 

Match the interaction or bond on the left with the phrase that best describes it on the right.

 

  1. A) electrostatic interactions
  2. B) transient interactions at very close range
  3. C) sharing of electrons
  4. D) association of nonpolar groups
  5. E) noncovalent attraction among water molecules

 

13) hydrogen bond

Chapter Section: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

Learning Outcome: 2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

14) ionic bonds

Chapter Section:  2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome: 2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

15) van der Waals interactions

Chapter Section:  2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

16) hydrophobic interaction

Chapter Section:  2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

17) covalent bonding

Chapter Section:  2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

Answers: 13) E 14) A 15) B 16) D 17) C

 

2.3   Short Answer Questions

 

1) TMV, or ________, is a rodlike particle with a genome of ________ and a ________ consisting of 2130 copies of a single polypeptide.

Answer:  tobacco mosaic virus; RNA; protein coat (capsid)

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

2) Although energy is ________ for polymerization, most macromolecules fold into their final three-dimensional conformations ________.

Answer:  required, spontaneously (or something similar)

Chapter Section:  2.4, 2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

3) ________ and ________ groups are negatively charged functional groups of carbon, whereas the ________ group is a positively charged functional group.

Answer:  Carboxyl; phosphoryl; amino

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

4) As a protein is being synthesized, the correct folding of the protein is aided by the movement of nonpolar amino acids toward the inner areas of the protein. How can this phenomenon be explained?

Answer:  The exclusion of hydrophobic groups from the aqueous surface is called the hydrophobic effect.

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

5) The cell membrane is composed of a bilayer of ________. These molecules have regions that are polar and nonpolar and are therefore ________.

Answer:  phospholipids; amphipathic

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

 

6) The ________ of water is caused by the unequal sharing of electrons between oxygen and hydrogen atoms.

Answer:  polarity

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

7) A selectively ________ membrane is one that allows some molecules to pass through but not others.

Answer:  permeable

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

8) ________ is a method used to determine the chemical structure and measure the relative abundance of individual molecules in a sample based on their mass to charge ratio.

Answer:  Mass spectrometry

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

9) In order to facilitate polymerization, monomers must be ________.

Answer:  activated

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

10) ________ aid in the assembly of some biomolecules.

Answer:  Molecular chaperones

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

11) ________ carbon atoms allow for the formation of ________, which are mirror images of each other.

Answer:  Asymmetric; stereoisomers

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

 

12) Macromolecules can be assembled into ________ that are components of organelles and other subcellular organelles.

Answer:  supramolecular structures

Chapter Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

13) Polymers are synthesized by ________ reactions and broken down into their constituent monomers by ________ reactions.

Answer:  condensation; hydrolysis

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

14) Because carbon is able to form four covalent bonds, it can form a huge variety of structures, including linear, ________, and ________ molecules.

Answer:           branched; ring-containing

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

2.4   Inquiry

 

Water has many unique properties. Can you identify the property of water that is responsible for each of the following observations?

 

  1. A) Water has a high specific heat.
  2. B) Water is polar.
  3. C) Water has a temperature-stabilizing capacity.
  4. D) Water is cohesive.
  5. E) Water is a good solvent.
  6. F) Water has a high heat of vaporization.

 

1) Many insects, such as the water strider, are able to move across the surface of water.

Chapter Section: 2.2

Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis

Learning Outcome: 2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

2) Most people get chilled immediately after taking a shower.

Chapter Section: 2.2

Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

3) A dime can be made to float on the surface of a glass of water.

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

4) On cold days, the water temperature is often warmer than the surrounding air.

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

5) Many salts dissolve in water.

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

6) Many oils will not dissolve in water.

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

7) The coastal areas of the world have a climate that is more moderate than inland areas.

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

8) Some springs contain high amounts of arsenic.

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

9) The Great Salt Lake contains high quantities of mineral solutes.

Chapter Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

Answers: 1) D 2) F 3) D 4) A 5) E 6) B 7) C 8) E 9) E

 

10) Single covalent carbon-carbon bonds have a bond energy of 83 kcal/mol while visible light from the sun has 4070 kcal of energy per mole of photons. Why is this property of carbon-carbon bonds important for life on earth? Based on this observation, how could the degradation of the earths atmosphere and an increase in high-energy ultraviolet radiation affect life on earth?

Answer:  The fact that carbon-carbon bonds have a high bond energy indicates that the bonds are quite stable and do not easily break apart. The stability of carbon-carbon bonds provides relatively stable molecules in biological systems that do not degrade at temperatures typically found on earth. The fact that visible light waves from the sun contain less energy than what is required to break a carbon-carbon bond indicates that carbon-carbon bonds will not degrade when exposed to visible light. If the earths atmosphere loses its ability to absorb or reflect ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which contains more energy than visible light, biological systems will be damaged, as UV radiation will damage critical biomolecules in living organisms on the surface of the earth.

Chapter Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G4, G7

11) For each of the three basic macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids), identify the monomer, its activated/carrier form, and one or two basic functions.

Answer:  Proteins: amino acids; amino acids bound to tRNAs; catalysis, structure.

Polysaccharides: monosaccharides; monosaccharide phosphates; energy storage, structure.Nucleic acids: nucleotides; nucleotides; information storage.

Chapter Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

 

12) Describe how the amphipathic nature of phospholipids leads to the formation of the phospholipid bilayer organization observed in membrane structure. Based upon this information, how would you design a drug delivery system to cross the cell membrane?

Answer:  Basically, student answers should include the orientation of phospholipids such that the phosphate ends are surrounded by a hydrating sphere and the hydrophobic tails are sequestered within each other (giving the bilayer organization). The drugs could be placed inside phospholipid micelles that would be able to deliver the drugs by fusing with the cell membrane and releasing their contents into the cytoplasm.

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G7

 

13) Predict whether or not each of the following substances can cross a biological membrane directly. Give a reason for each prediction.

  1. Nucleotides
  2. Na+
  3. Steroid hormones
  4. Polar amino acids
  5. Water
  6. Oxygen
  7. Cl

Answer:

  1. Nucleotides cant cross biological membranes directly because they are large, negatively charged molecules (students should recognize at least the large size, and probably that the functional groups are polar or charged).
  2. Na+ cant cross biological membranes directly because it is charged.
  3. Steroid hormones CAN cross biological membranes directly because they are nonpolar.
  4. Polar amino acids cant cross biological membranes directly because they are large, polar molecules.
  5. Water CAN cross biological membranes directly even though it is polar because of its small size.
  6. Oxygen CAN cross biological membranes directly because it is nonpolar and small.
  7. Cl cant cross biological membranes directly because it is charged.

Chapter Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G2, G7

 

Beckers The World of the Cell, 9e (Hardin/Bertoni/Kleinsmith)

Chapter 12   The Endomembrane System

 

12.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) In which of the following organelles would you expect to first find a protein destined to be secreted from a cell?

  1. A) endosome
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosome
  4. D) secretory vesicle
  5. E) endoplasmic reticulum

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

2) The endoplasmic reticulum is a site for

  1. A) potassium storage in muscle cells.
  2. B) drug detoxification by catalase.
  3. C) N-linked glycosylation of polypeptides.
  4. D) addition of lipid residues.
  5. E) degradation of foreign material brought into the cell by phagocytosis.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

3) Comparing cells synthesizing secretory proteins and cells secreting steroid hormones, the cells synthesizing the steroid hormones have

  1. A) more rough ER.
  2. B) more smooth ER.
  3. C) equal amounts of smooth and rough ER.
  4. D) equal amounts of smooth and rough ER, but more lysosomes.
  5. E) equal amounts of smooth and rough ER, but fewer lysosomes.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

4) Which of the following molecules forms the coat during receptor-mediated endocytosis-coated pit formation?

  1. A) mannose-6-phosphate
  2. B) T-SNARE
  3. C) clathrin
  4. D) tethering protein
  5. E) caveolin

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

5) The continuous release of mucus by the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract is an example of

  1. A) regulated secretion.
  2. B) constitutive secretion.
  3. C) the mucus response.
  4. D) clathrin-coated pit formation.
  5. E) phagocytosis.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

6) When a membrane protein is radioactively labeled during synthesis and followed through the various organelles in the secretory pathway, all the radioactivity is concentrated in the cis-Golgi apparatus six hours after the protein synthesis. This suggests that the protein

  1. A) was imported directly into the cis-Golgi posttranslationally.
  2. B) contains a KDEL sequence near its C-terminus.
  3. C) has a membrane-spanning domain length equals the thickness of the cis-Golgi membrane.
  4. D) has a mannose-6-phosphate tag.
  5. E) is misfolded and being degraded in the cis-Golgi.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

 

7) The vesicles that are anchored to the plasma membrane at a nerve cell presynaptic site are specialized for

  1. A) constitutive secretion.
  2. B) regulated secretion.
  3. C) polarized secretion.
  4. D) lysosome secretion.
  5. E) endocytosis.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

8) Which of the following statements is false regarding phagocytosis?

  1. A) It can ingest large particles.
  2. B) It involves the projection of pseudopods.
  3. C) It is used by amoebae to ingest food.
  4. D) It is mediated by clathrin at the plasma membrane.
  5. E) It is used by macrophages and neutrophils to ingest bacteria.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

9) In receptor-mediated endocytosis, each of the following is a fate for the receptors and/or vesicle contents except

  1. A) transcytosis.
  2. B) digestion in a lysosome.
  3. C) recycling to the plasma membrane.
  4. D) release from the vesicle into the nucleus.
  5. E) All are possible fates.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

 

10) Each of the following is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in lysosomal enzymes except

  1. A) familial hypercholesterolemia.
  2. B) Hurler syndrome.
  3. C) Hunter syndrome.
  4. D) type II glycogenosis.
  5. E) Tay-Sachs disease.

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

11) Each of the following is part of the core oligosaccharide side chain in the ER except

  1. A) N-acetyl glucosamine.
  2. B) erythrose.
  3. C) mannose.
  4. D) glucose.
  5. E) All are part of the core oligosaccharide.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

12) Peroxisomes

  1. A) are not derived from the endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. B) are bounded by double membranes.
  3. C) possess acid phosphatase activity.
  4. D) possess mannose phosphotransferase activity.
  5. E) exist only in algae and photosynthetic cells in plants.

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

 

13) Which of the following organelles has the ability to catabolize alkanes found in oil and petroleum products?

  1. A) mitochondria
  2. B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  3. C) peroxisomes
  4. D) lysosomes
  5. E) late endosomes

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

14) A protein that is N-glycosylated is expected to be

  1. A) secreted from the cell.
  2. B) retained in the endoplasmic reticulum.
  3. C) localized in the Golgi body.
  4. D) imported into a cell by endocytosis.
  5. E) a peroxisome enzyme.

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

15) Each of the following is an endoplasmic reticulum function except

  1. A) addition of carbohydrate to proteins to make glycoproteins.
  2. B) peptide folding.
  3. C) the assembly of multimeric proteins.
  4. D) the export of protein that cannot be folded into the cytoplasm for destruction.
  5. E) All are endoplasmic reticulum functions.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

16) Total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy is best used to visualize fluorescently labeled protein activity

  1. A) that is too small to see with regular light microscopy.
  2. B) on the upper surface of a cell.
  3. C) in the Golgi.
  4. D) on the lower surface of a cell.
  5. E) in the nucleus.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  Key Technique

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G1

 

17) Which of the following is associated with extracellular digestion caused by release of the lysosomes enzymes into the environment?

  1. A) Tay-Sachs disease
  2. B) rheumatoid arthritis
  3. C) autophagy
  4. D) Hunter syndrome
  5. E) Hurler syndrome

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

18) Each of the following organelles is part of the endomembrane system except

  1. A) the peroxisome.
  2. B) the Golgi complex.
  3. C) the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  4. D) the endosome.
  5. E) the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

 

19) Each of the following is true about botulinum toxin (Botox) except

  1. A) The toxin is one of the most potent toxins known.
  2. B) Botox is a SNARE protein.
  3. C) It can be used therapeutically to stop muscle spasms.
  4. D) It has been used to remove wrinkles caused by muscle contractions.
  5. E) It has potential use as a migraine headache treatment.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

20) You have isolated two fractions containing similar-sized vesicles by centrifugation. You suspect one fraction contains lysosomes and the other contains peroxisomes. To confirm that a fraction contains peroxisomes, you would assay for which of the following enzymes?

  1. A) acid phosphatase
  2. B) -glucuronidase
  3. C) ribonuclease
  4. D) a protease
  5. E) catalase

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  12.2

Global LO:  G1

 

21) On which of the following intracellular locations does clathrin organize a coat and form vesicles?

  1. A) lysosomes
  2. B) trans-Golgi complex
  3. C) endoplasmic network
  4. D) inner membrane of mitochondria
  5. E) regulated secretory vesicles

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

 

22) Each of the following is a component involved in the SNARE hypothesis model mechanism except

  1. A) v-SNARE.
  2. B) Rab GTPase.
  3. C) tethering complex.
  4. D) NSF protein.
  5. E) All are involved.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

23) In a lysosomal storage disease, newly synthesized lysosome hydrolases are secreted from the cells rather than being delivered to the lysosomes. What is one possible mechanism for this result?

  1. A) The cis-Golgi network lacks a proton gradient.
  2. B) The ER is unable to produce lysosomal vesicles.
  3. C) Lysosomal enzymes are not phosphorylated in the rER.
  4. D) Mannose is not phosphorylated in the cis-Golgi network.
  5. E) All the hydrolase genes are mutated, resulting in synthesis by ribosomes free in the cytoplasm rather than on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

24) Pancreatic acinar cells produce and store hydrolytic enzymes in zymogen granules until hormones signal the cell to release the enzymes in a process known as

  1. A) transport secretion.
  2. B) regulated secretion.
  3. C) constitutive secretion.
  4. D) intracellular secretion.
  5. E) consistent secretion.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

 

25) Which of the following techniques would be best used to measure the strength of a v-SNARE-t-SNARE interaction?

  1. A) X-ray crystallography
  2. B) TIRF microscopy
  3. C) GFP fusion proteins
  4. D) optical tweezers
  5. E) radioactive pulse labeling

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G1

26) Using genetic engineering techniques, which of the following would you do to a protein that normally is constitutively secreted to make it accumulate in the ER?

  1. A) fuse it to GFP
  2. B) add an amino acid that would get a mannose-6-phosphate group added to its carbohydrate
  3. C) add a KDEL sequence near its C-terminus
  4. D) mutate one of the asparagines that is normally glycosylated to an alanine, which is not glycosylated
  5. E) None of these would cause the protein to accumulate in the ER.

Answer:  C

Chapter Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G1

 

27) Which of the following proteins requires GTP in the process of LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis?

  1. A) LDL receptor
  2. B) dynamin
  3. C) AP-2 complex
  4. D) uncoating enzyme
  5. E) clathrin

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

 

28) Each of the following is part of the endomembrane system, except

  1. A) Golgi complex.
  2. B) endosomes.
  3. C) lysosomes.
  4. D) peroxisomes.
  5. E) zymogen granules.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

29) A protein that is normally localized in the cytoplasm has been engineered so that it will be secreted from the cell instead. Which of the following represents the most likely pathway for the protein after it has been completely synthesized?

  1. A) rER Golgi secretory vesicle environment
  2. B) rER Golgi sER cytoplasm environment
  3. C) cytoplasm rER Golgi secretory vesicle environment
  4. D) sER Golgi secretory vesicle environment
  5. E) rER secretory vesicle Golgi environment

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

30) Sorting of hormones into regulated secretory vesicles in the trans-Golgi network involves

  1. A) mannose-6-phosphorylation.
  2. B) formation of large aggregates.
  3. C) a KDEL receptor.
  4. D) a zymogen granule receptor.
  5. E) O-linked glycosylation

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

 

31) In animal cells, oxidation of very long fatty acids occurs in

  1. A) mitochondria.
  2. B) peroxisomes.
  3. C) lysosomes.
  4. D) the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  5. E) residual bodies.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

32) Which of the following cell types would be associated with the greatest concentration of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)?

  1. A) skin
  2. B) muscle
  3. C) connective tissue
  4. D) blood
  5. E) liver

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

33) Uptake of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) occurs by

  1. A) simple diffusion.
  2. B) phagocytosis.
  3. C) facilitated transport.
  4. D) receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  5. E) pinocytosis.

Answer:  D

Chapter Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

34) The low pH of lysosomes is established by

  1. A) acid hydrolases.
  2. B) ATP-dependent proton pumps.
  3. C) -glucuronidases.
  4. D) catalases.
  5. E) superoxide dismutases.

Answer:  B

Chapter Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

35) The plant cell organelle most analogous to animal cell lysosomes is the

  1. A) vacuole.
  2. B) glyoxysome.
  3. C) microsome.
  4. D) endosome.
  5. E) leaf peroxisome.

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  12.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

36) The plant cell organelle most analogous to the animal cell endosome is the

  1. A) provacuole.
  2. B) lysosome.
  3. C) peroxisome.
  4. D) glyoxysome.
  5. E) None of the above are analogous.

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

37) A COPII-coated vesicle has all of the following except

  1. A) Sec 13/31.
  2. B) Sec 23/34.
  3. C) v-SNARE.
  4. D) Sar1.
  5. E) AP-2.

Answer:  E

Chapter Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

38) Which of the following cellular processes may be inhibited in tumor cells?

  1. A) autophagy
  2. B) N-linked glycosylation
  3. C) caveolae uptake
  4. D) LDL degradation
  5. E) catalase activity

Answer:  A

Chapter Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

12.2   Matching Questions

 

Choose the organelle in column 2 that best matches the activity in column 1.

 

  1. A) mitochondria
  2. B) rough endoplasmic reticulum
  3. C) lysosome
  4. D) Golgi
  5. E) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  6. F) peroxisomes
  7. G) plant vacuole

 

1) catalase

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

2) N-linked glycosylation

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

3) cytochrome P-450

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

4) glycosyl transferases

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

5) drug detoxification

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

6) acid hydrolases

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

7) turgor pressure

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

Answers: 1) F 2) B 3) E 4) D 5) E 6) C 7) G

 


Match the organelle on the left with the appropriate property on the right.

 

  1. A) binds vesicle to target membrane
  2. B) transport from Golgi to plasma membrane
  3. C) mediates transfer of lysosomal enzymes into a lysosome
  4. D) degradation of damaged organelles
  5. E) transport to various cisternae of Golgi
  6. F) sorting proteins to secretory vesicles or to lysosome
  7. G) degradation of fatty acids in plant endosperm or cotyledons
  8. H) biosynthesis of steroid hormones
  9. I) transport of proteins from ER to Golgi
  10. J) oxidation of fatty acids

 

8) peroxisomes

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

9) smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

10) lysosomes

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

11) Golgi apparatus

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Knowledge

Global LO:  G2

 

12) COPII vesicle

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

 

13) shuttle vesicle

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

14) secretory vesicle

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

15) glyoxysomes

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

16) tethering protein

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

17) mannose-6-phosphate

Chapter Section:  12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1, 12.2

Global LO:  G2

 

Answers: 8) J 9) H 10) D 11) F 12) I 13) E 14) B 15) G 16) A 17) C

 

12.3   Short Answer Questions

 

1) The ________ is the organelle involved in the post-translational modification of proteins and sorting of proteins to various intracellular and secretory compartments.

Answer:  Golgi apparatus

Chapter Section:  12.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

 

2) The ________ is the organelle that fuses with endosomes and supplies hydrolytic enzymes necessary for the digestion of the materials.

Answer:  lysosome

Chapter Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

3) ________ is the triskelion molecule that forms the coats on vesicles associated with receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Answer:  Clathrin

Chapter Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

4) ________ is the organelle associated with the functions of steroid biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and drug detoxification.

Answer:  Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Chapter Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

5) ________ pump protons to keep the internal proton concentration of lysosomes high.

Answer:  ATP-dependent proton pumps

Chapter Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

6) Exocytosis is stimulated by regional increases in cytoplasmic ________ concentration.

Answer:  calcium

Chapter Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

 

7) ________ bind specific receptors to clathrin in receptor-mediated endocytosis vesicles.

Answer:  Adaptor protein complexes

Chapter Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global LO:  G2

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