Biochemistry Concepts And Connections 1st Edition By Appling Test Bank

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Biochemistry Concepts And Connections 1st Edition By Appling Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Biochemistry Concepts And Connections 1st Edition By Appling Test Bank

Biochemistry: Concepts and Connections (Appling et al.)

Chapter 5   Introduction to Proteins: The Primary Level of Protein Structure

 

1) Which of the following amino acids would most likely be found on the surface of a protein?

  1. A) Aspartic acid
  2. B) Leucine
  3. C) Proline
  4. D) Valine
  5. E) Phenylalanine

Answer:  A

Objective:  5.1

Global LO:  G7

 

2) Protein biosynthesis uses only L-amino acids.

Answer:  TRUE

Objective:  5.1

Global LO:  G7

 

3) All amino acids have a chiral -carbon EXCEPT ________.

Answer:  glycine

Objective:  5.3

Global LO:  G7

 

4) The side chain of ________ has a pKa in the physiological pH range and is therefore often involved in proton transfer during enzymatic catalysis.

Answer:  histidine

Objective:  5.7

Global LO:  G7

 

5) At physiological pH, the carboxylic acid group of an amino acid will be ________, while the amino group will be ________, yielding the zwitterion form.

Answer:  deprotonated, protonated

Objective:  5.8

Global LO:  G2

 

6) At pH=0, the net charge on a polypeptide will be negative.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  5.10

Global LO:  G7

 

 

7) Which of the following modified amino acids is incorporated during translation rather than being modified post-translationally?

  1. A) Phosphoserine
  2. B) Selenocysteine
  3. C) -carboxyglutamate
  4. D) N--acetyllysine
  5. E) 4-hydroxyproline

Answer:  B

Objective:  5.11

Global LO:  G7

8) An amide bond between the -carboxylic acid group of one amino acid and the -amino group on another is called a ________.

Answer:  peptide bond

Objective:  5.13

Global LO:  G7

 

9) The chemical ________ can cleave amide bonds on the C-terminal side of methionine residues.

Answer:  cyanogen bromide

Objective:  5.13

Global LO:  G9

 

10) Which of the following is FALSE when considering the standard genetic code?

  1. A) Three separate codons encode translation stop signals.
  2. B) There are 64 possible codons to represent 20 common amino acids.
  3. C) AUG serves as the translation start codon in most cases.
  4. D) Apart from methionine, the only other amino acid with a single codon is tryptophan.
  5. E) Each of the three stop codons can also encode rare modified amino acids.

Answer:  E

Objective:  5.16

Global LO:  G2

 

11) Which of the following statements about insulin is INCORRECT?

  1. A) In the active form it has two polypeptide chains joined by disulphide bonds.
  2. B) It is synthesized as a random coil single chain on membrane-bound ribosomes.
  3. C) The leader sequence is cleaved off after membrane transport.
  4. D) The disulphide bonds form after the final proteolytic cleavage to yield mature insulin.
  5. E) It is stored in the pancreas in an inactive form.

Answer:  D

Objective:  5.17

Global LO:  G2

 

12) Most proteins have blocked amino and carboxyl terminals.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  5.17

Global LO:  G7

 

13) Conservative amino acid changes never affect stability or function of a protein.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  5.18

Global LO:  G2

 

14) When referring to the amino acid sequences of proteins, sequence homology is the same as sequence similarity.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  5.18

Global LO:  G2

 

15) Several homologous proteins can be aligned to provide a ________ sequence.

Answer:  consensus

Objective:  5.19

Global LO:  G2

16) Recombinant proteins containing a ________ can be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and eluted by the addition of imidazole, a low pH buffer or a buffer containing EDTA.

Answer:  his-tag, or hexahistidine-tag

Objective:  5.20

Global LO:  G9

 

17) Applications of mass spectrometry include:

  1. A) determination of the mass of a protein.
  2. B) determining the primary structure of proteins.
  3. C) detection of post-translational modifications on proteins.
  4. D) A and B.
  5. E) A, B, and C.

Answer:  E

Objective:  5.21

Global LO:  G9

 

18) In size exclusion chromatography, the smallest proteins are eluted last.

Answer:  TRUE

Objective:  5.21

Global LO:  G9

 

19) ________ chromatography is used to separate proteins based on their surface charge.

Answer:  Ion exchange

Objective:  5.21

Global LO:  G9

 

Biochemistry: Concepts and Connections (Appling et al.)

Chapter 15   Photosynthesis

 

1) Which of the following statements about photosynthesis is FALSE?

  1. A) The light reactions occur within or on the thylakoid membranes.
  2. B) The dark reactions occur in the stroma of the chloroplast.
  3. C) The light reactions oxidise water to oxygen, reducing NADP+to NADPH in the process.
  4. D) The dark reactions use the NADPH and ATP formed in the light reactions in reductive synthesis of carbohydrate from CO2and water.
  5. E) In plants much of the carbohydrate formed is stored as sucrose.

Answer:  E

Objective:  15.1

Global LO:  G2

 

2) Photosynthesis is the major source of oxygen in Earths atmosphere.

Answer:  TRUE

Objective:  15.1

Global LO:  G5

 

3) Calculate the amount of energy required to make one mole of hexose from CO2 and water by photosynthesis if the average photon has an energy of 2.77 10-19 J and 48 photons are required for each 6C sugar. Assume the efficiency of photosynthesis is ~35%.

Answer:  2802 kJ/mol

Objective:  15.1

Global LO:  G4

 

4) Upon which region of the light spectrum does photosynthesis mainly depend?

  1. A) Visible
  2. B) Ultraviolet
  3. C) Infrared
  4. D) Visible and infrared
  5. E) Visible and ultraviolet

Answer:  D

Objective:  15.2

Global LO:  G7

 

5) Photons with any energy value are able to cause transitions in the electronic states of organic molecules to drive reactions and thus capture light energy in chemical form.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  15.2

Global LO:  G7

 

6) Chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls absorb light in the visible part of the spectrum because they contain large ________ double-bond systems.

Answer:  conjugated

Objective:  15.2

Global LO:  G7

7) The energy of a photon absorbed by an antenna molecule of the photosystem finds it way to a chlorophyll molecule in the reaction center of a light-harvesting complex by a process of:

  1. A) electron transfer.
  2. B) fluorescence re-radiation.
  3. C) resonance transfer.
  4. D) resonance transfer and electron transfer.
  5. E) electron transfer and fluorescence re-radiation.

Answer:  D

Objective:  15.3

Global LO:  G2

 

8) Which of the following represents the CORRECT order of events in the two-photosystem light reactions of photosynthesis?

  1. A) Photosystem I is the first to receive a photon of light.
  2. B) Photosystem II receives electrons from plastocyanin at the end of the electron transfer chain from the excited reaction center of photosystem I.
  3. C) Photosystem I receives electrons from plastocyanin at the end of the electron transfer chain from the excited reaction center of photosystem II.
  4. D) Photosystem I receives electrons from ferredoxin at the end of the electron transfer chain from the excited reaction center of photosystem II.
  5. E) The final electron acceptor, NADP+, receives electrons from plastocyanin at the end of the electron transfer chain from the excited reaction center of photosystem I.

Answer:  C

Objective:  15.3

Global LO:  G2

 

9) Water is oxidized to oxygen at the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and released into the lumen of the thylakoid and diffuses out of the chloroplast.

Answer:  TRUE

Objective:  15.3

Global LO:  G7

 

10) A proton gradient is formed across the thylakoid membrane with the stroma becoming more acidic than the lumen.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  15.3

Global LO:  G7

 

11) The plastoquinones associated with photosystem II proteins are structurally and functionally similar to ________ in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Answer:  ubiquinone or coenzyme Q

Objective:  15.4

Global LO:  G7

 

12) Which of the following intermediates of the Calvin cycle is NOT used directly to regenerate ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate?

  1. A) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
  2. B) Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
  3. C) Fructose 6-phosphate
  4. D) Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
  5. E) Both C and D

Answer:  D

Objective:  15.6

Global LO:  G7

 

13) Which of the following is NOT true considering the regulation of photosynthesis?

  1. A) Rubisco is activated by high pH.
  2. B) Rubisco is activated by 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol-1-phosphate, which is synthesized in the dark.
  3. C) Rubisco activase removes 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol-1-phosphate in the presence of light.
  4. D) Several of the Calvin cycle enzymes respond to redox state.
  5. E) Xylulose-1,5-phosphate inhibits Rubisco.

Answer:  B

Objective:  15.7

Global LO:  G2

 

14) The C4 photosynthesis pathway helps to provide CO2 to the carboxylase active site of Rubisco in conditions of high O2 concentration.

Answer:  TRUE

Objective:  15.8

Global LO:  G7

 

15) Cyclic electron flow through photosystem one and its associated electron transfer chain can be used to produce ATP when levels of ________ are very low.

Answer:  NADP+

Objective:  15.8

Global LO:  G7

 

16) As well as acting as a carboxylase, Rubisco can act as an oxygenase under normal environmental conditions initiating a pathway known as ________ which produces 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycolate.

Answer:  photorespiration

Objective:  15.9

Global LO:  G7

 

Biochemistry: Concepts and Connections (Appling et al.)

Chapter 23   DNA Repair, Recombination, and Rearrangement

 

1) O6-methylguanine has a high probability of base pairing with thymine to result in a post replication mutation from a GC base pair to:

  1. A) TA.
  2. B) AT.
  3. C) CG.
  4. D) GT.
  5. E) TC.

Answer:  B

Objective:  23.1

Global LO:  G2

 

2) The only function of Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase is to remove dUMP residues in DNA that have been arisen by deamination of cytosine.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  23.1

Global LO:  G7

 

3) Which of the following types of DNA damage cannot be repaired by base excision repair?

  1. A) Depurination
  2. B) Cytosine deamination
  3. C) Thymine dimer
  4. D) Single-strand break
  5. E) Base oxidation

Answer:  C

Objective:  23.2

Global LO:  G7

 

4) Nucleotide excision repair:

  1. A) involves a multisubunit enzyme.
  2. B) preferentially repairs genes that are being actively transcribed.
  3. C) involves making nicks on either side of a DNA lesion.
  4. D) uses helicase, polymerase and ligase to repair the DNA.
  5. E) all of the above.

Answer:  E

Objective:  23.2

Global LO:  G7

 

5) Photoreactivation using DNA photolyase is responsible for direct repair of thymine dimers in all organisms.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  23.2

Global LO:  G7

 

 

6) ________ and bulky adducts on DNA can be repaired using the nucleotide excision repair process.

Answer:  Thymine dimers

Objective:  23.2

Global LO:  G7

7) The direct DNA repair enzymes DNA photolyase and O6-alkyguanine alkytransferase are unusual in that they are ________ after one catalytic cycle.

Answer:  inactivated

Objective:  23.2

Global LO:  G7

 

8) Base excision repair starts with cleavage of the ________ between the damaged base and the deoxyribose.

Answer:  glycosidic bond

Objective:  23.2

Global LO:  G7

 

9) Which of the following enzyme activities is NOT used in base excision repair?

  1. A) Glycosylase
  2. B) Apyriminidic endonuclease
  3. C) Deoxyribose-5-phosphatase
  4. D) DNA polymerase
  5. E) Helicase

Answer:  E

Objective:  23.3

Global LO:  G7

 

10) The SOS response to DNA damage in bacteria is error-prone because:

  1. A) it uses DNA polymerase that lacks 5 exonuclease activity.
  2. B) it is an inducible system.
  3. C) the polymerases used lack 3 exonuclease activity.
  4. D) more than one polymerase can be used to repair the damage.
  5. E) it is stimulated by ultraviolet light that causes mutations.

Answer:  C

Objective:  23.3

Global LO:  G7

 

11) Transcription-coupled repair usually repairs the template strand.

Answer:  TRUE

Objective:  23.3

Global LO:  G7

 

 

12) The dam methylase has a role in which of the following DNA repair systems?

  1. A) Base-excision repair
  2. B) Nucleotide excision repair
  3. C) Non-homologous end-joining
  4. D) Mismatch repair
  5. E) Homologous recombination

Answer:  D

Objective:  23.4

Global LO:  G7

13) Strand-displacement in homologous recombination in E. coli is facilitated by:

  1. A) the RecBCD complex.
  2. B) ss-binding protein.
  3. C) RecA.
  4. D) RuvC.
  5. E) the chi

Answer:  C

Objective:  23.5

Global LO:  G7

 

14) Which of the following mechanisms is NOT involved in the generation of antibody diversity?

  1. A) Recombination with excision of DNA between a V gene sequence and a J sequence
  2. B) Splicing out of RNA sequences between a J region and a C region
  3. C) Somatic hypermutation
  4. D) Non-homologous end joining and DNA repair
  5. E) Transposition

Answer:  E

Objective:  23.5

Global LO:  G7

 

15) Bacteria cannot use homologous recombination for DNA repair as they only have a single copy of their genome.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  23.5

Global LO:  G7

 

16) Site-specific recombination generally requires longer homologous sequences than does homologous recombination.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  23.5

Global LO:  G7

 

 

17) Homologous recombination occurs by nicking followed by strand invasion, ligation then branch migration.

Answer:  TRUE

Objective:  23.5

Global LO:  G7

 

18) The genome is inserted into the E. coli genome in the lysogenic pathway by the use of ________ recombination.

Answer:  site-specific

Objective:  23.5

Global LO:  G7

19) Which of the following is a feature of bacterial transposition?

  1. A) Homologous recombination
  2. B) DNA synthesis
  3. C) Target site duplication
  4. D) Deletions or inversions
  5. E) All of the above

Answer:  E

Objective:  23.6

Global LO:  G7

 

20) Gene amplification occurring as a result of specific metabolic stress will always be reversed once the stress has been removed.

Answer:  FALSE

Objective:  23.6

Global LO:  G7

 

21) The movement of transposable genetic elements within a genome is essentially ________.

Answer:  random

Objective:  23.6

Global LO:  G7

 

22) Retroviruses are characterized by the presence of ________ that flank the viral structural genes.

Answer:  long terminal repeats

Objective:  23.6

Global LO:  G7

 

23) One mechanism that could result in gene duplication involves ________ sister-chromatid exchange.

Answer:  unequal

Objective:  23.6

Global LO:  G7

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