Biology Of Humans Concepts Applications And Issues 6th Edition By Judith Test Bank

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Biology Of Humans Concepts Applications And Issues 6th Edition By Judith Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Biology Of Humans Concepts Applications And Issues 6th Edition By Judith Test Bank

Biology of Humans: Concepts, Applications, and Issues, 6e (Goodenough)

Chapter 2  Chemistry Comes to Life

 

2.1  Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) A neutral atom must contain ________.

  1. A) an equal number of protons and neutrons
  2. B) an equal number of protons, neutrons, and electrons
  3. C) an equal number of protons and electrons
  4. D) an equal number of neutrons and electrons

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Section:  2.1

 

2) An element with more or fewer neutrons than the same element as it appears on the periodic table is known as which of the following?

  1. A) ion
  2. B) buffer
  3. C) isotope
  4. D) isomer

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Section:  2.1

 

3) Oxygen, with an atomic number of 8, is a neutral atom and has ________ electrons in the first electron shell and ________ electrons in the second electron shell.

  1. A) 1; 7
  2. B) 5; 3
  3. C) 4; 4
  4. D) 2; 6
  5. E) 3; 5

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Section:  2.1

 

 

4) The Cl- ion has a single negative charge and the atomic number of 17. How many electrons are on its innermost shell?

  1. A) 18
  2. B) 17
  3. C) 9
  4. D) 2

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Section:  2.1

5) You have information about a particle that contains 7 protons, 8 neutrons, and 8 electrons. Which of the following statements would be true?

  1. A) It has an atomic weight of 23.
  2. B) It is an ion.
  3. C) It has 8 electrons in its outermost shell.
  4. D) It has an atomic number of 15.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Section:  2.2

 

6) The compound magnesium chloride (MgCl2) turns into one Mg2+ and two Cl- when placed in water. You can guess that the Mg and Cl atoms are held together normally by a(n) ________ bond.

  1. A) covalent
  2. B) electronegative
  3. C) hydrogen
  4. D) ionic

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Section:  2.2

 

7) In what ways are hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds similar?

  1. A) Both are based on attraction between atoms that carry differences in electrical charge.
  2. B) Both are based on attraction between two atoms that carry negative charges.
  3. C) Both are based on repulsion between atoms that carry differences in electrical charge.
  4. D) Both involve an even sharing of electrons between atoms.
  5. E) Both are based on attraction between two atoms that carry positive charges.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Section:  2.2

 

 

8) What is the difference between covalent and ionic bonds?

  1. A) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons, whereas ionic bonds involve the sharing of protons.
  2. B) Covalent bonds involve the attraction between slightly charged molecules, whereas ionic bonds involve the attraction between two fully charged ions.
  3. C) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of neutrons, whereas ionic bonds involve the attraction of slightly charged atoms.
  4. D) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons, whereas ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Section:  2.2

9) The interaction between two polar molecules would involve ________.

  1. A) ionic bonds
  2. B) peptide bonds
  3. C) covalent bonds
  4. D) hydrogen bonds

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Section:  2.2

 

10) Water has very special properties that not all chemicals share. Which of the following is not a property of water?

  1. A) is nonpolar
  2. B) prevents wide temperature fluctuations
  3. C) requires a lot of energy to evaporate it
  4. D) interacts with lots of different substances

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

 

11) A substance consists of weak acids or bases designed to maintain a specific pH of a solution within a cell or a biological system. Which of the following describes this substance?

  1. A) buffer
  2. B) catalyst
  3. C) pH
  4. D) acids

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

 

 

12) The pH scale measures ________.

  1. A) OH-concentration
  2. B) buffer concentration
  3. C) H+concentration
  4. D) All of the above are true.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

 

13) Any substance that when dissolved in water will give off H+ ions is referred to as a(n) ________.

  1. A) pH
  2. B) buffer
  3. C) catalyst
  4. D) acid

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

14) A substance in which other substances are dissolved is known as a(n) ________.

  1. A) solute
  2. B) acid
  3. C) solvent
  4. D) buffer

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

 

15) Your roommate is experiencing heartburn and asks you to purchase her an antacid. Chemically speaking, how do you know that the antacid will help eliminate her pain?

  1. A) It is a buffer and will prevent the pH in her digestive tract from changing.
  2. B) It has a higher OH-concentration to increase the pH in her digestive tract.
  3. C) It is probably high in H+.
  4. D) It has a low pH to balance the acidity in her digestive tract.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

 

 

16) If I tested your intestinal fluid and found that it was basic, which of the pH values listed would best describe this solution?

  1. A) 6.8
  2. B) 3.2
  3. C) 1.2
  4. D) 8.0

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

 

17) Which of the following monomers is not paired correctly?

  1. A) glucose-carbohydrates
  2. B) amino acids-proteins
  3. C) nucleotides-nucleic acids
  4. D) All of these are paired properly.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

18) A molecule consists of a long chain of glucose monomers linked by covalent bonds and serves as an energy source for plants and animals. Which of the following would describe this molecule?

  1. A) polysaccharide
  2. B) oligosaccharide
  3. C) monosaccharide
  4. D) sucrose

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

19) Which of the following carbohydrates is made by plants and is not digested by humans?

  1. A) lactose
  2. B) starch
  3. C) cellulose
  4. D) glycogen

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

 

20) Saturated fatty acids are so named because they are saturated with ________.

  1. A) hydrogen
  2. B) nitrogen
  3. C) carbon
  4. D) oxygen

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

21) Triglycerides ________.

  1. A) are fatty acids bonded to glycerol through hydrolysis
  2. B) have solid unsaturated forms at room temperature, such as butter
  3. C) can provide twice the energy per gram than proteins
  4. D) All of the above are true.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

22) These lipids have a hydrophobic part and a hydrophilic part.

  1. A) triglycerides
  2. B) carotenoids
  3. C) phospholipids
  4. D) steroids

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

23) The hydrogen, ionic, and covalent bonds that stabilize the shape of a protein contribute to which level of structure of a protein?

  1. A) primary
  2. B) quaternary
  3. C) secondary
  4. D) tertiary

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

 

24) Alteration of the ________ structure of a protein can transform the protein into an infectious agent known as a prion.

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) tertiary
  4. D) quaternary

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

25) Which of the following is not found in ATP?

  1. A) a nitrogen-containing base
  2. B) a sugar
  3. C) a phosphate group
  4. D) All of these are found in ATP.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

26) An organic compound that provides instructions for the synthesis or production of polypeptide chains is referred to as which of the following?

  1. A) nucleotide
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) ATP
  4. D) DNA

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

27) You received your genetic material from your parents in the form of DNA. Your DNA provides your cells with instruction for making ________.

  1. A) lipids
  2. B) proteins
  3. C) polysaccharides
  4. D) cholesterol

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

28) A researcher suspects that the food in an ecosystem has been contaminated with radioactive phosphates over a period of months. Which of the following substances could be examined for radioactive phosphate to test the hypothesis?

  1. A) the amino acids within proteins produced by organisms living in the area
  2. B) the starch produced by plants in the area
  3. C) the DNA of the organisms in the area
  4. D) All of the above are true.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

29) By analyzing the chemical formulas, you can determine that this molecule, CH3CH(NH2)COOH, is a(n) ________, whereas the molecule C5H10O5 is a(n) ________.

  1. A) cholesterol; amino acid
  2. B) amino acid; sugar
  3. C) nucleotide; glycerol
  4. D) fatty acid; sugar

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

30) Dipeptidase is an enzyme found in your small intestine that helps break polypeptides down. What would its most likely products be?

  1. A) amino acids
  2. B) proteins
  3. C) triglycerides
  4. D) oligosaccharides

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

 

2.2  Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1) Atoms that have the same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons are called ________.

Answer:  isotopes

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Section:  2.1

 

2) When an electron moves from the outer shell of one element to the outer shell of another element, a(n) ________ bond has been created.

Answer:  Ionic

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Section:  2.2

3) A substance that, when dissociated in water, will give off hydrogen ions is referred to as a(n) ________.

Answer:  acid

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

 

4) The ________ can be used to measure whether a substance is an acid or a base.

Answer:  pH scale

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.3

 

5) A polysaccharide that is made by plants and can usually be digested by humans is ________.

Answer:  starch

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

6) A molecule with hydrophobic properties and polar molecular attributes would be called a(n) ________.

Answer:  lipid

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

 

7) A protein that speeds up chemical reactions without being consumed in the process is called a(n) ________.

Answer:  enzyme

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

8) A(n) ________ consists of many monomer subunits bonded together in order to produce a large molecule.

Answer:  polymer

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

9) A(n) ________ is a nonprotein substance that aids in forming the enzyme-substrate complex in metabolic reactions.

Answer:  cofactor

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

10) ________ is the process of using water to break down polymers to their monomer subunits.

Answer:  Hydrolysis

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

11) ________ refers to a structure of a protein in which two or more polypeptide chains bind together to form a functional protein.

Answer:  Quaternary

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

12) This nucleotide is found in RNA but not in DNA: ________.

Answer:  uracil

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

13) Partially hydrogenated fats are also referred to as ________ fats.

Answer:  trans

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

 

14) A(n) ________ is a type of polymer that helps in support, transport, and movement in the body.

Answer:  protein

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

15) The energy-storing polysaccharide that can be found mainly in liver and muscle cells is called ________.

Answer:  glycogen

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

16) A(n) ________ is a substance that accepts hydrogen ions or, when it dissociates in water, will give off hydroxide ions.

Answer:  base

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Section:  2.4

 

2.3  Matching Questions

 

Match each definition in the first column to the correct term in the second column.

 

  1. A) Polarity
  2. B) Compound
  3. C) Denaturation
  4. D) Monosaccharides
  5. E) Hydrogen bonds
  6. F) Element
  7. G) Triglycerides
  8. H) Amino acids
  9. I) Tertiary structure
  10. J) Active site

 

1) Weak bonds that function to stabilize proteins and nucleic acids such as DNA.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Section:  2.2

 

2) A substance made up of two or more elements whose properties are usually different from those of either of the two original substances.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Section:  2.1

 

3) The site where a substrate binds to an enzyme.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

4) A process that causes a three-dimensional protein to change shape, resulting in the loss of biological function.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

5) The tendency of a molecule to have positive and negative regions.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Section:  2.2

 

6) The overall three-dimensional shape of a protein.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

7) A pure form of matter that cannot be broken down to simpler forms.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Section:  2.1

 

8) The basic monomer of a protein that can be joined by peptide bonds using dehydration synthesis reactions.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

9) Lipid molecules composed of one glycerol and three fatty acids that can be saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

10) The smallest molecular units of carbohydrates, also known as simple sugars.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Section:  2.4

 

Answers: 1) E 2) B 3) J 4) C 5) A 6) I 7) F 8) H 9) G 10) D

 

2.4  Short Answer and Essay Questions

 

1) Explain some of the modern uses for radioisotopes in society.

Answer:  Radioisotopes can be used in a variety of medical applications for diagnosis (imaging studies, such as the use of radioactive iodine to detect thyroid cancer) or therapy (such as the use of radioactive seeds to treat prostate cancer). Although not discussed in the chapter, there are other uses. For example, phosphorus isotopes are used to sequence DNA and RNA for medical, forensic, and criminal applications. Many isotopes have been used for a variety of dating in geologic fields (e.g., carbon-14 has been used to date fossils).

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G5|G7

Section:  2.1

 

2) Radioactive iodine (131I) is commonly used in medical situations for diagnosing and treating thyroid conditions. The most common isotope of iodine that is not radioactive is 127I. Chemically, what is the difference between 127I and 131I? What do they have in common?

Answer:  The difference between the two isotopes of iodine is their weights (or mass). This is due to a difference in the number of neutrons present in each isotope. These isotopes have in common their atomic number (number of protons), which is what makes them both iodine.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global LO:  G2|G7

Section:  2.1

 

3) Explain the major differences between covalent and ionic bonding.

Answer:  In covalent bonding, atoms share electrons. In ionic bonding, two oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global LO:  G7

Section:  2.2

 

4) Explain the relationship between nucleic acids and proteins. How would a change to the DNA ultimately affect proteins?

Answer:  DNA is a nucleic acid that codes for specific amino acids that make up the proteins in the cell and in living organisms. The exact amino acid sequence is vital in producing a functional protein. A change to the DNA would ultimately change the sequence of amino acids in a protein.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Global LO:  G2|G7

Section:  2.4

 

5) Athletes are often told to eat starch before a strenuous athletic event. What monomer can be released from starch after hydrolysis, and what is it used for? Because cellulose (fiber) is made of the same type of monomer as starch, why arent athletes told to eat fiber before an event?

Answer:  When starch is broken down, glucose is released. This glucose can be used during cellular respiration to produce energy (ATP) for the cells. Cellulose, like starch, is also composed of glucose monomers; however, we lack the enzymes necessary to perform hydrolysis on cellulose. Therefore, the cells cannot use glucose to produce ATP.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Global LO:  G2|G7

Section:  2.4

 

6) Within your body, there are two major categories of hormones. One category is the steroid (or lipid-soluble) hormones, and the other category is referred to as nonsteroid (or water-soluble) hormones, which are composed of proteins or, in some cases, just amino acids. Estrogen and testosterone are examples of steroid hormones, whereas insulin is an example of a nonsteroid hormone. A researcher heats estrogen, testosterone, and insulin to a very high temperature. After heating the hormones, the researcher tests to determine whether they still work properly. She finds that estrogen and testosterone still function, but insulin does not. Based on the chemical nature of these molecules, explain why insulin no longer functions.

Answer:  Given that the insulin is a peptide hormone, it is protein based. Proteins require a specific shape to function properly. Heat is one factor that can denature a protein, damaging its shape so that it can no longer function properly.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Global LO:  G2|G7|G8

Section:  2.4

 

7) Your friend tells you that all dietary fat is bad for your health. Is this correct?

Answer:  Although excess fat can be harmful, especially to the circulatory system, fat does serve important functions in the body, including long-term energy storage, insulation, and protection from blows.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Global LO:  G5|G7

Section:  2.4

 

8) When a new food product is being analyzed for nutritional content, the food will be subjected to hydrolysis in the lab. The end products are analyzed to determine, for example, fat and sugar content. Suppose a lab is analyzing a new product that claims to be fat free. After the hydrolysis of the product is complete, the examiners find glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids. Is this product free of fat? Justify your answer.

Answer:  This product is not fat free because it contains fatty acids. It also contains glycerol. Because fats are composed of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids, this product contains all components found in fat.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Global LO:  G7|G8

Section:  2.4

 

 

Biology of Humans: Concepts, Applications, and Issues, 6e (Goodenough)

Chapter 4  Body Organization and Homeostasis

 

4.1  Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) A group of organs in the body that have a common function make up a(n) ________.

  1. A) organism
  2. B) brain
  3. C) organ system
  4. D) tissue

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

2) Which of the following membranes covers the outside of the body and has waterproofing properties?

  1. A) synovial
  2. B) serous
  3. C) cutaneous
  4. D) basement

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

3) Which membranes line the passageways that open to the exterior of the body, including those of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems in the body?

  1. A) cutaneous
  2. B) basement
  3. C) mucous
  4. D) serous

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

4) Which structure containing dense connective tissue is found in the skin?

  1. A) epidermis
  2. B) hypodermis
  3. C) dermis
  4. D) integument

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

5) Which of the following tissues covers the body surfaces, lines the body cavities and organs, and forms glands?

  1. A) muscle
  2. B) nervous
  3. C) epithelial
  4. D) connective

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

6) Glands that lack ducts and secrete hormones are called ________.

  1. A) exocrine
  2. B) endocrine
  3. C) scent
  4. D) mammary

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

7) Cartilage that forms at the end of long bones and functions to allow bones to slide past each other during movement is called ________.

  1. A) elastic
  2. B) fibrocartilage
  3. C) bone
  4. D) hyaline

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

8) These epithelial cells function in secretion or absorption and are found in many glands and in the kidney tubules: ________.

  1. A) squamous
  2. B) cuboidal
  3. C) columnar
  4. D) stratified

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

 

9) Which of the following contains the most cells?

  1. A) an organism
  2. B) an organ system
  3. C) an organ
  4. D) tissue

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Global LO:  G4

Section:  4.1

10) Where would you find smooth muscle tissue in your body?

  1. A) in your heart
  2. B) in the walls of your stomach
  3. C) attached to bones
  4. D) None of the above is correct.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

11) Which of the following cavities has the highest density of cardiac muscle tissue?

  1. A) pleural cavity
  2. B) abdominal cavity
  3. C) thoracic cavity
  4. D) cranial cavity

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

12) Which layer lacks blood vessels?

  1. A) hypodermis
  2. B) subcutaneous
  3. C) epidermis
  4. D) dermis

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

 

13) Which of the following types of skin damage are the most superficial?

  1. A) first-degree burns
  2. B) second-degree burns
  3. C) third-degree burns
  4. D) All of these have the same level of pain.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

14) Charlotte liked to have a suntan all of the time, so she never wore sunscreen at the beach or in the tanning salon. During a visit to her doctor, she was told that she has the most common form of skin cancer. She will be all right, but she should avoid prolonged exposure to UV radiation in the future. Which skin cancer does she have?

  1. A) melanoma
  2. B) squamous cell carcinoma
  3. C) sebaceous carcinoma
  4. D) basal cell carcinoma

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G5

Section:  4.2

15) The dark chemical that accumulates in the skin after exposure to the sun is called ________.

  1. A) melanin
  2. B) sebum
  3. C) melanocyte
  4. D) carcinoma

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

16) These skin cells fight infections: ________.

  1. A) fibroblasts
  2. B) melanocytes
  3. C) macrophages
  4. D) neuroglia

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

 

17) A person using a very effective sunscreen would be less likely to make which vitamin within his or her body?

  1. A) vitamin A
  2. B) vitamin B
  3. C) vitamin C
  4. D) vitamin D

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G5

Section:  4.2

 

18) The sebaceous glands associated with hair follicles produce ________.

  1. A) sweat
  2. B) sebum
  3. C) androgens
  4. D) keratin

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

19) Specialized cells found at the base of the epidermis that produce pigments that help give skin its color are called ________.

  1. A) melanin
  2. B) melanocytes
  3. C) basal
  4. D) lacunae

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

20) The inner layer of skin that contains blood vessels, nerves, sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles is called the ________.

  1. A) epidermis
  2. B) hypodermis
  3. C) dermis
  4. D) melanin

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

 

21) Nutrients reach cells in the epidermis by ________.

  1. A) moving out of dermal blood vessels and diffusing through tissue fluid to the epidermis
  2. B) moving out of blood vessels in the epidermis
  3. C) moving out of blood vessels that originate in the hypodermis and extend into the epidermis
  4. D) All of the above are true.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G7

Section:  4.2

 

22) The ability of the human body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment is known as ________.

  1. A) homeostasis
  2. B) stabilization
  3. C) positive feedback
  4. D) regulation

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.3

Section:  4.3

 

23) If Argus fell into the waters around Labrador (temperature 1C, or 34F), what reaction is most likely to happen?

  1. A) dilation of the blood vessels of the dermis
  2. B) sweating
  3. C) piloerection
  4. D) increased blood flow to hands

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.3

Section:  4.3

24) Tunde is abnormally slender. Which of the following conditions is she more likely to have compared to an obese person, given the information in this chapter?

  1. A) heart disease and stroke
  2. B) cancers
  3. C) heartburn and indigestion
  4. D) hypothermia and injury due to trauma

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.3

Section:  4.3

 

 

25) Sarah loved to run in the dry desert town of Needles, CA. However, when she moved to Mobile, AL, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, she was surprised that when she went out for a jog at 91F (33C), she developed dizziness and confusion sooner than she had in the desert at the same temperature. She is probably suffering from ________.

  1. A) hypothermia
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) homeostasis
  4. D) hyperthermia

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.3

Global LO:  G5

Section:  4.3

 

4.2  Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1) A(n) ________ is a group of cells of similar type that work together to serve a common function.

Answer:  tissue

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

2) Of the four main tissue types, the type known as ________ covers body surfaces and lines body cavities and organs.

Answer:  epithelial tissue

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

3) Of the two types of glands, the ________ glands secrete their products onto body surfaces or into body cavities or organs via ducts.

Answer:  exocrine

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

4) The flattened or scale-like cells that make up certain epithelial tissues are known as ________ cells.

Answer:  squamous

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

 

5) The ________ function to support, insulate, and protect neurons.

Answer:  neuroglia

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

6) A tendon or ligament is made up principally of ________ tissue.

Answer:  dense connective

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

7) ________ muscle tissue is involuntary and has branching cells with striations.

Answer:  Cardiac

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

8) ________ tissue coordinates body activities that result from initiation and transmission of nerve impulses from one part of the body to another.

Answer:  Nervous

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

9) These muscles would contract when a person goes into a walk-in freezer: ________.

Answer:  arrector pili

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

10) ________ glands secrete fluids that consist of water, salts, and metabolic wastes, but they mainly function to regulate body temperature.

Answer:  Sweat

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.2

 

11) Under warm conditions, you will not have goose bumps because the arrector pili muscles ________.

Answer:  relax

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

12) ________ is the pigment produced by melanocytes that gives skin its color.

Answer:  Melanin

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

13) An easy way to remember the signs of skin cancer is this memory trick suggested by the American Cancer Society: ________.

Answer:  ABCD

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G5

Section:  4.2

 

14) The least common type of skin cancer mentioned in the text, but the one that must be taken most seriously, is ________.

Answer:  melanoma

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

15) If you want to avoid skin cancer, the safest thing to do is ________.

Answer:  stay out of the sun

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

16) The three parts of a homeostatic mechanism are ________, ________, and ________.

Answer:           receptor, control center, and effector

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.3

Section:  4.3

 

4.3  Matching Questions

 

Match each definition in the first column to the correct term in the second column.

 

  1. A) Muscular
  2. B) Reproductive
  3. C) Digestive
  4. D) Cardiovascular
  5. E) Integumentary
  6. F) Urinary
  7. G) Respiratory
  8. H) Skeletal
  9. I) Nervous
  10. J) Endocrine
  11. K) Lymphatic

 

1) The organ system that is responsible for the physical and chemical breakdown of food and for the absorption, processing, and release of digestive products.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

2) A muscle type that provides voluntary movement and is composed of long, cylindrical cells with multiple nuclei and obvious striations.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

3) The organ system that regulates and integrates body functions via neurons.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

4) The organ system that maintains a constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous wastes.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

5) The organ system that protects the underlying tissues from abrasion, prevents dehydration, and aids in regulating body temperature.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

6) The organ system that is responsible for the exchange of gases with the environment.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

7) The organ system that protects the body against infection and disease and aids in returning tissue fluids to the blood stream.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

8) The organ system that regulates and integrates body functions via hormones.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

9) The organ system that produces and releases eggs and sperm.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

10) The organ system that is responsible for transporting nutrients, gases, hormones, and antibodies for immune response.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

 

11) The organ system that is responsible for locomotion and maintaining posture and the generation of heat.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Section:  4.1

Answers: 1) C 2) H 3) I 4) F 5) E 6) G 7) K 8) J 9) B 10) D 11) A

 

 

4.4  Short Answer and Essay Questions

 

1) Compare and contrast the three types of muscle tissue.

Answer:  Cardiac muscle is located in the heart, and it functions to pump blood to the lungs and to the body. This muscle is characterized by branching striated cells with a single nucleus and specialized junctions that facilitate the rapid spread of nerve impulses throughout the heart. Skeletal muscle usually attaches to a bone, and when this type of muscle contracts, it causes voluntary movement. There are multiple nuclei in skeletal muscle cells, and contractile proteins are arranged to form striations. Smooth muscle is involuntary and can be found in the walls of the blood vessels, airways, and digestive tract. Smooth muscle cells lack striations, and each cell has a single nucleus.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Global LO:  G8

Section:  4.1

 

2) Two roller derby players trip each other and fall. One of them breaks a cartilage in her knee, while the other skater breaks a bone in her foot. Which one of them will take longer to heal? Explain your answer.

Answer:  Bone has an excellent blood supply, which will facilitate the healing process when the tissue becomes damaged. Cartilage has no blood vessels, which makes it more difficult for the cartilage to heal compared with other tissues.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.1

Global LO:  G7

Section:  4.1

 

3) Carla has acne. What caused it, and what can she do to treat it?

Answer:  During adolescence, increasing androgens in both males and females cause oil glands to enlarge and produce more sebum. Acne is the inflammation caused when dead cells and sebum clog the duct where oil glands open onto hair follicles. Carla can wash her face two to three times each day with hot, soapy water to help open the pores.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G5

Section:  4.2

 

4) What are the signs of skin cancer that distinguish it from other skin irregularities?

Answer:  Look for the ABCDs: A reminds us of asymmetry, or an irregular shape; B stands for a diffuse border; C is for an uneven color; and D helps us to remember to look for a diameter greater than 5 mm (approximately 0.2 inch).

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Section:  4.2

 

5) Why are people over age 40 more likely to use Botox treatments? Is one treatment enough for a lifetime? Explain.

Answer:  After age 40, the collagen fibers thicken and lose elasticity in the lower layer of the dermis, causing wrinkles and sagging skin. Some wrinkles are caused by contraction of facial muscles. Botox relies on the toxin from the bacterium that causes botulism; this toxin is injected into facial muscles. This toxin temporally paralyzes facial muscles, smoothing out the skin. The effect of the toxin lasts only a few months; therefore, the injection needs to be repeated.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G5|G7

Section:  4.2

 

6) People who are very underweight often complain of being cold. However, individuals who are overweight are less likely to complain of being cold. Explain why this might be the case.

Answer:  Individuals who are underweight have less fat tissue than those who are overweight. Fat tissue serves to insulate the body. Those who are lacking sufficient fat tissue have less insulation and are therefore more likely to be cold.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G7

Section:  4.2

 

7) Carlos visited the desert for the first time and, as he was sweating a lot, bought some distilled water. This seemed to satisfy his thirst very well. Why is the distilled water not the best choice of beverage for Carlos?

Answer:  Carlos is losing salts along with the water in the sweat. Distilled water will not help to replace the electrolytes he is losing via sweat. A beverage that contains water and electrolytes would be a much better choice for Carlos.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G7

Section:  4.2

 

8) Adelle often has goose bumps on her arms. Explain how the goose bumps are formed and why she will never have goose bumps on the palms of her hands or on the soles of her feet.

Answer:  A smooth muscle, called the arrector pili muscle, is attached to the hair follicle. During the contraction of this muscle, the hair stands up. A goose bump is a tiny mound of flesh that forms at the base of this erect hair. Goose bumps cannot form at places where hair is not present, such as the palm of a hand and the sole of a foot.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  4.2

Global LO:  G8

Section:  4.2

 

9) Explain how the hypothalamus regulates body temperature when a person is exposed to warm conditions.

Answer:  The hypothalamus functions as the control center in this homeostatic control system. In a warm environment, thermoreceptors on the skin detect heat and activate nerve cells that send the message to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus sends nerve impulses to the sweat glands (effectors), prompting them to increase their activity. Once sweat evaporates, the body cools, and signals from the brain to the sweat glands cease.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  4.3

Global LO:  G8

Section:  4.3

 

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