Biological Science 4th Edition by Scott Freeman test bank

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Biological Science 4th Edition by Scott Freeman test bank

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Exam
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) How do the and forms of glucose differ? 1)
A) The oxygen atom inside the ring is located in a different position.
B) Their ring structures differ in the location of a hydroxyl group.
C) The form can be involved in 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic linkages; the form can participate only
in 1,4 linkages.
D) Their linear structures differ in the location of a hydroxyl group.
2) Which of the following linkages would you expect to find at a branch point in glycogen or 2) amylopectin?
A) -1,4-glycosidic linkage B) -1,4-glycosidic linkage C) -1,6-glycosidic linkage D) -1,6-glycosidic linkage
3) Which of the following can vary among monosaccharides? 3) A) the number of carbon atoms B) the presence of hydroxyl groups
C) the presence of a carbonyl group D) all of the above
4) What is the difference between an aldose sugar and a ketose sugar? 4) A) the number of carbons
B) the position of the hydroxyl groups
C) one is a ring form, the other is a linear chain D) the position of the carbonyl group
5) How is carbohydrate use similar or different between plants and animals? Select the true statement 5) below.
A) Carbohydrates play a structural role in some types of animals and in all plants.
B) In animals, carbohydrates have mainly a structural role, while in plants, carbohydrates are
mainly used to store energy.
C) Carbohydrates catalyze reactions in both animals and plants. D) None of answers A-C are correct.
6) You isolate an organic molecule that contains C, H, O, N, and S. This molecule _____. 6) A) could be a glycoprotein
B) is definitely a sugar
C) is definitely a nucleic acid
D) is definitely a protein that is not glycosylated
7) Carbohydrates have been shown to form _____. 7) A) in biotic and abiotic conditions, but only if nucleotides and RNA have already formed
B) only in biotic conditions (inside living cells)
C) only in biotic conditions, when enough free energy is available to allow their formation D) in biotic and abiotic conditions, including outer space
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8) Which of the following carbohydrates contains a peptide bond? 8)
A) Carbohydrates dont contain peptide bonds; only proteins do. B) peptidoglycan
C) glycogen
D) cellulose E) chitin
9) Scientists believe polysaccharides played little role, if any, in chemical evolution. Which of the 9) following is true of polysaccharides, which leads scientists to discount them as the first life-forms?
A) There is complementary pairing between monosaccharides, so they can provide the information for copying themselves.
B) They catalyze chemical reactions.
C) Glycosidic linkages form spontaneously between monosaccharides.
D) None of A, B, or C is truethey are all false.
10) What is the major structural difference between starch and glycogen? 10) A) whether glucose is in the or form
B) the amount of branching that occurs in the molecule C) the type of glycosidic linkages in the molecule
D) the types of monosaccharide subunits in the molecules
11) Which of the following do starch and cellulose have in common? 11) A) the size of their monosaccharide subunits
B) the amount of hydrogen bonding that occurs between parallel strands C) their main function in plants
D) the type of glycosidic linkage used
12) Which of the following structural features is common to cellulose, chitin, and peptidoglycan? 12) A) They are all composed of glucose in either the or form.
B) They are all composed of highly branched fibers.
C) They can all form bonds between polymer chains that create parallel strands. D) They all contain peptide bonds.
13) A glycosidic linkage is analogous to which of the following in proteins? 13) A) a disulfide bond B) an amino group
C) a peptide bond D) a -pleated sheet
14) Which of these best reflects the following relationship: monosaccharide versus polysaccharide? 14) A) glucose versus glycogen
B) 1,4-glycosidic linkage versus 1,6-glycosidic linkage C) glucose versus fructose
D) -linkage versus -linkage
15) Enzymes that readily break starch apart cannot hydrolyze the glycosidic linkages found in 15) cellulose. Why is this logical?
A) The geometry of the bonds is different, and the shapes of enzyme active sites are highly specific.
B) Cellulose molecules are highly branched, and enzymes are too bulky to fit.
C) Starch is held together by peptide bonds, not glycosidic linkages.
D) Starch is held together by hydrogen bonding, not covalent bonding.
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16) Peptidoglycan forms sheets that stiffen the cell walls of bacteria. How is the formation of sheets 16) possible?
A) The glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides in peptidoglycan are extraordinarily strong.
B) The polysaccharides in peptidoglycan are highly branched and form a network.
C) The polysaccharides in peptidoglycan form helical structures, as in cellulose.
D) Individual strands are joined by peptide bonds a type of covalent bond.
17) Dairy cattle were unknown in Thai culture until recently, and 97% percent of Thai people are 17) lactose intolerant as adults. Which explanation for such widespread lactose intolerance is most
likely correct?
A) Allergies are becoming more common in humans as more chemicals are being encountered during longer lifetimes.
B) There is no good explanation for this situation in humans.
C) The ability to digest sugar in milk is determined by environment, and most humans are not
exposed to milk as a food source beyond childhood years.
D) Evolutionarily, producing an enzyme to break down a sugar that will never be encountered is
wasteful.
18) Which polysaccharide is an important component in the structure of many animals and fungi? 18) A) amylose B) cellulose C) peptidoglycan D) chitin
19) Glucose (C6H12O6) has a single carbonyl group (-C=O) in its linear form. Based on the number of 19) oxygen atoms in glucose, how many hydroxyl groups (-OH) would you expect glucose to have?
A) 1 B) 6 C) 3 D) 5
20) Compare the molecular formula of a carbohydrate (CH2O)n with that of carbon dioxide (CO2). 20)
What does the presence of hydrogen atoms in carbohydrates indicate? A) Carbohydrates contain a carbonyl functional group.
B) Carbohydrates are more oxidized than carbon dioxide.
C) Every carbon atom in a carbohydrate is bonded to four different atoms. D) Carbohydrates are more reduced than carbon dioxide.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
21) The chemical formula for fat is C12H24O3. The analogous chemical formula for carbohydrates is C12 H 24
O12. Given the differences in their chemical formulas, why do you think that plants generally store their energy in the form of carbohydrates, but animals generally store their energy in the form of fats?
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
22) Which of the following best explains why carbs (carbohydrates) are advertised by manufacturers 22) of candy bars and sports drinks as a quick energy boost?
A) Carbs are reduced molecules that have high-energy electrons.
B) This is an advertising gimmick that has no scientific evidence to support it.
C) The energy in them can be stored as fat, which has high energy per unit weight.
D) The carbons in carbs are rich in energy because they are highly oxidized.
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23) Which of the following molecules would you expect to have the most free energy per gram? 23)
A) one with hydrogen and oxygen atoms only
B) one with a variety of atoms that are found in cells C) one with carbon and hydrogen atoms only
D) one with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms only
24) Why do plants require sunlight? 24) A) Sunlight energy can be used by plants to reduce the carbon atoms in carbon dioxide.
B) Sunlight oxidizes carbon dioxide and water to form glucose.
C) Sunlight helps plants break down their food products so they can extract the energy stored in
them.
D) Sunlight can be used directly by plants to perform a number of physiological processes.
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
25) An important step in utilizing complex carbohydrates as an energy source is to break their 25) glycosidic linkages. This is necessary because the digestive system cannot absorb any carbohydrates larger than a monosaccharide. Using information in your textbook (Chapter
5 and the chapters on digestion), compile a list of at least five enzymes that can accomplish
this. Identify each enzymes substrate and reaction products. You may include enzymes found in any organism.
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
26) Bacteria, insects, and plants use carbohydrates to build structures. Which of the following is true of 26) structural carbohydrates?
A) Structural carbohydrates show a high degree of branching.
B) Different types of pentose monomers form the basis of all carbohydrate-based structures. C) Structural carbohydrates are long strands of monomers; the strands are chemically linked
together to form a network.
D) All structural carbohydrates are made from the same monomer, a-glucose.
E) None of A, B, C, or D is true.
27) If you were going to develop a new antibiotic against bacteria, you would probably need to become 27) an expert on which of these carbohydrates?
A) peptidoglycan B) glycogen
C) starch
D) cellulose E) chitin
28) Cell walls are used by many different organisms for protection from their environment and 28) structural support. These cell walls must obviously be insoluble in water; otherwise, they would
dissolve the first time the organism got wet. Which of the following carbohydrates would you
expect to be the most soluble in water?
A) peptidoglycan B) cellulose
C) chitin D) starch
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Use the following paragraph to answer the corresponding question(s).
Masatomo Kawakubo et al. reported in Science in August 2004 that the human stomach contains a natural, carbohydrate-based antibiotic that probably protects a large portion of the population from various diseases caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. This bacterium has been linked to peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer. This naturally occurring antibiotic is described by Kawakubo as having a terminal 1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (NAG), and it acts by inhibiting the biosynthesis of a major component of the cell wall in H. pylori. [Source: M. Kawakubo et al., Science 305 (2004): 1003.]
29) Which of the following structures is most consistent with Kawakubos description of this antibiotic? 29)
A)
B)
C)
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D)
30) Refer to the paragraph about Kawakubos group. Kawakubos group created a glycoprotein with a 30) terminal NAG (i.e., a protein with NAG attached to its end). Their hypothesis is that the terminal NAG and not the protein component is responsible for the damage to the cell wall in H. pylori.
What would be the most appropriate control for testing this hypothesis?
A) Expose other species of bacteria to the glycoprotein.
B) Grow H. pylori in a test tube (in vitro) with no glycoprotein.
C) Destroy the H. pylori by exposing them to a hypotonic solution. Then add the glycoprotein
and observe.
D) Grow H. pylori in a test tube with glycoprotein that has its terminal NAG removed.
31) In what way do carbohydrates contain and/or display information for cells? 31) A) Actually, carbohydrates have no role in containing or displaying information for cells.
B) Carbohydrates display information in order to bond to substrates and catalyze reactions. C) Carbohydrates contain and display information at the cell surface.
D) Carbohydrates store information in the nucleus.
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Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED4
1) B
2) C
3) A
4) D
5) A
6) A
7) D
8) B
9) D
10) B
11) A
12) C
13) C
14) A
15) A
16) D
17) D
18) D
19) D
20) D
21) Fats store more energy per unit mass. Animals move and plants dont (for most of their life cycle) so plants can afford
a less dense energy form of energy storage. An interesting extension of this idea is looking at when plants store energy in the form of fats: in their seeds. Seeds need to be dispersed, so presumably there is selection for lighter seeds for great dispersal. Students typically know the answers here (fat is more calorically dense, plant seeds have fat, etc.) but often dont make the leap of linking this to the molecules chemical structure. This question always sparks a lot of group or class discussion.
22) A
23) C
24) A
25) Essay
26) C
27) A
28) D
29) B
30) D
31) C
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