Biological Psychology 12th Edition Test Bank Kalat

Biological Psychology  12th Edition  Test Bank  Kalat
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True / False

1. A striated muscle controls movement of the body in relation to the environment.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movements
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

2. In skeletal muscles, every axon releases dopamine.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movements
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

3. Taking a drug that blocks acetylcholine receptors would be helpful for a person with myasthenia gravis.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movements
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

4. Activation of the Golgi tendon organs results in contraction of the muscle.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movements
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

5. Infants have several reflexes not seen in adults.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

6. Most types of movement can be clearly classified as voluntary or involuntary.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

7. Central pattern generators are most likely to be found in the spinal cord.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

8. A fixed sequence of movements is called a motor program.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

9. The motor cortex can become active when imagining movement.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

10. People with severe spinal cord injury continue to produce normal activity in the motor cortex when they want to move.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

11. The prefrontal cortex plans movements according to their probable outcomes.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

12. The supplementary motor cortex is mainly active when preparing for an organized sequence of movements.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

13. Mirror neurons are active both during preparation for a movement and while watching someone else perform the same or a similar movement.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

14. Brain transplants for Parkinsons patients have generally been very successful.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

15. In Huntingtons disease, earlier onset is associated with slower deterioration over time.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

Multiple Choice

16. What type of muscle controls movements of the heart?
a. smooth
b. striated
c. cardiac
d. antagonistic
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

17. What type of muscle controls movements of internal organs?
a. smooth
b. striated
c. cardiac
d. antagonistic
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

18. What type of muscle is responsible for the movement of your body through the environment?
a. smooth
b. striated
c. cardiac
d. syncarpous
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

19. What is the relationship between the motor neuron axons and muscle fibers?
a. Each axon innervates only one muscle fiber.
b. The more muscle fibers a single axon innervates, the more precise the movements.
c. The more axons which innervate a single muscle fiber, the more precise the movements.
d. The fewer muscle fibers a single axon innervates, the more precise the movements.
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

20. The eye muscles can be moved with greater precision than the biceps muscles because ____.
a. biceps have only slow-twitch muscles
b. biceps have only fast-twitch muscles
c. biceps are opposed by an antagonistic muscle; the eye muscles are not
d. eye muscles have a lower ratio of muscle fibers to axons
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

21. What is the name given to the synapse where a motor neurons axon meets a muscle fiber?
a. neuromuscular junction
b. polar junction
c. muscle spindle
d. neurofiber synapse
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

22. Moving a leg or arm back and forth requires opposing sets of muscles called ____.
a. extensor muscles
b. flexor muscles
c. cardiac muscles
d. antagonistic muscles
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

23. The absence of acetylcholine will cause a muscle to ____.
a. relax
b. contract
c. fatigue
d. stretch
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

24. Which muscle is antagonistic to a flexor muscle in the right arm?
a. a flexor muscle in the right arm
b. an extensor muscle in the left arm
c. an extensor muscle in the right arm
d. another flexor muscle in the right arm
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

25. The eye muscles have a ratio of about ____ axon(s) per ____ muscle fiber(s).
a. two; three
b. one; three
c. three; two
d. three; one
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

26. The biceps muscles of the arm have a ratio of ____ to more than a hundred fibers.
a. four
b. three
c. one
d. two
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

27. In movement, the ____ muscle straightens the arm.
a. flexor
b. striated
c. extensor
d. skeletal
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

28. A fish will adjust to lower water temperatures by ____.
a. activating more action potentials
b. increasing the amplitude of its action potentials
c. recruiting different muscle fibers
d. returning to its basal metabolic rate
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

29. Which muscles are especially important when running up a flight of stairs at full speed?
fast-twitch muscles
a.
b. slow-twitch muscles
c. smooth muscles
d. intermediate muscles
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

30. If a new species were found with legs composed almost completely of fast-twitch muscles, what could we infer about its behavior?
a. It could chase prey over long distances.
b. It could chase prey only over short distances.
c. It probably travels constantly.
d. It probably moves slowly and grazes on vegetation.
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

31. During aerobic exercises such as dancing, as glucose is used by the muscles, ____.
a. fast-twitch fibers absorb more glucose
b. slow-twitch muscles produce glucose anaerobically
c. glucose use increases
d. glucose use decreases
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

32. Exercising at a high altitude where there is less oxygen is most likely to affect ____.
a. intermediate fibers
b. anaerobic contraction
c. fast-twitch fibers
d. slow-twitch fibers
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

33. Vigorous use of fast-twitch fibers results in fatigue because the process is ____.
a. aerobic
b. anaerobic
c. anabolic
d. abolic
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

34. A proprioceptor is sensitive to the ____.
a. degree of relaxation or contraction of smooth muscle tissue
b. position and movement of a part of the body
c. percentage of fibers that are contracting within a muscle bundle
d. degree of fatigue in a muscle
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

35. The stretch reflex ____.
a. results in a stretch
b. is caused by a stretch
c. inhibits motor neurons
d. sends a message for a muscle to relax
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

36. A boxers ability to sense the position of his arm and hand before planning a punch is dependent on the sense of ____.
a. proprioception
b. somatosensation
c. pain
d. vision
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

37. A muscle spindle responds to the ____.
a. oxygen level in the muscle
b. acetylcholine concentration at the nerve-muscle junction
c. fatigue of the muscle
d. stretch of the muscle
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

38. A sudden stretch of a muscle excites a feedback system that opposes the stretch. This message starts in the ____.
a. dorsal root ganglion
b. cerebellum
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. muscle spindles
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

39. A Golgi tendon organ responds to ____.
a. increases in muscle tension
b. decreases in muscle tension
c. increases in muscle spindles
d. decreases in muscle spindles
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

40. The role of the Golgi tendon organs is to ____.
a. prevent extreme muscle contractions
b. guard against fatigue of muscles
c. produce rapid repetitive movements such as finger tapping
d. regulate blood flow to the tendons and muscles
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

41. Muscle spindles respond to changes in muscle ____; Golgi tendon organs respond to changes in muscle ____.
a. tension; fatigue
b. fatigue; tension
c. stretch; tension
d. tension; stretch
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

42. Activity of a muscle spindle is to ____ as activity of the Golgi tendon organ is to ____.
a. contraction; inhibition of contraction
b. inhibition of contraction; contraction
c. inhibition of contraction; inhibition of contraction
d. contraction; contraction
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

43. What experience is similar to losing proprioception?
a. losing your sense of equilibrium
b. walking on a leg that has fallen asleep
c. having a phantom limb
d. teeth chattering in the cold
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

44. A physician who asks you to cross your legs and then taps just below the knee is testing your ____ reflexes.
a. constriction
b. slow
c. stretch
d. fast
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

45. A ballistic movement ____.
a. is a rhythmic alternation between two movements
b. is guided by feedback during the course of the movement
c. proceeds automatically once it has been triggered
d. tends to overcorrect itself
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

46. Central pattern generators ____.
a. contribute to rhythmic patterns of movement
b. generate movement which is unresponsive to environmental stimulation
c. constrict the pupils in response to bright light
d. control all reflexes in adult humans
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

47. A motor program is a ____.
a. mechanism that guides movement on the basis of sensory feedback
b. mechanism that produces an alternation between two movements
c. plan for training a brain-damaged person to walk
d. movement that, once triggered, continues automatically until its completion
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

48. Which action is an example of a motor program in chickens with featherless wings?
a. flapping wings if suddenly dropped
b. learning to fly
c. stretching its wings but not flapping them
d. flapping its wings while eating
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

49. Which behavior is most likely to result from the activity of central pattern generators?
a. a dog shaking itself to dry off
b. a child catching a baseball
c. a child playing the piano
d. an adult yawning
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

50. Which activity is an example of a motor program in a human?
a. yawning
b. making a list
c. taking your first steps
d. learning how to drive
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS: 7.1 The Control of Movement

51. In order to elicit movement, the motor cortex ____.
a. has direct connections to the muscles
b. sends axons to the brainstem and spinal cord
c. controls isolated movement in a single muscle
d. relies on feedback from individual muscle fibers
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

52. The posterior parietal cortex ____.
a. is the main area for touch and other body information
b. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world
c. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself
d. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement.
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

53. People with posterior parietal damage ____.
a. can see an object, but are unable to describe it
b. have good hand-eye coordination only if they close one eye
c. have difficulty accurately locating and approaching a sound
d. will not step over an obstacle, although they can accurately describe it
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

54. People with posterior parietal damage ____.
a. cannot walk toward something they hear
b. have trouble converting vision into action
c. can walk toward something they see but cannot reach out to grasp it
d. cannot accurately describe what they see.
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

55. The prefrontal cortex ____.
a. is the main area for touch and other body information
b. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world
c. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself
d. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement.
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

56. The premotor cortex ____.
a. is the main area for touch and other body information
b. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world
c. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself
d. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

57. Damage to the prefrontal cortex is most likely to result in ____.
a. an inability to move
b. the loss of somatosensory experiences
c. poorly planned movements
d. no effect on movement
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

58. The part of the cortex that is most active during preparations for a movement and less active during the movement itself is the ____.
a. premotor cortex
b. somatosensory cortex
c. inferior temporal cortex
d. tabes dorsalis
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

59. In contrast to people with posterior parietal damage, people with damage to certain parts of the occipital cortex outside the primary visual cortex ____.
a. cannot locate the source of sounds
b. lose their ability to see everything
c. can accurately describe what they see but cannot reach out to grasp it
d. cannot accurately describe what they see but can reach out to grasp it
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

60. When are the cells in the premotor cortex (in contrast to the primary motor cortex) most active?
a. in preparation for movements
b. during movements
c. at or after the end of movements
d. during inhibition of movements
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

61. The part of the cortex that responds mostly to the sensory signals that lead to a movement is the ____.
a. premotor cortex
b. prefrontal cortex
c. supplementary motor cortex
d. tabes dorsalis
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

62. Cells in the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, and ____ prepare for a movement, sending messages to the primary motor cortex.
a. posterior parietal cortex
b. secondary motor cortex
c. somatosensory cortex
d. supplementary motor cortex
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

63. The supplementary motor cortex becomes active ____.
a. during the second or two after a movement
b. during the second or two prior to a movement
c. only during a movement
d. only after a movement
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

64. Damage to the ____ impairs the ability to organize smooth sequences of activities.
a. premotor cortex
b. prefrontal cortex
c. supplementary motor cortex
d. tabes dorsalis
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

65. Just thinking about the intention to put your arm around your attractive date would activate which motor areas?
a. posterior parietal lobe
b. primary motor cortex
c. premotor cortex
d. supplementary motor cortex
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

66. Watching another person shoot a basketball is most likely to activate ____ neurons in the brain of the person who is watching.
a. primary motor cortex
b. spinal cord
c. mirror
d. observational
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

67. Mirror neurons are active when ____.
a. viewing mirror images
b. watching others perform movements
c. identifying ourselves in the mirror
d. playing the piano
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

68. The motor cortex produces a kind of activity called a(n) ____ before any voluntary movement.
a. readiness potential
b. action potential
c. evoked potential
d. motor potential
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

69. Studies on conscious decisions regarding voluntary movements suggest that ____.
a. we are conscious of our decision before brain activity is generated for movement
b. voluntary movements are the result of free will
c. brain activity for the movement begins before we are conscious of our decision
d. we are unable to judge when we make conscious decisions
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.05 Evaluate the evidence regarding the role of consciousness in planning a movement.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

70. People with damage to the parietal cortex appear to lack ____ related to voluntary movements. a feelings of intention
a. feelings of intention
b. the ability to make conscious decisions
c. a sense of timing
d. muscle strength
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

71. Paths from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord are called the ____.
a. pyramidalspinal tracts
b. horizontalspinal tracts
c. dorsospinal tracts
d. corticospinal tracts
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

72. Axons of the lateral corticospinal tract extend to what area?
a. cerebellum
b. cerebral cortex
c. spinal cord
d. thalamus
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

73. The lateral tract cross over point is in the ____.
a. pyramids of the medulla
b. spinal cord
c. reticular formation
d. vestibular nucleus
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

74. Lateral tract axons are responsible for movements in the ____.
a. arms, hands, and toes
b. trunk
c. face and head
d. internal organs
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

75. Most of the axons of the medial tract go to which side of the body?
a. contralateral
b. ipsilateral
c. bilateral
d. dorsolateral
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

76. Movements near the midline of the body, such as bending and turning of the trunk, are controlled by which motor system?
a. dorsolateral tract
b. medial tract
c. supplementary
d. hippocampal
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

77. What is the relationship between the lateral tract and the medial tract?
a. Most movements are controlled by one or the other, but not both.
b. Most movements rely on both, which work in a cooperative fashion.
c. Most movements that are initiated by one are terminated by the other.
d. One is excitatory while the other is inhibitory.
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

78. If you have trouble with rapid, ballistic movement sequences that require accurate timing, you probably have suffered damage to the ____.
a. reticular formation
b. cerebellum
c. hippocampus
d. hypothalamus
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Moveme

79. Speaking, piano playing, athletic skills, and other rapid movements would be most impaired by damage to which structure?
a. reticular formation
b. cerebellum
c. ventromedial hypothalamus
d. parasympathetic nervous system
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

80. Damage to the cerebellum is most likely to interfere with ____.
a. lifting weights
b. the ability to remember a series of events
c. rapid movements that require timing
d. chewing and swallowing
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

81. What is the name of the rapid eye movement occurring when a person moves his or her eyes from one focus point to another?
a. gyration
b. sclerosis
c. slide
d. saccade
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

82. A saccade is initiated by impulses from the ____.
a. spinal cord
b. hypothalamus
c. cerebellum
d. hippocampus
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

83. After damage to the cerebellar cortex, an individual has trouble with which part of the finger-to-nose test?
a. The initial rapid movement to the nose
b. The second step involving the hold function
c. The third step which involves the finger moving to the nose by a slow movement
d. Both the second and third steps
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

84. The nuclei of the cerebellum (as opposed to the cerebellar cortex) are most important in ____.
a. moving a finger rapidly toward a target
b. holding a finger in a steady position
c. using the hands to lift heavy weights
d. coordinating the left hand with the right hand
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

85. The cerebellum is most important for any process that requires ____.
a. precise timing
b. control of muscle strength
c. comparison between the left and right hemispheres
d. detecting the intensity of a stimulus
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

86. Purkinje cells are ____.
a. proprioceptors
b. flat cells in sequential planes
c. nuclei in the central cerebellum
d. axons parallel to one another
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

87. How do parallel fibers in the cerebellum control the duration of a response?
a. By determining the number of Purkinje cells that fire in sequence
b. By altering the velocity of action potentials from Purkinje cells
c. By determining which one of all the available Purkinje cells becomes active
d. By passing information back and forth between one Purkinje cell and another
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

88. Which widely branching cells are responsible for all of the output from the cerebellar cortex to the nuclei of the cerebellum?
a. parallel fibers
b. Purkinje cells
c. putamen cells
d. saccade cells
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

89. The greater the number of Purkinje cells activated, the ____.
a. less the collective duration of the response
b. greater the collective duration of the response
c. greater the strength of the response
d. less the strength of the response
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

90. The structure composed of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus is the ____.
a. basal ganglia
b. limbic system
c. cerebellum
d. sympathetic nervous system
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Basal Ganglia
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

91. Most of the output from the globus pallidus to the thalamus releases ____.
a. glutamate
b. ACh.
c. dopamine
d. GABA
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Basal Ganglia
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

92. Which basal ganglia structure(s) is/are important for receiving input from sensory areas of the thalamus and the cerebral cortex?
a. globus pallidus and putamen
b. globus pallidus and caudate nucleus
c. caudate nucleus and putamen
d. globus pallidus
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: The Basal Ganglia
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

93. The basal ganglia are most critical for learning ____.
a. motor habits that are difficult to describe in words
b. repetitive motor behaviors like cutting with a knife
c. motor skills that include an element of balance
d. fine motor skills such as sewing
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Brain Areas and Motor learning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

94. Cerebellum is to ____ as basal ganglia are to ____.
a. clumsy; paralysis
b. initiation; stopping
c. gross muscle function; fine motor coordination
d. timing; voluntary movements
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Basal Ganglia
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

95. What is one of the main symptoms of Parkinsons disease?
a. rapid fatigue of the muscles
b. loss of saccadic eye movements
c. difficulty initiating movements
d. inability to coordinate speech with movements
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

96. Parkinsons disease is caused by degeneration of a pathway of neurons that releases which neurotransmitter?
a. acetylcholine
b. substance P
c. serotonin
d. dopamine
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

97. In Parkinsons disease, which pathway in the brain degenerates?
a. basal ganglia to cerebellum
b. substantia nigra to caudate nucleus and putamen
c. cerebellum to spinal cord
d. cerebral cortex to spinal cord
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

98. The role of heredity in late-onset Parkinsons disease ____.
a. equals that of early onset Parkinsons disease
b. is probably not as great as with early onset Parkinsons disease
c. is greater for DZ twins that MZ twins
d. is greater for females than males
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

99. Genetic factors have their greatest impact on Parkinsons disease in cases that involve ____.
a. early onset of the disease
b. late onset of the disease
c. first-born children
d. children with older brothers and sisters
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

100. What is the effect of MPTP?
a. It kills the neurons that release dopamine.
b. It suppresses activity of the immune system.
c. It is converted in the brain to dopamine.
d. It inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

101. It is believed that exposure to herbicides and pesticides is ____.
a. the primary cause of Parkinsons disease
b. a contributing factor in some cases of Huntingtons disease
c. the primary cause of myasthenia gravis
d. a contributing factor in some cases of Parkinsons disease
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

102. What is the most common drug in the treatment for Parkinsons disease?
a. haloperidol
b. physostigmine
c. Dilantin
d. L-dopa
ANSWER: d
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

103. A dopamine pill is ineffective for treating Parkinsons disease because it ____.
a. is already present in too large an amount
b. does not cross the blood-brain barrier
c. would have to be the size of a baseball to be effective
d. is too expensive
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

104. What is a limitation of using L-dopa for Parkinsons disease?
a. It only helps those who are in the later stages.
b. It does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
c. It can contribute to a greater loss of dopamine neurons.
d. It blocks glutamate receptors.
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

105. L-Dopa, a common treatment for Parkinsons disease, is a drug that ____.
a. inhibits activity of the immune system
b. increases the brains production of dopamine
c. blocks the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
d. facilitates the passage of sodium across neuron membranes
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

106. As an option for treating Parkinsons patients, transplantation of stem cells appears to be ____.
a. the most effective technique
b. more effective in late stages of the disease
c. modestly effective, as with other treatments
d. not at all effective
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Parkinsons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

107. Early symptoms of Huntingtons disease usually include ____.
a. paralysis
b. jerky arm movements and body tremors
c. rapid fatigue
d. difficulty coordinating the left hand with the right hand
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

108. What is a common symptom of Huntingtons disease?
a. rapid fatigue of the muscles
b. loss of both sensation and motor control in certain limbs
c. twitches, tremors, and writhing that interfere with voluntary movement
d. impairment of saccadic eye movements and rapid alternating movements
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

109. Which parts of the brain deteriorate most strongly in Huntingtons disease?
a. Pathways of neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine
b. The cerebellum and medulla
c. The caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
d. The hippocampus and amygdala
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

110. The psychological disorders that accompany Huntingtons disease could be mistaken for which of the following?
a. schizophrenia
b. dissociative identity disorder
c. antisocial personality disorder
d. bipolar disorder
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

111. What is the usual age of onset for Huntingtons disease?
a. 5-7 years old
b. 12-20 years old
c. 30-50 years old
d. 65 years or older
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

112. What is the relationship of genetics to Huntingtons disease?
a. It is caused by a dominant gene on the X chromosome.
b. It is caused by a dominant gene on chromosome 4.
c. It is caused by a recessive gene on one of the autosomal chromosomes.
d. There is no evidence linking Huntingtons disease to any gene.
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

113. In its normal form, part of the gene that controls Huntingtons disease repeats its sequence of bases ____.
a. under ten times
b. between approximately 11-24 times
c. at least 36 times
d. approximately 75 or 80 times
ANSWER: b
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

114. The presymptomatic test for Huntingtons disease enables one to predict not only who will get the disease but also ____.
a. the approximate age of onset
b. what other diseases the person will contract
c. which drugs will best alleviate the disease
d. which symptoms will become prominent first, and which ones later
ANSWER: a
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Understand
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

115. Which of the following would be the most promising treatment for Huntingtons disease?
a. enhancing formation of glutamine chains
b. increasing production of huntingtin
c. blocking formation of glutamine chain clustering
d. decreasing production of BDNF
ANSWER: c
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: Huntingtons Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 Discuss the causes of Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease.
TOPICS: 7.3 Movement Disorders

Essay

116. Describe the areas and major functions of the primary motor cortex (include the relevant areas near to the motor cortex).
ANSWER:
Since the pioneering work of Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig (1870), neuroscientists have known that direct electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortexthe precentral gyrus of the frontal cortex, just anterior to the central sulcuselicits movements. The motor cortex does not send messages directly to the muscles. Its axons extend to the brainstem and spinal cord, which generate the impulses that control the muscles. In most mammals, these axons connect only to interneurons, which in turn control motor neurons. In humans and other primates, some axons go directly from the cerebral cortex to motor neurons, presumably giving us greater dexterity. Human movements depend on both the axons to motor neurons and axons to interneurons.

The motor cortex is just anterior to the somatosensory cortex, and the two match up nicely. That is, the brain area that controls the left hand is near the area that feels the left hand, the area that controls the left foot is near the area that feels the left foot, and so forth. You need to feel a body part to control its movement accurately.

The primary motor cortex is important for making movements, but not for initial planning. One of the first areas to become active in planning a movement is the posterior parietal cortex which monitors the position of the body relative to the world. The prefrontal cortex and the supplementary motor cortex are also important for planning and organizing a rapid sequence. The premotor cortex is most active immediately before a movement. It receives information about the target to which the body is directing its movement, as well as information about the bodys current position and posture. The prefrontal cortex, which is also active during a delay before a movement, stores sensory information relevant to a movement. It is also important for considering the probable outcomes of possible movements.
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

117. Describe the significance of mirror neurons.
ANSWER: O
f discoveries in neuroscience, one of the most exciting to psychologists has been mirror neurons, which are active both during preparation for a movement and while watching someone else perform the same or a similar movement. Mirror neurons were first reported in the premotor cortex of monkeys and later in other areas and other species, including humans. These neurons are theoretically exciting because of the idea that they may be important for understanding other people, identifying with them, and imitating them. For example, mirror neurons in part of the frontal cortex become active when people smile or see someone else smile, and they respond especially strongly in people who report identifying strongly with other people. Many people have speculated that people with autismwho fail to form strong social bondsmight lack mirror neurons. However, one study using fMRI found normal mirror neuron responses in autistic people, so we need to look elsewhere to explain autism. Mirror neurons are activated not only by seeing an action, but also by any reminder of the action. Certain cells respond to hearing an action as well as seeing or doing it. Other cells respond to either doing an action or reading about it.

The possibilities are exciting, but before we speculate too far, an important question remains: Do mirror neurons cause imitation and social behavior, or do they result from them? Put another way, are we born with neurons that respond to the sight of a movement and also facilitate the same movement? If so, they could be important for social learning. However, another possibility is that we learn which visible movements correspond to movements of our own. Then seeing others actions reminds us of our own, and activates brain areas responsible for those actions. In that case, mirror neurons are not responsible for imitation or socialization.

The answer may be different for different movements. Some newborn infants imitate a few facial movements, especially tongue protrusion. That result implies built-in mirror neurons that connect the sight of a movement to the movement itself. However, in both monkey and human infants, many mirror neurons do not respond to observations of others movements until after the infant has practiced making those movements itself. A mirror neuron cannot be essential for learning to imitate a movement if you have to practice the movement before that neuron develops its mirror properties.

Also, researchers identified mirror neurons that responded both when people moved a certain finger, such as the index finger, and when they watched someone else move the same finger. Then they asked people to watch a display on the screen and move their index finger whenever the hand on the screen moved the little finger. They were to move their little finger whenever the hand on the screen moved the index finger. After some practice, these mirror neurons turned into counter-mirror neurons that responded to movements of one finger by that person and the sight of a different finger on the screen. In other words, at least some mirror neurons modify their properties by learning, and therefore it is possible that they developed their original properties by learning also.
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

118. Describe the relationship of conscious decisions and movements. What may this relationship reveal about consciousness?
ANSWER: Each of us has the feeling, I consciously decide to do something, and then I do it. That sequence seems so obvious that we might not even question it, but research casts doubt on this assumption. Research indicates that the brain activity responsible for the movement apparently began before the persons conscious decision to move. The results seem to indicate that your conscious decision does not cause your action. Rather, you become conscious of the decision after the process leading to action has already been underway for about 300 ms. None of these results deny that you make a voluntary decision. The implication, however, is that what we identify as a conscious decision is the perception of a gradual brain process. It probably begins with unconscious processes that build up to a certain level before they become conscious.
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.05 Evaluate the evidence regarding the role of consciousness in planning a movement.
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

119. Briefly describe the cellular organization of the cerebellum.
ANSWER: The cerebellum receives input from the spinal cord, from each of the sensory systems by way of the cranial nerve nuclei, and from the cerebral cortex. That information eventually reaches the cerebellar cortex, the surface of the cerebellum.
The neurons are arranged in a precise geometrical pattern, with multiple repetitions of the same units.
The Purkinje cells are flat (two-dimensional) cells in sequential planes, parallel to one another.
The parallel fibers are axons parallel to one another and perpendicular to the planes of the Purkinje cells.
Action potentials in parallel fibers excite one Purkinje cell after another. Each Purkinje cell then transmits an inhibitory message to cells in the nuclei of the cerebellum (clusters of cell bodies in the interior of the cerebellum) and the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem, which in turn send information to the midbrain and the thalamus.
Depending on which and how many parallel fibers are active, they might stimulate only the first few Purkinje cells or a long series of them. Because the parallel fibers messages reach different Purkinje cells one after another, the greater the number of excited Purkinje cells, the greater their collective duration of response. That is, if the parallel fibers stimulate only the first few Purkinje cells, the result is a brief message to the target cells; if they stimulate more Purkinje cells, the message lasts longer. The output of Purkinje cells controls the timing of a movement, including both its onset and offset.
DIFFICULTY: Blooms: Analyze
REFERENCES: The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS: 7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

120. Briefly describe the nature of Parkinsons disease. Include a discussion of its causes and possible treatments.
ANSWER:
The main symptoms of Parkinsons disease (also known as Parkinson disease) are rigidity, muscle tremors, slow movements, and difficulty initiating physical and mental activity. It becomes more common as people age, striking 1 percent to 2 percent of people over age 65. Early symptoms usually include loss of olfaction and psychological depression. Many but not all Parkinsons patients have cognitive deficits, which may include problems with attention, language, or memory. The immediate cause of Parkinsons

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