Biology 9th edition peter raven Test bank

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Biology 9th edition peter raven Test bank

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Chapter 03
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. The special molecules that have large structures and characteristically made by living organisms are known as ________.
A. macromolecules
B. polysaccharides
C. proteins D. carbon
2. Organic molecules contain a specific carbon-based core to which specific groups of atoms with definite chemical properties are attached. These groups of atoms are called ________ groups.
A. carbon
B. extension
C. functional D. chemical
3. Three of the four macromolecules present in living systems are ________ which means they are built by linking together small, similar chemical monomers.
A. polymers
B. functional
C. evolved
D. carbon-based
4. Proteins that can carry out catalysis in organisms are called ______. A. catalysts
B. reactants
C. cofactors
D. enzymes
5. In _________ the average chain length of amylose is much greater and there are more branches than in plant starch.
A. proteins
B. cellulose
C. glucose D. glycogen
6. A modified form of cellulose found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans is known as _______. A. chitin
B. glucose
C. protein
D. glycogen
7. Non-polarity and insolubility characterize biological compounds known as _______. A. carbohydrates
B. lipids
C. proteins
D. nucleic acids
8. __________ are polymers containing up to 20 different kinds of naturally occurring amino acids. A. lipids
B. proteins
C. carbohydrates
D. nucleic acids
9. The covalent bonds connecting monomer units in sugars can be formed by the removal of a water molecule. A reaction referred to as ________________.
A. conjunction
B. hydration
C. dehydration D. condensation
10. This atom in its unbound state has four valent electrons. These electrons readily form single, double, and even triple bonds among themselves to become stable. This atom is
A. carbon.
B. hydrogen.
C. oxygen.
D. nitrogen.
E. phosphorus.
11. Macromolecules are disassembled in ____________ reactions. A. anabolic
B. hydrolysis
C. radioactive
D. denaturation E. dehydration
12. Relatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon containing group, and a hydrogen atom are called
A. amino acids.
B. fatty acids.
C. enzymes. D. peptides.
E. nucleotides.
13. Macromolecules that are used by organisms to store hereditary information are called A. transfer RNA molecules.
B. messenger RNA molecules.
C. ribosomal RNA molecules.
D. amino acids molecules. E. DNA molecules.
14. DNA, RNA, and ATP contain functional units known as A. peptides.
B. enzymes.
C. amino acids.
D. nucleotides. E. fatty acids.
15. Which of the following is not a property of carbon?
A. It can form single, double, and even triple bonds with itself.
B. It can be built into rings and long chains.
C. It constitutes the backbones of an incredible variety of molecules. D. All compounds made from carbon are soluble in water.
E. All organic molecules contain carbon atoms.
16. Which of the following is not a macromolecule? A. carbohydrates
B. water
C. nucleic acids
D. proteins E. lipids
17. All of the following are examples of functional groups in cells except A. -CH3.
B. -COOH.
C. -H2O.
D. -NH2. E. -OH.
18. Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called A. amino acids.
B. fatty acids.
C. nucleic acids.
D. phosphate groups. E. monosaccharides.
19. Proteins are polymers formed of structural units called A. fatty acids.
B. amino acids.
C. nucleic acids.
D. phosphate groups. E. sugars.
20. Lipids are the only class of macromolecules that contain A. amino acids.
B. nucleic acids.
C. fatty acids.
D. phosphate groups. E. sugars.
21. Nucleic acids are polymers formed of building blocks that contain A. amino acids.
B. fatty acids.
C. sugars.
D. rings of nitrogen bases. E. peptide bonds.
22. The simplest and the most common monosaccharide is a six-carbon sugar called A. galactose.
B. lactose.
C. cellulose.
D. glucose. E. sucrose.
23. Humans are unable to get metabolic energy from cellulose because A. cellulose contains very little chemical energy.
B. cellulose is not part of a normal diet.
C. cellulose digesting enzymes are absent.
D. cellulose does not taste good.
E. cellulose is present in large quantities in the gut.
24. Chitin, a modified form of cellulose, is not only cross-linked with proteins but also its glucose units are modified with atoms of
A. nitrogen.
B. hydrogen.
C. oxygen.
D. sulfur.
E. phosphorous.
25. Which of the following is not a type of lipid? A. fat
B. chitin
C. cholesterol
D. terpenes
E. prostaglandins
26. Which of the following macromolecules are characteristically water-insoluble? A. proteins
B. nucleic acids
C. carbohydrates
D. lipids
E. enzymes
27. A common lipid for energy storage is A. phospholipid.
B. steroid.
C. triglycerides.
D. cholesterol. E. wax.
28. Three fatty acids bonded together with a glycerol are found in a(n) A. alcohol.
B. enzyme.
C. phospholipid.
D. chlorophyll pigment. E. triglyceride.
29. Biological membranes contain bilayers of which of the following lipids? A. phospholipids
B. oils
C. prostaglandins
D. triglycerides E. cholesterol
30. Which of the following lipid classes is found in Chlorophyll, retina of the vertebrate eye, and synthetic rubber?
A. phospholipid
B. terpene
C. steroid
D. prostaglandin E. wax
31. Which of the following is not a protein? A. enzyme
B. antibody
C. keratin
D. pectin E. collagen
32. Proteins possess all of the following functions except A. structure.
B. metabolism.
C. encode genetic information.
D. membrane transport. E. cell recognition.
33. Functional groups found in amino acids include all of the following except A. -NH2.
B. phosphate.
C. -COOH.
D. -OH.
E. alkyl (linked multiple carbons with hydrogens).
34. A chain of amino acids linked together end-to-end can only be found in a A. membrane lipid.
B. nucleic acid.
C. polysaccharide.
D. polypeptide. E. starch.
35. The specific amino acid sequence in a protein is its A. zero order structure.
B. primary structure.
C. secondary structure.
D. tertiary structure.
E. quaternary structure.
36. Alpha helix and beta pleated sheets are examples of which level of protein structure? A. zero order
B. primary
C. secondary
D. tertiary
E. quaternary
37. Denaturation, a process in which a protein loses its native shape and function, is likely to be caused by all of the following except
A. being transported from one cell to another in a living organism.
B. pH change.
C. temperature change.
D. ionic concentration change.
E. increase in hydrogen ion concentration.
38. The information storage molecules of cells are called A. fatty acids.
B. membrane lipids.
C. enzymes.
D. hormones.
E. nucleic acids.
39. Which of the following is not a component of nucleic acids? A. a five-carbon sugar
B. a six-carbon sugar
C. a phosphate group
D. phosphodiester bonds
E. an organic nitrogen containing base
40. The nitrogen base not found in DNA is called A. adenine.
B. cytosine.
C. guanine.
D. thymine. E. uracil.
41. Which of the following is not found in RNA? A. adenine
B. cytosine
C. guanine
D. thymine E. uracil
42. Fructose and galactose all have the same six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms, just as glucose. A friend of yours says to you, Since two of those sugars have the same number of atoms, they should all have the same name. You answer, Yes. They do have the same atoms and the numbers are the same; however,
A. they are all polysaccharides and have slightly different functions within organisms and therefore have different names.
B. they are named differently because of their quaternary structures, which is very important in carbohydrates, especially glucose.
C. they are named differently because when heated above their optimal temperature they become denatured and will not react with their substrates.
D. they are named differently because they are involved in different DNA nucleotide formation.
E. they are named differently because they are alternate forms of the monosaccharide, glucose.
43. Carbohydrates contain 4 calories per gram, proteins contain 4 calories per gram, and fats contain 9 calories per gram. There is a food that contains 108 calories per serving. There are 4 grams of carbohydrate, 5 grams of protein, and 8 grams of fat in a serving. Which of the following represents the calories for fat?
A. 20
B. 16 C. 72 D. 18
44. Four of the following five choices are functions of carbohydrates. Select the exception.
A. Chitin is a carbohydrate that is used in insects and other arthropods in the structures of their exoskeletons. B. Starch is a carbohydrate that is used by some plants as a way to store glucose.
C. Glycogen is a carbohydrate that is used by animals as a way to store glucose.
D. Cellulose is a carbohydrate that serves a structural function in plants.
E. Glucose is a carbohydrate that is utilized by all life forms in the construction of nucleotides.
45. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder that is caused by a mutation that prevents various ions from moving across cell membranes. Normally there are proteins that allow passage of the ions, but in CF these proteins seemed to be disabled. Researchers have found that one explanation of this has to do with
A. the chaperone proteins are missing or are not functioning and, thus, the correct folding of the proteins are prevented from occurring.
B. the proteins are denatured and as a result become disabled, which prevents the correct interface with the substrate, effectively blocking ion transfer.
C. the chaperone proteins are bound with the ions at the cell membrane surface and cannot release to aid the unfolded proteins.
D. the proteins are disabled because of the pH change at the cell membrane surface caused by the accumulated ions.
E. the chaperone proteins and the proteins are unable to segregate themselves because of the lower pH environment produced by the ionic gradient created on the cell membrane.
46. Imagine that you were able to see a nucleotide under a very special microscope. As you scan the nucleotide you see a U nitrogen base. Without seeing any other part of the nucleotide you know that
A. it is a DNA nucleotide.
B. it is an RNA nucleotide.
C. it is either a DNA nucleotide or an RNA nucleotide.
D. you will need to continue to scan for more clues, such as the type of sugar associated with it, to be able to determine which type of nucleotide it is.
47. Imagine that you were able to see a nucleotide under a very special microscope. As you scan the nucleotide you see a T nitrogen base. Without seeing any other part of the nucleotide you know that
A. it is a DNA nucleotide.
B. it is a RNA nucleotide.
C. it is a either a DNA nucleotide or an RNA nucleotide.
D. you will need to continue to scan for more clues, such as the type of sugar associated with it, to be able to determine which type of nucleotide it is.
48. DNA and RNA are similar in some respects and different in others. Which of the following statements is not accurate about their similarities?
A. Both DNA and RNA nucleotides contain the nitrogen bases adenine, cytosine, and guanine.
B. Both DNA and RNA always double helices.
C. Both DNA and RNA contain monosaccharide sugars on their respective nucleotides. D. Both DNA and RNA are involved in the Central Dogma of biology.
E. Both DNA and RNA contain phosphate groups on their respective nucleotides.
49. All of the following are examples of monomer: polymer pairings except A. amino acids: polypeptides.
B. monosaccharides: polypeptide.
C. nucleotides: DNA.
D. glucose: starch.
E. fatty acids: triglycerides.
50. Which of the following would not be an example of protein use in a living organism? A. synthesis of macromolecules
B. muscle contraction
C. recognition of self in immune reactions
D. stores information E. forms hair
51. Proteins are created with
A. phosphodiester bonds
B. peptide bonds
C. a phosphate and two fatty acids bonded to glycerol D. sugar polymers
52. Phospholipids are created with
A. phosphodiester bonds
B. peptide bonds
C. a phosphate and two fatty acids bonded to glycerol D. sugar polymers
53. Carbohydrates are created with
A. phosphodiester bonds
B. peptide bonds
C. a phosphate and two fatty acids bonded to glycerol D. sugar polymers
54. Which of the following best describes an enzyme? A. reacts with other enzymes to form a product
B. catalyzes chemical reactions
C. structural protein
D. inorganic cofactor
55. Nucleic acids are created with
A. phosphodiester bonds
B. peptide bonds
C. a phosphate and two fatty acids bonded to glycerol D. sugar polymers
56. The oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6) by cellular respiration is an example of a dehydration reaction. A simplified version of this reaction can be written as
A. 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2.
B. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2.
C. C6H12O6 6H2O + 6CO2. D. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2C.
57. Which of the following is a DNA sequence capable of pairing with CGATTAGT? A. GCTAATCA
B. CGATTAGT
C. GCUAAUCA
D. CGAUUAGT
58. You recently identified a novel protein that contains several membrane-spanning domains. Which of amino acids would you expect to be most common in these domains?
A. nonpolar
B. polar uncharged
C. charged D. aromatic
59. L-lysine is an essential amino acid and must be supplied in the diet. By comparison, the stereoisomer D- lysine is not biologically active. Why can your body only utilize one form?
A. Since the L form and D form are enantiomers, they will bind together and inhibit utilization of the D form. B. Since the L form and D form are chiral molecules, they will bind together and inhibit utilization of the D form.
C. Antibodies recognize the D form and destroy it before your body can use it for nutritional purposes. D. Enzymes can only recognize a single, specific stereoisomer.
60. People who are lactose intolerant can often consume some products made from milk such as cheese and yogurt. By comparison, people with a true milk allergy, which involves an immune response to milk protein, cannot consume milk or products made from milk. Given this information, which of the following statements is true?
A. The protein that causes a true milk allergy is lactose.
B. All people who are lactose intolerant are also allergic to milk.
C. Yogurt contains live and active cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria and therefore prevents an allergic response in people with a true milk allergy.
D. Lactose is a carbohydrate, not a protein and is therefore not the cause of true milk allergies.
61. Egg whites consist primarily of water and the protein albumin. When you fry an egg, why does the egg white turn from clear to white?
A. The protein becomes dissociated.
B. The protein acquires tertiary structure.
C. The protein becomes denatured. D. The protein becomes dehydrated.
62. Margarine is made by hydrogenating vegetable oils so that they take on the consistency of butter. Which of the following is the chemical basis for this change from a liquid to a solid?
A. Fats are changed from unsaturated to saturated, allowing them to solidify.
B. Fats are changed from saturated to unsaturated, allowing them to solidify.
C. Trans-fatty acids are changed from unsaturated to saturated, allowing them to solidify. D. Trans fatty acids are changed from saturated to unsaturated, allowing them to solidify.
63. Vitamin D can be synthesized by the body from a derivative of cholesterol. Given this information, which of the following statements about the solubility of vitamin D is true?
A. Vitamin D is water-soluble.
B. Vitamin D is fat-soluble.
C. Vitamin D is soluble in both water and fat.
D. Vitamin D is not soluble in either water or fat.
64. You arrive late to a biological seminar. However, just as you enter the room, you hear the speaker referring to the amino end and the carboxyl end of a macromolecule. Immediately, you know that they are talking about a
A. carbohydrate.
B. protein. C. DNA. D. lipid.
65. You arrive late to a biological seminar. However, just as you enter the room, you hear the speaker referring to the five-prime end and the three-prime end of a macromolecule. Immediately, you know that they are talking about a
A. carbohydrate.
B. protein. C. DNA. D. lipid.
66. Which of the following would not contain polymers of b-glucose? A. cellulose
B. wood
C. paper
D. amylose
67. Muscle contraction is accomplished by a mechanism known as the cross-bridge cycle, in which myosin heads bind to actin and cause the actin filaments to move across the myosin filaments. Which of the following is capable of providing the energy needed for this process?
A. ATP
B. FAD
C. NAD+
D. enzymes
68. The digestive enzyme pepsin works in the acidic environment of the stomach to hydrolyze peptide bonds. On which of the following macromolecules does pepsin act?
A. carbohydrate
B. protein
C. DNA D. lipid
69. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uses RNA, rather than DNA, to encode genetic information. During infection, however, HIV uses an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase to generate double-stranded DNA. Generally speaking, how would the enzyme generate a double strand of DNA from a single strand of RNA?
A. Reverse transcriptase first catalyzes the synthesis of a DNA copy from the viral RNA, and then catalyzes the synthesis of a second strand of DNA complementary to the first one.
B. Reverse transcriptase first catalyzes the synthesis of a RNA copy from the viral DNA, and then catalyzes the synthesis of a second strand of RNA complementary to the first one.
C. Reverse transcriptase first catalyzes the synthesis of a DNA copy from the viral RNA, and then catalyzes the synthesis of a second strand of RNA complementary to the first one.
70. You have recently identified a novel protein. After obtaining the protein sequence you realize that this protein contains several motifs and domains. How might this information help you to determine the function of your new protein?
A. All motifs and domains have a calatogued structure and function. Therefore, identification of such structures in the new protein will easily determine its function.
B. Motifs and domains are patterns that exist in protein structure and are often associated with particular functions. Therefore, identification of such sites can provide insight into possible functions of the unknown protein.
C. This information would not likely aid in determining the function of the new protein.
Chapter 03 Key
1. The special molecules that have large structures and characteristically made by living organisms are known as ________.
A. macromolecules
B. polysaccharides
C. proteins D. carbon
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #1 Section: 3.01
Topic: General
2. Organic molecules contain a specific carbon-based core to which specific groups of atoms with definite chemical properties are attached. These groups of atoms are called ________ groups.
A. carbon
B. extension
C. functional D. chemical
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #2 Section: 3.01
Topic: Chemistry
3. Three of the four macromolecules present in living systems are ________ which means they are built by linking together small, similar chemical monomers.
A. polymers
B. functional
C. evolved
D. carbon-based
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #3 Section: 3.01
Topic: Chemistry

4. Proteins that can carry out catalysis in organisms are called ______. A. catalysts
B. reactants
C. cofactors
D. enzymes
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #4 Section: 3.01
Topic: General
5. In _________ the average chain length of amylose is much greater and there are more branches than in plant starch.
A. proteins
B. cellulose
C. glucose D. glycogen
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #5 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
6. A modified form of cellulose found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans is known as _______. A. chitin
B. glucose
C. protein
D. glycogen
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #6 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
7. Non-polarity and insolubility characterize biological compounds known as _______. A. carbohydrates
B. lipids
C. proteins
D. nucleic acids
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #7 Section: 3.05
Topic: General

8. __________ are polymers containing up to 20 different kinds of naturally occurring amino acids. A. lipids
B. proteins
C. carbohydrates
D. nucleic acids
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #8 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
9. The covalent bonds connecting monomer units in sugars can be formed by the removal of a water molecule. A reaction referred to as ________________.
A. conjunction
B. hydration
C. dehydration D. condensation
Blooms Level: Remember Figure: 3.05
Raven Chapter 03 #9 Section: 3.01
Topic: Chemistry
10. This atom in its unbound state has four valent electrons. These electrons readily form single, double, and even triple bonds among themselves to become stable. This atom is
A. carbon.
B. hydrogen.
C. oxygen.
D. nitrogen.
E. phosphorus.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #10 Section: 3.01
Topic: Chemistry

11. Macromolecules are disassembled in ____________ reactions. A. anabolic
B. hydrolysis
C. radioactive
D. denaturation E. dehydration
Blooms Level: Remember Figure: 3.05
Raven Chapter 03 #11 Section: 3.01
Topic: Chemistry
12. Relatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon containing group, and a hydrogen atom are called
A. amino acids.
B. fatty acids.
C. enzymes. D. peptides.
E. nucleotides.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #12 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
13. Macromolecules that are used by organisms to store hereditary information are called A. transfer RNA molecules.
B. messenger RNA molecules.
C. ribosomal RNA molecules.
D. amino acids molecules. E. DNA molecules.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #13 Section: 3.03
Topic: General

14. DNA, RNA, and ATP contain functional units known as A. peptides.
B. enzymes.
C. amino acids.
D. nucleotides. E. fatty acids.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #14 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
15. Which of the following is not a property of carbon?
A. It can form single, double, and even triple bonds with itself.
B. It can be built into rings and long chains.
C. It constitutes the backbones of an incredible variety of molecules. D. All compounds made from carbon are soluble in water.
E. All organic molecules contain carbon atoms.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #15 Section: 3.01
Topic: General
16. Which of the following is not a macromolecule? A. carbohydrates
B. water
C. nucleic acids
D. proteins E. lipids
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #16 Section: 3.01
Topic: General
17. All of the following are examples of functional groups in cells except A. -CH3.
B. -COOH.
C. -H2O.
D. -NH2. E. -OH.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #17 Section: 3.01
Topic: General

18. Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called A. amino acids.
B. fatty acids.
C. nucleic acids.
D. phosphate groups. E. monosaccharides.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #18 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
19. Proteins are polymers formed of structural units called A. fatty acids.
B. amino acids.
C. nucleic acids.
D. phosphate groups. E. sugars.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #19 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
20. Lipids are the only class of macromolecules that contain A. amino acids.
B. nucleic acids.
C. fatty acids.
D. phosphate groups. E. sugars.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #20 Section: 3.05
Topic: General
21. Nucleic acids are polymers formed of building blocks that contain A. amino acids.
B. fatty acids.
C. sugars.
D. rings of nitrogen bases. E. peptide bonds.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #21 Section: 3.03
Topic: General

22. The simplest and the most common monosaccharide is a six-carbon sugar called A. galactose.
B. lactose.
C. cellulose.
D. glucose. E. sucrose.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #22 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
23. Humans are unable to get metabolic energy from cellulose because A. cellulose contains very little chemical energy.
B. cellulose is not part of a normal diet.
C. cellulose digesting enzymes are absent.
D. cellulose does not taste good.
E. cellulose is present in large quantities in the gut.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #23 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
24. Chitin, a modified form of cellulose, is not only cross-linked with proteins but also its glucose units are modified with atoms of
A. nitrogen.
B. hydrogen.
C. oxygen.
D. sulfur.
E. phosphorous.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #24 Section: 3.02
Topic: General

25. Which of the following is not a type of lipid? A. fat
B. chitin
C. cholesterol
D. terpenes
E. prostaglandins
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #25 Section: 3.05
Topic: General
26. Which of the following macromolecules are characteristically water-insoluble? A. proteins
B. nucleic acids
C. carbohydrates
D. lipids
E. enzymes
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #26 Section: 3.05
Topic: General
27. A common lipid for energy storage is A. phospholipid.
B. steroid.
C. triglycerides.
D. cholesterol. E. wax.
Blooms Level: Remember Figure: 3.29
Raven Chapter 03 #27 Section: 3.05
Topic: General

28. Three fatty acids bonded together with a glycerol are found in a(n) A. alcohol.
B. enzyme.
C. phospholipid.
D. chlorophyll pigment. E. triglyceride.
Blooms Level: Remember Figure: 3.29
Raven Chapter 03 #28 Section: 3.05
Topic: General
29. Biological membranes contain bilayers of which of the following lipids? A. phospholipids
B. oils
C. prostaglandins
D. triglycerides E. cholesterol
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #29 Section: 3.05
Topic: General
30. Which of the following lipid classes is found in Chlorophyll, retina of the vertebrate eye, and synthetic rubber?
A. phospholipid
B. terpene
C. steroid
D. prostaglandin E. wax
Blooms Level: Remember Figure: 3.28
Raven Chapter 03 #30 Section: 3.05
Topic: General

31. Which of the following is not a protein? A. enzyme
B. antibody
C. keratin
D. pectin E. collagen
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #31 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
32. Proteins possess all of the following functions except A. structure.
B. metabolism.
C. encode genetic information.
D. membrane transport. E. cell recognition.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #32 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
33. Functional groups found in amino acids include all of the following except A. -NH2.
B. phosphate.
C. -COOH.
D. -OH.
E. alkyl (linked multiple carbons with hydrogens).
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #33 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
34. A chain of amino acids linked together end-to-end can only be found in a A. membrane lipid.
B. nucleic acid.
C. polysaccharide.
D. polypeptide. E. starch.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #34 Section: 3.04
Topic: General

35. The specific amino acid sequence in a protein is its A. zero order structure.
B. primary structure.
C. secondary structure.
D. tertiary structure.
E. quaternary structure.
Blooms Level: Remember Figure: 3.22
Raven Chapter 03 #35 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
36. Alpha helix and beta pleated sheets are examples of which level of protein structure? A. zero order
B. primary
C. secondary
D. tertiary
E. quaternary
Blooms Level: Remember Figure: 3.22
Raven Chapter 03 #36 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
37. Denaturation, a process in which a protein loses its native shape and function, is likely to be caused by all of the following except
A. being transported from one cell to another in a living organism.
B. pH change.
C. temperature change.
D. ionic concentration change.
E. increase in hydrogen ion concentration.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #37 Section: 3.04
Topic: General

38. The information storage molecules of cells are called A. fatty acids.
B. membrane lipids.
C. enzymes.
D. hormones.
E. nucleic acids.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #38 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
39. Which of the following is not a component of nucleic acids? A. a five-carbon sugar
B. a six-carbon sugar
C. a phosphate group
D. phosphodiester bonds
E. an organic nitrogen containing base
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #39 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
40. The nitrogen base not found in DNA is called A. adenine.
B. cytosine.
C. guanine.
D. thymine. E. uracil.
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #40 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
41. Which of the following is not found in RNA? A. adenine
B. cytosine
C. guanine
D. thymine E. uracil
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #41 Section: 3.03
Topic: General

42. Fructose and galactose all have the same six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms, just as glucose. A friend of yours says to you, Since two of those sugars have the same number of atoms, they should all have the same name. You answer, Yes. They do have the same atoms and the numbers are the same; however,
A. they are all polysaccharides and have slightly different functions within organisms and therefore have different names.
B. they are named differently because of their quaternary structures, which is very important in carbohydrates, especially glucose.
C. they are named differently because when heated above their optimal temperature they become denatured and will not react with their substrates.
D. they are named differently because they are involved in different DNA nucleotide formation.
E. they are named differently because they are alternate forms of the monosaccharide, glucose.
Blooms Level: Apply Raven Chapter 03 #42 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
43. Carbohydrates contain 4 calories per gram, proteins contain 4 calories per gram, and fats contain 9 calories per gram. There is a food that contains 108 calories per serving. There are 4 grams of carbohydrate, 5 grams of protein, and 8 grams of fat in a serving. Which of the following represents the calories for fat?
A. 20
B. 16 C. 72 D. 18
Blooms Level: Apply Raven Chapter 03 #43 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
44. Four of the following five choices are functions of carbohydrates. Select the exception.
A. Chitin is a carbohydrate that is used in insects and other arthropods in the structures of their exoskeletons. B. Starch is a carbohydrate that is used by some plants as a way to store glucose.
C. Glycogen is a carbohydrate that is used by animals as a way to store glucose.
D. Cellulose is a carbohydrate that serves a structural function in plants.
E. Glucose is a carbohydrate that is utilized by all life forms in the construction of nucleotides.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #44 Section: 3.02
Topic: General

45. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder that is caused by a mutation that prevents various ions from moving across cell membranes. Normally there are proteins that allow passage of the ions, but in CF these proteins seemed to be disabled. Researchers have found that one explanation of this has to do with
A. the chaperone proteins are missing or are not functioning and, thus, the correct folding of the proteins are prevented from occurring.
B. the proteins are denatured and as a result become disabled, which prevents the correct interface with the substrate, effectively blocking ion transfer.
C. the chaperone proteins are bound with the ions at the cell membrane surface and cannot release to aid the unfolded proteins.
D. the proteins are disabled because of the pH change at the cell membrane surface caused by the accumulated ions.
E. the chaperone proteins and the proteins are unable to segregate themselves because of the lower pH environment produced by the ionic gradient created on the cell membrane.
Blooms Level: Understand Figure: 3.24
Raven Chapter 03 #45 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
46. Imagine that you were able to see a nucleotide under a very special microscope. As you scan the nucleotide you see a U nitrogen base. Without seeing any other part of the nucleotide you know that
A. it is a DNA nucleotide.
B. it is an RNA nucleotide.
C. it is either a DNA nucleotide or an RNA nucleotide.
D. you will need to continue to scan for more clues, such as the type of sugar associated with it, to be able to determine which type of nucleotide it is.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #46 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
47. Imagine that you were able to see a nucleotide under a very special microscope. As you scan the nucleotide you see a T nitrogen base. Without seeing any other part of the nucleotide you know that
A. it is a DNA nucleotide.
B. it is a RNA nucleotide.
C. it is a either a DNA nucleotide or an RNA nucleotide.
D. you will need to continue to scan for more clues, such as the type of sugar associated with it, to be able to determine which type of nucleotide it is.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #47 Section: 3.03
Topic: General

48. DNA and RNA are similar in some respects and different in others. Which of the following statements is not accurate about their similarities?
A. Both DNA and RNA nucleotides contain the nitrogen bases adenine, cytosine, and guanine.
B. Both DNA and RNA always double helices.
C. Both DNA and RNA contain monosaccharide sugars on their respective nucleotides. D. Both DNA and RNA are involved in the Central Dogma of biology.
E. Both DNA and RNA contain phosphate groups on their respective nucleotides.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #48 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
49. All of the following are examples of monomer: polymer pairings except A. amino acids: polypeptides.
B. monosaccharides: polypeptide.
C. nucleotides: DNA.
D. glucose: starch.
E. fatty acids: triglycerides.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #49 Section: 3.01
Topic: General
50. Which of the following would not be an example of protein use in a living organism? A. synthesis of macromolecules
B. muscle contraction
C. recognition of self in immune reactions
D. stores information E. forms hair
Blooms Level: Apply Raven Chapter 03 #50 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
51. Proteins are created with
A. phosphodiester bonds
B. peptide bonds
C. a phosphate and two fatty acids bonded to glycerol D. sugar polymers
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #51 Section: 3.04
Topic: General

52. Phospholipids are created with
A. phosphodiester bonds
B. peptide bonds
C. a phosphate and two fatty acids bonded to glycerol D. sugar polymers
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #52 Section: 3.05
Topic: General
53. Carbohydrates are created with
A. phosphodiester bonds
B. peptide bonds
C. a phosphate and two fatty acids bonded to glycerol D. sugar polymers
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #53 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
54. Which of the following best describes an enzyme? A. reacts with other enzymes to form a product
B. catalyzes chemical reactions
C. structural protein
D. inorganic cofactor
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #54 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
55. Nucleic acids are created with
A. phosphodiester bonds
B. peptide bonds
C. a phosphate and two fatty acids bonded to glycerol D. sugar polymers
Blooms Level: Remember Raven Chapter 03 #55 Section: 3.03
Topic: General

56. The oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6) by cellular respiration is an example of a dehydration reaction. A simplified version of this reaction can be written as
A. 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2.
B. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2.
C. C6H12O6 6H2O + 6CO2. D. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2C.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #56 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
57. Which of the following is a DNA sequence capable of pairing with CGATTAGT? A. GCTAATCA
B. CGATTAGT
C. GCUAAUCA
D. CGAUUAGT
Blooms Level: Apply Raven Chapter 03 #57 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
58. You recently identified a novel protein that contains several membrane-spanning domains. Which of amino acids would you expect to be most common in these domains?
A. nonpolar
B. polar uncharged
C. charged D. aromatic
Blooms Level: Apply Raven Chapter 03 #58 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
59. L-lysine is an essential amino acid and must be supplied in the diet. By comparison, the stereoisomer D- lysine is not biologically active. Why can your body only utilize one form?
A. Since the L form and D form are enantiomers, they will bind together and inhibit utilization of the D form. B. Since the L form and D form are chiral molecules, they will bind together and inhibit utilization of the D form.
C. Antibodies recognize the D form and destroy it before your body can use it for nutritional purposes. D. Enzymes can only recognize a single, specific stereoisomer.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #59 Section: 3.04
Topic: General

60. People who are lactose intolerant can often consume some products made from milk such as cheese and yogurt. By comparison, people with a true milk allergy, which involves an immune response to milk protein, cannot consume milk or products made from milk. Given this information, which of the following statements is true?
A. The protein that causes a true milk allergy is lactose.
B. All people who are lactose intolerant are also allergic to milk.
C. Yogurt contains live and active cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria and therefore prevents an allergic response in people with a true milk allergy.
D. Lactose is a carbohydrate, not a protein and is therefore not the cause of true milk allergies.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #60 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
61. Egg whites consist primarily of water and the protein albumin. When you fry an egg, why does the egg white turn from clear to white?
A. The protein becomes dissociated.
B. The protein acquires tertiary structure.
C. The protein becomes denatured. D. The protein becomes dehydrated.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #61 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
62. Margarine is made by hydrogenating vegetable oils so that they take on the consistency of butter. Which of the following is the chemical basis for this change from a liquid to a solid?
A. Fats are changed from unsaturated to saturated, allowing them to solidify.
B. Fats are changed from saturated to unsaturated, allowing them to solidify.
C. Trans-fatty acids are changed from unsaturated to saturated, allowing them to solidify. D. Trans fatty acids are changed from saturated to unsaturated, allowing them to solidify.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #62 Section: 3.05
Topic: General

63. Vitamin D can be synthesized by the body from a derivative of cholesterol. Given this information, which of the following statements about the solubility of vitamin D is true?
A. Vitamin D is water-soluble.
B. Vitamin D is fat-soluble.
C. Vitamin D is soluble in both water and fat.
D. Vitamin D is not soluble in either water or fat.
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #63 Section: 3.05
Topic: General
64. You arrive late to a biological seminar. However, just as you enter the room, you hear the speaker referring to the amino end and the carboxyl end of a macromolecule. Immediately, you know that they are talking about a
A. carbohydrate.
B. protein. C. DNA. D. lipid.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #64 Section: 3.04
Topic: General
65. You arrive late to a biological seminar. However, just as you enter the room, you hear the speaker referring to the five-prime end and the three-prime end of a macromolecule. Immediately, you know that they are talking about a
A. carbohydrate.
B. protein. C. DNA. D. lipid.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #65 Section: 3.03
Topic: General

66. Which of the following would not contain polymers of b-glucose? A. cellulose
B. wood
C. paper
D. amylose
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #66 Section: 3.02
Topic: General
67. Muscle contraction is accomplished by a mechanism known as the cross-bridge cycle, in which myosin heads bind to actin and cause the actin filaments to move across the myosin filaments. Which of the following is capable of providing the energy needed for this process?
A. ATP
B. FAD
C. NAD+
D. enzymes
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #67 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
68. The digestive enzyme pepsin works in the acidic environment of the stomach to hydrolyze peptide bonds. On which of the following macromolecules does pepsin act?
A. carbohydrate
B. protein
C. DNA D. lipid
Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven Chapter 03 #68 Section: 3.04
Topic: General

69. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uses RNA, rather than DNA, to encode genetic information. During infection, however, HIV uses an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase to generate double-stranded DNA. Generally speaking, how would the enzyme generate a double strand of DNA from a single strand of RNA?
A. Reverse transcriptase first catalyzes the synthesis of a DNA copy from the viral RNA, and then catalyzes the synthesis of a second strand of DNA complementary to the first one.
B. Reverse transcriptase first catalyzes the synthesis of a RNA copy from the viral DNA, and then catalyzes the synthesis of a second strand of RNA complementary to the first one.
C. Reverse transcriptase first catalyzes the synthesis of a DNA copy from the viral RNA, and then catalyzes the synthesis of a second strand of RNA complementary to the first one.
Blooms Level: Understand Raven Chapter 03 #69 Section: 3.03
Topic: General
70. You have recently identified a novel protein. After obtaining the protein sequence you realize that this protein contains several motifs and domains. How might this information help you to determine the function of your new protein?
A. All motifs and domains have a calatogued structure and function. Therefore, identification of such structures in the new protein will easily determine its function.
B. Motifs and domains are patterns that exist in protein structure and are often associated with particular functions. Therefore, identification of such sites can provide insight into possible functions of the unknown protein.
C. This information would not likely aid in determining the function of the new protein.
Blooms Level: Understand Figure: 3.23
Raven Chapter 03 #70 Topic: General

Chapter 03 Summary
Category
Blooms Level: Apply Blooms Level: Evaluate Blooms Level: Remember Blooms Level: Understand Figure: 3.05
Figure: 3.22 Figure: 3.23 Figure: 3.24 Figure: 3.28 Figure: 3.29
Raven Chapter 03 Section: 3.01 Section: 3.02 Section: 3.03 Section: 3.04 Section: 3.05 Topic: Chemistry Topic: General
# of Questions
5
16
38
11
2
2
1
1
1
2
70
11
12
15
20
11
5
65

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