Biology A Guide To The Natural World 5th Edition By David Krogh -Test Bank

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Biology A Guide To The Natural World 5th Edition By David Krogh -Test Bank

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Biology A Guide To The Natural World 5th Edition By David Krogh -Test Bank

CHAPTER 2

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Refer to the figure below, and then answer the question that follows.
1) Which of the following molecules is most likely to bind to an ion, and why? 1)
A) Molecule B, because it has four hydrogen atoms on the exterior of the molecule
B) Molecule B, because it has a carbon at in the center of the molecule
C) Molecule A, because it has electrical charges that will attract an ion
D) Molecule A, because any molecule with oxygen is able to bind to an ion
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
2) Atoms with eight electrons in their outer shells tend to: 2)
A) be stable and unreactive.
B) form covalent bonds.
C) be chemically reactive.
D) form ionic bonds.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
1
3) Water is a polar molecule because: 3)
A) oxygen has more electrons than hydrogen.
B) hydrogen is more electronegative than oxygen.
C) oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen.
D) oxygen has more neutrons than hydrogen.
E) hydrogen has more neutrons than oxygen.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
4) What is it about carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 that makes them all carbon? 4)
A) They all have the number of protons that is characteristic of carbon.
B) They all are elements.
C) They all have the number of protons plus neutrons that is characteristic of carbon.
D) They all are radioactive.
E) They all have the number of neutrons that is characteristic of carbon.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
5) In hydrogen bonding, hydrogen nearly always pairs with: 5)
A) sodium or chlorine.
B) carbon.
C) oxygen or nitrogen.
D) another hydrogen.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
6) Which of the following would form the fewest covalent bonds? 6)
A) oxygen (six electrons in the second shell)
B) neon (eight electrons in the second shell)
C) carbon (four electrons in the second shell)
D) hydrogen (one electron in the first shell)
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
2
7) The naturally occurring helium atom is chemically inert because: 7)
A) it has the most protons that it could ever carry.
B) its nucleus is filled with two neutrons.
C) its outermost shell is filled with electrons.
D) it has all of the shared electrons it could ever have.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
8) Hydrophobic molecules tend to be ________ by water. 8)
A) absorbed
B) attracted
C) mixed
D) repelled
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
9) Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in their: 9)
A) number of neutrons.
B) ionic charge.
C) number of electrons.
D) number of protons.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
10) What is the difference between an ionic and covalent bond? 10)
A) In an ionic bond, one atom accepts electrons from the other; in a covalent bond, a pair of
atoms share electrons.
B) Ionic bonds form between atoms of different elements; covalent bonds form between atoms of
the same element.
C) In an ionic bond, one atom has more electronegativity than the other; in a covalent bond, the
atoms have the same electronegativity.
D) Ionic bonding involves the inner electron shells; covalent bonding involves the valence
electron shell.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
3
11) Oxygen has six electrons in its second outer shell, and hydrogen has one. With how many
hydrogen atoms will oxygen form covalent bonds?
11)
A) three
B) six
C) eight
D) one
E) two
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
12) Hydrogen bonds are very important in the functional shape of: 12)
A) nucleic acids.
B) proteins and nucleic acids.
C) proteins.
D) fats.
E) sugars.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
13) When sodium chloride dissolves in water, the sodium and chloride ions are pulled into solution by: 13)
A) the attraction of the sodium ions to the positively charged oxygen, and the attraction of the
chloride ions to the two negatively charged hydrogens of the water molecules.
B) covalent bonds that form between the ions and the water molecules.
C) ionic bonds that form between the ions and the water molecules.
D) the attraction of the sodium ions to the negatively charged oxygen, and the attraction of the
chloride ions to the two positively charged hydrogens of the water molecules.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
14) From its atomic number of 10, you can predict that a neon atom: 14)
A) can easily gain or lose electrons.
B) is not chemically reactive.
C) has an unfilled outer shell.
D) has 10 neutrons.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
4
15) Chlorine has an atomic number of 17, and argon has an atomic number of 18. From this
information alone, you can predict that:
15)
A) chlorine has more neutrons than argon.
B) argon will more readily ionize than chlorine.
C) argon has more neutrons than chlorine.
D) chlorine is more chemically reactive than argon.
E) argon is more chemically reactive than chlorine.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Refer to the figure below, and then answer the question that follows.
16) Hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are considered the same element because: 16)
A) their mass is about the same.
B) they have the same number of protons.
C) they can form ions easily.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
17) Molecules of water stick to each other because: 17)
A) hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and the oxygen atom of
another molecule.
B) hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and a hydrogen atom of
another molecule.
C) covalent bonds form between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and the oxygen atom of
another molecule.
D) water molecules are nonpolar, and nonpolar molecules stick together.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
5
18) A polar covalent bond results when: 18)
A) two atoms share electrons equally.
B) one of the atoms sharing electrons is more electronegative than the other atom.
C) two atoms of the same element are sharing electrons.
D) two atoms sharing electrons are equally electronegative.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
19) You shake up a bottle of vinegar and oil dressing to mix it each time you use it. The reason you
need to do this is that:
19)
A) vinegar has an acidic pH and is neutralized when mixed with oil.
B) oil is hydrophobic and wont dissolve in vinegar, so the oil and vinegar separate upon
standing.
C) vinegar and oil are oppositely charged, and opposites attract.
D) fat molecules are too large to dissolve in water.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
20) Two hydrogen atoms (atomic number 1) form a covalent bond. Which of the following is true? 20)
A) Both hydrogen atoms now have two protons in their outer shell.
B) One hydrogen atom now has zero protons in its outer shell, and the other has two.
C) One hydrogen atom now has zero electrons in its outer shell, and the other has two.
D) Each hydrogen atom still has one electron in its outer shell.
E) Both hydrogen atoms now have two electrons in their outer shell.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
21) Potassium has one electron in its fourth shell, and chlorine has seven electrons in its third shell.
Which of the following is most likely to be true?
21)
A) The two atoms will share an electron equally in a nonpolar covalent bond.
B) Chlorine will give an electron to potassium to form an ionic bond.
C) The two atoms will share the electron unequally in a polar covalent bond.
D) Potassium will give an electron to chlorine to form an ionic bond.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
6
22) The number of atoms coming out of a chemical reaction must equal the number of atoms going into
a chemical reaction. This follows the principle of:
22)
A) chemical bonding.
B) the law of conservation of mass.
C) the law of conservation of energy.
D) atomic theory.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
23) A measure of the quantity of matter in an object is known as: 23)
A) mass.
B) atoms.
C) density.
D) energy.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
24) All the mass of an atom is considered to be in the: 24)
A) protons only.
B) protons and neutrons.
C) protons, neutrons, and electrons.
D) electrons only.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
25) An atom becomes an ion when: 25)
A) it forms a covalent bond.
B) it gains or loses protons.
C) it gains or loses electrons.
D) hydrogen ions are shared.
E) it gains or loses neutrons.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
7
26) As an acid mixes in water: 26)
A) the number of hydrogen ions will increase.
B) it becomes buffered.
C) the number of hydroxide ions will increase.
D) the pH remains at 7.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
8
Refer to the figure below, and then answer the question that follows.
9
27) You are working in a chemistry lab, and your lab partner knocks over a beaker of hydrochloric
acid. You alert your laboratory instructor, and he immediately pours another solution over the spill
to neutralize the acid. Using the figure as a guide, what did your instructor pour onto the acid to
neutralize it?
27)
A) baking soda
B) water
C) coffee
D) lemon juice
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
28) For an atom to be considered an ion: 28)
A) protons can outnumber neutrons.
B) protons equal electrons.
C) neutrons can outnumber protons.
D) protons can outnumber electrons.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
29) An element with 22 protons, 22 neutrons, and 22 electrons would have an atomic number of: 29)
A) 44.
B) 66.
C) 11.
D) 22.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
30) Nonpolar molecules develop when: 30)
A) one atom is much more electronegative than the other.
B) shared electrons are not shared equally.
C) electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.
D) both atoms have similar electronegativity.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
10
31) The high specific heat and surface tension of water are a result of: 31)
A) ionic bonds.
B) covalent bonds between water molecules.
C) covalent bonds within the water molecules.
D) the size of water molecules.
E) hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
32) An atom whose atomic number is 10 has how many electrons in its outermost energy level? 32)
A) ten
B) three
C) eight
D) two
E) five
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
33) Which of the following results from the making of a bond? 33)
A) Atoms become more stable.
B) Electrons are destroyed.
C) Molecules are broken down.
D) Atoms become more reactive.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
34) The ionic bond of sodium chloride is formed as a result of: 34)
A) sodium giving up an electron to chlorine.
B) sodium gaining an electron from chlorine.
C) sodium giving up a proton to chlorine.
D) sodium and chlorine sharing electrons.
E) both sodium and chlorine losing electrons.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
11
35) Which of the following is true of chemical bonds? 35)
A) Electrons can be shared or completely transferred.
B) Electrons are always shared.
C) Chemical bonds cannot occur between two identical atoms.
D) Atoms can achieve a higher energy state and less stability by forming bonds.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
36) You mix sugar in water and stir until its completely dissolved. In this system, the water is the
________, the sugar is the ________, and the end result is a ________.
36)
A) solvent; solution; solute
B) solute; solution; solvent
C) solvent; solute; solution
D) solute; solvent; solution
E) solution; solvent; solute
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
37) Sodium chloride (NaCl) crystals (table salt) form as a result of: 37)
A) being chemically stable.
B) the attraction of oppositely charged particles for each other.
C) covalent bonding.
D) hydrogen bonding.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
38) As the difference in the electronegativity between atoms forming a chemical bond increases, the: 38)
A) more polar the molecule.
B) more symmetrical the molecule.
C) more stable the molecule.
D) less polar the molecule.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
12
39) Atoms form bonds to: 39)
A) fill their outer shells with neutrons.
B) obtain an equal number of protons and neutrons.
C) fill their outer shells with electrons.
D) obtain an equal number of protons and electrons.
E) fill their outer shells with protons.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
40) In a bottle of water, hydrogen bonding occurs between the hydrogen of one atom and a/an: 40)
A) oxygen atom in a different molecule.
B) oxygen atom in the same water molecule.
C) hydrogen atom in the same molecule.
D) hydrogen atom in a different molecule.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
41) In what ways are hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds similar? 41)
A) Both are based on attraction between two atoms where each carries a negative charge.
B) Both are based on attraction between atoms that carry differences in electrical charge.
C) Both involve an even sharing of electrons between atoms.
D) Both are based on repulsion between atoms that carry differences in electrical charge.
E) Both are based on attraction between two atoms where each carries a positive charge.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
42) Buffering systems work to maintain pH within normal limits by: 42)
A) adding hydroxide ions when conditions become too basic.
B) adding hydrogen ions when conditions becomes too acidic.
C) removing hydrogen ions when conditions become too acidic and adding hydrogen ions when
conditions become too basic.
D) adding hydrogen ions when conditions become too acidic and removing hydrogen ions when
conditions become too basic.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
13
43) Which of the following are found in the nucleus of an atom? 43)
A) protons, neutrons, and electrons
B) protons
C) neutrons
D) protons and neutrons
E) electrons
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
44) You have a substance and begin a set of experiments in which you break it down into other
substances through chemical reactions. After a few successive reactions, you discover a set of
products that cant be broken down further, no matter what type of chemical reaction you attempt.
These substances are:
44)
A) protons.
B) elements.
C) electrons.
D) isotopes.
E) neutrons.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
45) If a neutral atom has an atomic number of 10, then we know that it has: 45)
A) 10 electrons.
B) 10 protons, 10 electrons, and 10 neutrons.
C) 10 protons.
D) 10 protons and 10 electrons.
E) 10 neutrons.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
46) All the atoms of the same element will have the same: 46)
A) number of protons and neutrons.
B) mass.
C) number of protons.
D) number of neutrons.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
14
47) An atom will react with other atoms only until: 47)
A) it forms four covalent bonds
B) all of its inner orbitals have been filled.
C) it has completely filled its outermost energy level.
D) it has less stability.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
48) ________ orbit around the nucleus of an atom. 48)
Answer: Electrons
Explanation:
49) A single covalent chemical bond represents a sharing of ________ electrons between two
atoms.
49)
Answer: two
Explanation:
50) Hydrogen bonds may form between oxygen of one water molecule and ________ of
another water molecule.
50)
Answer: hydrogen
Explanation:
51) A signal molecule will ________ to a receptor if the molecules shapes match, similar to a
key in a lock.
51)
Answer: bind
Explanation:
52) It takes more energy to raise the temperature of water than of alcohol because water has a
higher ________.
52)
Answer: specific heat
Explanation:
53) A(n) ________ has a higher pH than a(n) ________. 53)
Answer: base; acid
Explanation:
54) Water molecules are uncharged and ________. 54)
Answer: polar
Explanation:
TRUE/FALSE. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.
55) Ionic bonds occur through a sharing of electrons. 55)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
15
56) Acids release hydrogen ions into aqueous solutions. 56)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
57) Anything that occupies space and has mass is energy. 57)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
58) The electrons of an atom contribute significantly to the mass of an atom. 58)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
59) An element cant be broken down into another form of pure matter. 59)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
60) Atoms are electrically neutral. 60)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
61) An atom always contains the same number of protons as neutrons. 61)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
62) Isotopes differ from each other in the number of protons that they possess. 62)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
63) The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom gives it a unique chemical nature. 63)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
64) Chemical reactions involve only the outermost electrons of an atom. 64)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
65) Neutrons are negatively charged. 65)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
16
MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.
Match column 1 with the items in column 2.
66) Results from an equal sharing of
electrons
Answer: F
67) Results from electrons being
transferred from one atom to another
Answer: D
68) Explains the attraction of water
molecules for each other
Answer: E
69) Neutrons
Answer: A
70) Protons
Answer: C
71) Results from an unequal sharing of
shared electrons
Answer: H
72) Are involved in chemical reactions
Answer: G
73) Electrons
Answer: B
A) no electric charge
B) negative charge
C) positive charge
D) ionic bond
E) hydrogen bond
F) nonpolar covalent bond
G) outer electrons
H) polar covalent bond
66)
67)
68)
69)
70)
71)
72)
73)
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
74) Which elements make up the majority of the human body?
Answer: Carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen make up the majority of the human body.
75) What are the three most important subatomic particles in an atom called? Which one is involved in forming
chemical bonds?
Answer: Protons, neutrons, and electrons are the three most important subatomic particles. Only electrons are
involved in chemical bonding.
76) You have been having trouble with acid indigestion recently. You buy some milk of magnesia, an antacid, from
the drug store to relieve your indigestion. Milk of magnesia is a mixture of magnesium hydroxide in water.
What makes milk of magnesia a good antacid? If you could chemically analyze your stomach fluids, what
would you find before and after taking the antacid?
Answer: Magnesium hydroxide provides hydroxide ions, which will neutralize the acidity by removing hydrogen
ions. Stomach fluids will have a low pH before taking the antacid and a higher pH afterward.
17
77) How are ions formed? Why do ionic compounds readily dissolve in water?
Answer: Ions are formed when one atom completely transfers one or more electrons to another atom. Because
ionic compounds are made up of oppositely charged ions, water molecules readily dissociate them from
each other, dissolving the ionic compound.
78) Explain how a polar molecule, such as water, can have a difference in electrical charge but is also electrically
neutral.
Answer: Because the electronegativity of oxygen and hydrogen is so different, oxygen keeps shared electrons more
around its nucleus than does the hydrogen in water, creating an electrical imbalance. Because each atom
of the water molecule at some time has its outermost energy level full, the water molecule is electrically
neutral.
79) What is chemical bonding? Explain the differences between covalent and ionic bonding.
Answer: Atoms react if they need electrons to complete their outer orbitals. Covalent bonding results from sharing
of electrons between two atoms, whereas ionic bonding results when one atom transfers electrons to the
other atom.
80) Temperatures on the Earth are moderated by the presence of so much water on the planet. Using your
understanding of waters temperature-moderating abilities, predict what would happen to temperatures in the
tropical and temperate regions if the oceans were made of alcohol instead of water. (Hint: Water has a higher
specific heat than alcohol.)
Answer: Waters high specific heat means it is very effective at absorbing heat in hot regions and releasing a lot of
heat in cooler regions, thus preventing hot regions from getting too hot and cooler regions from getting
too cold. Alcohol could not absorb or release as much heat, so hot regions would be much hotter and
cooler regions would be much colder.
81) Oil spills in the ocean are often treated with chemical dispersants. These materials are similar to detergents in
that the molecules have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions. Based on this, predict what will happen
when chemical dispersants are used to treat oil spills.
Answer: The dispersant molecules have a hydrophobic portion that will dissolve in the oil and a hydrophilic
portion that will dissolve in the water. This will cause the oil to be broken up into small droplets
suspended in the water.
18

 

CHAPTER 4

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Which of the following would you find in a plant cell but not an animal cell? 1)
A) microtubule
B) a central vacuole
C) mitochondrion
D) lysosome
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
2) Which choice below correctly matches organelle with function? 2)
A) smooth endoplasmic reticulumlipid production
B) lysosomeenergy generation
C) mitochondriafood generation
D) cytoskeletonrecycling of materials
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
3) Which of the following describes the difference between the cytoplasm and the cytosol? 3)
A) The cytoplasm is the region inside the plasma membrane that includes the nucleus, whereas
the cytosol is the fluid medium inside the cell.
B) The cytoplasm is the fluid medium inside the cell, whereas the cytosol is the region outside
the nucleus.
C) The cytoplasm is the region only outside the nucleus, and the cytosol is the region only inside
the nucleus.
D) The cytoplasm is the region inside the plasma membrane but outside the nucleus, whereas
the cytosol is the fluid medium inside the cell.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
1
4) Proteins destined to be secreted by the cell are produced: 4)
A) by free ribosomes.
B) on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
C) by the Golgi complex.
D) by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
E) in the cytosol.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
5) The 1992 film Lorenzos Oil told the true story of Lorenzo Odone who suffered from the disease
adrenoleukodystrophy. This disease affected an organelle in his cells called a peroxisome. The
peroxisome lacked an enzyme that controls the breakdown of a long chain fatty acid that resulted
in a buildup of the fatty acid in his brain and spinal cord. The function of peroxisomes must be
similar to the function of what other organelle?
5)
A) lysosome
B) chloroplast
C) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D) Golgi complex
E) mitochondrion
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
6) Plasmodesmata permit cell-to-cell communication in plants. Similar structures found in animals
are:
6)
A) vacuoles.
B) gap junctions.
C) lysosomes.
D) cell walls.
E) mitochondria.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
2
7) The most common form of cystic fibrosis, a fatal genetic disease, occurs when a protein destined for
the plasma membrane of the cell is destroyed. The protein is destroyed by one of the cells
organelles because the protein is not shaped correctly. Which organelle recognizes the misshaped
protein?
7)
A) lysosome
B) rough endoplasmic reticulum
C) Golgi complex
D) ribosome
E) nucleus
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
8) What determines whether a protein will be produced on a free ribosome or on one attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum?
8)
A) a special sequence of nucleotides on the mRNA molecule
B) a special sequence of amino acids on the protein being produced
C) a chemical signal on the protein being produced
D) whether the mRNA first binds to a free ribosome or one attached to the endoplasmic
reticulum
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
9) The cytoskeleton is composed of: 9)
A) microfilaments, mitochondria, and intermediate filaments.
B) microfilaments, cilia, and intermediate filaments.
C) microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
D) microtubules, intermediate filaments, and cilia.
E) microfilaments, microtubules, and lysosomes.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
10) ________ are the fundamental units of life. 10)
A) Organelles
B) Organisms
C) Tissues
D) Cells
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
3
11) The large central vacuole of plants: 11)
A) may make up as much as 90 percent of the internal volume of the cell.
B) produces proteins.
C) replaces the nucleus.
D) allows the plant to produce its own food.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
12) Eukaryotic cilia and flagella: 12)
A) are only found in single-celled organisms.
B) occur in large numbers on the surface of the cell.
C) are both involved in sweeping the lungs clean of foreign matter.
D) may also act as receptors for hormones.
E) both have microtubules forming their underlying structure.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
13) The function of the nucleus is to: 13)
A) add sugars to proteins.
B) contain the cytoplasm.
C) organize the cytoskeleton.
D) produce proteins.
E) contain the DNA.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
14) Cells can increase the number or size of some organelles in response to new demands. The amount
of one organelle often is increased dramatically in the livers of alcoholics. Based on what you know
of organelle function, this organelle is the:
14)
A) ribosome.
B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
C) mitochondrion.
D) nucleus.
E) Golgi apparatus.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
4
15) Prokaryotic cells lack: 15)
A) internal compartmentalization.
B) ribosomes.
C) DNA.
D) proteins.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
16) Tay-Sachs disease results from the accumulation of fatty deposits within neurons, when normally
they should be broken down within these cells. The organelle that would be defective in Tay-Sachs
would most likely be the:
16)
A) mitochondrion.
B) lysosome.
C) endoplasmic reticulum.
D) Golgi complex.
E) ribosome.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
17) Cells contain organized structures that perform a specific function. These are known as: 17)
A) organelles.
B) cytoplasm.
C) tissues.
D) organs.
E) prokaryotes.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
18) The function of ribosomes is to synthesize: 18)
A) RNA.
B) DNA.
C) proteins.
D) lipids.
E) polysaccharides.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
5
19) Which of the following are associated with energy transfer in eukaryotic cells? 19)
A) lysosomes and Golgi complex
B) chloroplasts and mitochondria
C) chloroplasts and the cell wall
D) mitochondria and rough ER
E) mitochondria and smooth ER
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
20) A secretory protein that exits from the ER within a vesicle will head directly to the: 20)
A) cytosol.
B) nucleus.
C) mitochondria.
D) plasma membrane.
E) Golgi complex.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
21) Both cilia and flagella are involved in which of the following functions? 21)
A) movement of cells or movement of material around a cell
B) energy production
C) expelling waste
D) division of the cell
E) production of proteins
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
22) An important by-product of photosynthesis is: 22)
A) oxygen.
B) glucose.
C) water.
D) starch.
E) protein.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
6
23) Insulin is a protein made in large amounts in cells of the pancreas. These cells secrete insulin into
the blood, where it controls the uptake of sugar by body cells. How is insulin transported from the
ER to the surface of the cell?
23)
A) Insulin moves through plasmodesmata to the surface of the cell.
B) Insulin is sent through the cavities (lumen) of the endoplasmic reticulum that attach directly
to the plasma membrane.
C) Insulin is carried by lysosomes that empty their contents outside the cell.
D) Insulin is carried in small sacs of membrane (vesicles) that move from the endoplasmic
reticulum to the Golgi apparatus and then to the plasma membrane.
E) Insulin moves along tracks of cytoskeleton proteins.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
24) Which of the following expresses an accurate difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? 24)
A) Prokaryotic cells are larger than eukaryotes.
B) Eukaryotes have a nucleus, but prokaryotes do not.
C) Prokaryotes can be multicellular, but eukaryotes cannot.
D) Prokaryotes have organelles, but eukaryotes do not.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
25) Which of the following would be found as part of a plant cell but not an animal cell? 25)
A) chloroplasts
B) gap junction
C) cytoskeleton
D) ribosomes
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
26) Microfilaments: 26)
A) stabilize the position of the nucleus.
B) form the structure of cilia and flagella.
C) help cells move or capture prey.
D) act as monorails along which organelles move.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
7
27) Many antibiotics work by blocking the function of ribosomes. Therefore, these antibiotics will: 27)
A) block RNA synthesis.
B) make the two nuclear membranes fuse into one.
C) block DNA synthesis.
D) prevent the movement of proteins through nuclear pores.
E) block protein synthesis.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
28) Prokaryotic cells include: 28)
A) bacteria and plant cells.
B) bacteria and animal cells.
C) archaea and fungi.
D) bacteria and archaea.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
29) People with oxidative phosphorylation disorders suffer a lack of energy that can lead to diminished
function of nerve and muscle cells. The organelle most likely to be altered in oxidative
phosphorylation disorders is the:
29)
A) mitochondrion.
B) rough endoplasmic reticulum.
C) cell wall.
D) cytoskeleton.
E) chloroplast.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
30) Cell walls can be found as part of: 30)
A) plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and protists.
B) plant cells.
C) protists and animal cells.
D) animal cells, fungi, and protists.
E) bacterial cells.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
8
31) Which of the following is the correct order of events in a cell? 31)
A) DNA makes RNA; RNA makes protein.
B) DNA makes protein; protein makes RNA.
C) RNA makes DNA; DNA makes protein.
D) RNA makes protein; protein makes DNA.
E) Protein makes DNA; DNA makes RNA.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
32) Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are similar in that they: 32)
A) provide structural support to cells.
B) are both involved in protein synthesis.
C) allow cells to communicate with each other.
D) form a protective lining around cells.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
33) Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? 33)
A) intermediate filamentsactin
B) endomembrane systemcilia
C) microfilamentspermanent
D) microtubulestubulin
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
34) The outer lining of a cell is the: 34)
A) cytoskeleton.
B) plasma membrane.
C) cytosol.
D) nucleus.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
9
35) You owe your life to chloroplasts. The reason for this is that: 35)
A) when we eat plants, it is the chloroplasts that are the nutritious part of plant cells.
B) chloroplasts produce all the water and carbon dioxide essential for life.
C) chloroplasts supply all the ATP needed by living organisms.
D) like the ancestors of mitochondria, the ancestors of chloroplasts were once bacteria taken up
by a eukaryotic cell.
E) chloroplasts produce the oxygen we breathe and ultimately are the source of most nutrients
we consume.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
36) Which organelles are believed to have originated from free-standing bacteria ingested by ancient
eukaryotic cells?
36)
A) mitochondria and Golgi complex
B) lysosomes and ribosomes
C) chloroplasts and ribosomes
D) mitochondria and chloroplasts
E) chloroplasts and lysosomes
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
37) Animal cells need oxygen most directly to: 37)
A) secrete enzymes.
B) produce DNA.
C) produce ATP.
D) produce protein.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
10
38) Smokers cough results from damage to the external structure of lung cells by tobacco smoke. What
part of the cell would you predict is damaged?
38)
A) the lysosome
B) plasmodesmata
C) the Golgi complex
D) the mitochondria
E) cilia
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
39) Which of the following is involved in modifying, sorting, and shipping proteins? 39)
A) the Golgi complex
B) lysosomes
C) endoplasmic reticulum
D) mitochondria
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
40) Which of the following is a function of the nucleolus? 40)
A) to synthesize messenger RNA
B) to allow mRNA to leave the nucleus
C) to act as the site of DNA synthesis
D) to attach polysaccharides to protein molecules
E) to synthesize ribosomal RNA
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
41) You isolate a cell with the following characteristics: (1) no nucleus, (2) only a single type of
organelle, and (3) 2 m in size. This cell could be a/an:
41)
A) bacterium.
B) plant cell or an animal cell.
C) plant cell.
D) animal cell.
E) bacterial cell or a plant cell.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
11
42) Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to one another in that both: 42)
A) capture the energy of the sun during photosynthesis and store it as sugar.
B) are present in all eukaryotic cells.
C) have their own DNA and their own ribosomes.
D) convert the energy of the sugar into ATP for use by the cell.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
43) What maintains cell shape, anchors organelles in place, and moves materials within a cell? 43)
A) Golgi complex
B) hydrogen bonds
C) cilia
D) cytoskeleton
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
44) Harmful substances are detoxified within the cell by the ________. 44)
Answer: smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Explanation:
45) mRNA carries a code from the ________ to make a particular polypeptide. 45)
Answer: DNA
Explanation:
46) The organelles of a eukaryotic cell are suspended in its ________. 46)
Answer: cytosol
Explanation:
47) The compartment that holds most of a eukaryotic cells DNA is the ________. 47)
Answer: nucleus
Explanation:
48) Actin forms cytoskeletal fibers called ________. 48)
Answer: microfilaments
Explanation:
49) Most of the volume of a mature plant cell is taken up by the ________. 49)
Answer: central vacuole
Explanation:
12
TRUE/FALSE. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.
50) Animal cells contain centrioles and chloroplasts. 50)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
51) It is estimated that there are more bacteria in your mouth than the number of people who have ever
lived.
51)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
52) The cytoskeleton is an internal scaffolding used for cellular movement. 52)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
53) Tiny holes that are channels between animal cells are called gap junctions. 53)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
54) Lysosomes are responsible for producing ATP from the metabolism of food. 54)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
55) Only eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles. 55)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
56) Every form of life is either a single cell or is composed of cells. 56)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
57) The central vacuole is used for nutrient storage and photosynthesis in plant cells. 57)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
58) Plasmodesmata allow plant cells to communicate with each other. 58)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
59) The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site where lipid synthesis occurs in an animal cell. 59)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
60) Gap junctions are found in plant cells. 60)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
61) Without photosynthesis, most animal life on the Earth could not survive. 61)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
13
62) The typical animal cell is 25 micrometers in diameter. 62)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
63) Ribosomes are found only in plant cells. 63)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
64) Vesicles that contain digestive enzymes are called lysosomes. 64)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
65) Animal cells are surrounded by a cell wall. 65)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
66) Proteins can be modified in either the rough endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi complex. 66)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.
Match column 1 with the items in column 2.
67) The power plants of the cell
Answer: A
68) A network of membranes studded
with ribosomes
Answer: C
69) Modifies, stores, and ships proteins
Answer: E
70) Serves as the site of protein synthesis
Answer: D
71) The site of lipid synthesis
Answer: B
A) mitochondria
B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C) rough endoplasmic reticulum
D) ribosomes
E) Golgi complex
67)
68)
69)
70)
71)
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
72) You are camping and decide you will sample some wild berries. You soon start to feel ill and realize these
berries have a toxic substance in them. On your way to the hospital, explain to your friends which organelles, in
which organ of your body, are detoxifying the toxin.
Answer: The smooth ER detoxifies substances, and the liver is a major site of this detoxification.
73) Which structures are in a plant cell and not in an animal cell? Which organelle would you find in an animal cell
but not a plant cell?
Answer: Plants have three unique organelles: the central vacuole, chloroplast, and the cell wall. An animal cell
lacks all of the above but contains lysosomes, which plant cells do not have.
14
74) Label the parts of the animal cell.
Answer:
75) Viruses reproduce as do cells, but viruses are not considered living things. Explain why this is the case.
Answer: Every form of life is either a single cell or made of cells. Although viruses have some of the properties of
life, they are not cells.
76) Name and describe three organelles that are common to animal and plant cells.
Answer: Three common organelles are: plasma membraneouter lining of the cell, mitochondria
powerhouse/ATP generator of the cell, nucleusinformation center of the cell.
15
77) Label the parts of the plant cell.
Answer:
78) Which organelles would not be considered part of the endomembrane system? Explain your answer.
Answer: Mitochondria and chloroplasts would not be considered part of the endomembrane system because they
not part of an interacting group of organelles involved in transporting material through the cell.
16
79) List the sequence of organelles a protein would pass through as it moves through the endomembrane system to
the exterior of the cell.
Answer: (1) The protein is made on ribosomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum, (2) its transport
vesicles bring it to the Golgi complex, (3) it moves through the Golgi complex then is packaged into
another transport vesicle, (4) it is then brought to the plasma membrane where the vesicle fuses with the
membrane, and (5) it is released to the exterior of the cell.
80) Compare and contrast cilia and flagella.
Answer: Cilia are numerous in the individual and are very short. Flagella are less numerous and are very long.
Both have a microtubule support structure. Both cilia and flagella cause movement of the organism;
however, cilia are generally thought to move materials and not the individual.
81) A man was under treatment for infertility. Examination of his sperm showed that his sperm could not swim. He
also suffered from chronic bronchitis and other respiratory problems in which mucus with trapped particles
was not being cleared from his lungs. From this you might infer he has a genetic defect affecting which
structures inside his cells?
Answer: The genetic defect prevents proper function of microtubules. Consequently, the flagella on the sperm
could not move, and the cilia on the cells of the lung could not beat.
82) Name three organelles involved in the synthesis of proteins in a cell, and describe the role each organelle plays
in the process.
Answer: Any of the following would be correct: nucleusproduction of the mRNA; ribosomeproduction of the
protein; rough endoplasmic reticulumproduction and transport of protein; Golgi complexmodification,
sorting, and transport of protein; vesiclesmovement of proteins between organelles.
83) Nerve cells have long thin extensions of their cell membrane called axons. The cell has to get mitochondria from
the body of the cell all the way down to the end of the axon to provide energy for nerve signal transmission.
What structure in a nerve cell would be involved in moving the mitochondria, and how would it work?
Answer: Cells move organelles from one part to the other on microtubules, which act as rails. A mitochondrion
would be attached to a motor protein, which is also attached to a microtubule, and this would carry the
mitochondrion from the cell body to the end of the axon.
17

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