Biology Science for Life with Physiology 4th Edition by Belk Test bank

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Biology Science for Life with Physiology 4th Edition by Belk Test bank

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Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 4e (Belk)
Chapter 16 Where Do You Live? Climate and Biomes

1) On August 8, 2005, the temperature in New Haven, Connecticut, was 82 F with partly cloudy skies. This is a description of New Havens
A) climate.
B) weather.
C) biome.
D) ecosystem.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

2) Los Angeles, California, has an average daily temperature between 70 F and 80 F throughout most of the year. Theres very little rainfall except for during a rainy season beginning in the fall. This describes the citys
A) climate.
B) weather.
C) biome.
D) ecosystem.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

3) To determine a geographic areas climate, one must take into account the variability of
A) distance from the equator and available sunlight.
B) altitude and bodies of water.
C) temperature and precipitation.
D) air quality and urbanization.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

4) The average temperature of a region depends on
A) the amount of cloud cover that exists.
B) the amount of light energy per unit area hitting it.
C) whether theres an El Nio that year.
D) the amount of precipitation it receives .
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

5) Earths axis is tilted away from the sun during ________ and toward the sun during ________ in the Northern Hemisphere.
A) winter; summer
B) summer; winter
C) spring; fall
D) fall; spring
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

6) In the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice occurs when
A) the sun reaches its northern maximum.
B) the South Pole is closest to the sun.
C) solar irradiance is at its minimum.
D) lengths of day and night are equal at all latitudes.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

7) Earths axis tilts ________ from perpendicular.
A) 10
B) 90
C) 23.5
D) 0
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

8) Which city would have the largest variation in daylight hours between the summer solstice and the winter solstice?
A) New York, New York
B) Los Angeles, California
C) Miami, Florida
D) Montreal, Canada
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

9) The temperature of a city is often warmer than the temperature in its surrounding suburbs. This is the result of an urban heat island effect. What is one reason why this effect occurs?
A) The pavement and buildings absorb heat.
B) There are more parks in the city.
C) Fewer people drive in the suburbs.
D) Fewer buildings use air conditioning in the suburbs.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

10) The moist air of tropical rainforests is due to
A) warm air rising at the equator, cooling and condensing, and falling to Earth.
B) warm air sinking, moving to the equator, and raining.
C) cool air rising, evaporating, and forming cloud cover.
D) cool air sinking, condensing, and falling as rain.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

11) The dry deserts of Nevada are most influenced by
A) the hot desert sun.
B) the Pacific Ocean.
C) overgrazing by livestock.
D) the rain shadow from a California mountain range.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

12) Why does Dallas, Texas, have a higher yearly average temperature than Chicago, Illinois?
A) Dallas is at a higher latitude than Chicago.
B) Chicago experiences more prevailing westerly winds than Dallas.
C) Dallas receives more solar irradiance than Chicago.
D) Dallas is closer to a large body of water, than is Chicago.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual
13) Which city is more likely to experience the largest temperature changes throughout an average year?
A) Chicago, Illinois
B) Houston, Texas
C) Albuquerque, New Mexico
D) Nashville, Tennessee
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

14) In summer, why is the air around a large body of water cooler than nearby inland areas?
A) Water temperature changes slowly in response to solar irradiation when compared to the rate of temperature change of land surfaces.
B) Water temperature isnt affected by solar irradiation, whereas the temperature of land surfaces is affected.
C) Its not actually cooler; the breezes associated with the water only make it seem cooler.
D) Air molecules are farther away from each other over water, so they do not generate as much heat.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

15) France is at almost the same latitude as Nova Scotia. Why is Frances climate so much milder?
A) France is surrounded by mountains that buffer it from all severe weather conditions.
B) Nova Scotia isnt near a large body of water, but France is located adjacent to the ocean.
C) There are more people in France than Nova Scotia, thus human activity warms up the former region during colder periods of the year.
D) The Gulf Stream brings warm water from the tropical Atlantic to France, modifying its climate.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual
16) The Gulf Stream is part of what scientists call the great conveyor belt that circulates water throughout the worlds oceans. There is cause for concern that the increase in global warming might stop the conveyor belt. Would this scenario change Europes climate?
A) Yes: The Gulf Stream brings cold water from the arctic to Europe. Without this, Europes climate is expected to be much warmer.
B) Yes: The Gulf Stream brings warm water from the tropics to Europe. Without this, Europes climate is expected to be much cooler.
C) No: The climate of Europe is unaffected by ocean currents.
D) No: There are other currents that will take over if the Gulf Stream stops functioning.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Applied

17) Buffalo, New York, experiences a lake effect when wind blowing across the warm water accumulates water vapor that condenses when reaching cooler land. Bostons climate is moderated by the warmer ocean water that lies to the east. Assuming similar winter temperatures, one would expect ________ snowfall accumulation in Boston.
A) less
B) more
C) about the same
D) It is impossible to predict.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Applied

18) In a general sense, ________ refers to short term environmental conditions, and ________ refers to long term environmental conditions.
Answer: weather; climate
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

19) The typical pattern of temperature and rainfall/snowfall in a region, established over a long period of time, is called
A) climate.
B) weather.
C) precipitation.
D) solar irradiance.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

20) As depicted in this illustration, where does the most rainfall generally occur?
A) on the windward side of a body of water
B) on the leeward side of a body of water
C) on the leeward side of a mountain
D) at high altitudes on a mountain
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

21) The amount of light received by a given unit area over time is called
A) solar precipitation.
B) solar irradiance.
C) solar flare.
D) solar convergence.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

22) Temperature variation among geographic locations is NOT affected by
A) latitude.
B) proximity to water.
C) elevation.
D) longitude.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual
23) Which of the following locations would be expected to exhibit the greatest variation in temperatures throughout the seasons?
A) a small town at sea level in Panama
B) San Diego, California
C) a city in Finland
D) Rome, Italy
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

24) The most precipitation is expected on the ________ of a mountain.
A) very top
B) leeward side
C) windward side
D) north slope
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

25) In the Northern Hemisphere, the apparent position of the sun on the horizon at sunrise moves from ________ as summer turns to winter.
A) north to south
B) south to north
C) east to west
D) west to east
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

26) Regions that have ________ levels of solar irradiance have ________ average temperatures.
A) low; varying
B) high; low
C) low; low
D) high; varying
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual
27) The length of day is always greatest at the
A) equator.
B) south pole.
C) winter solstice.
D) summer solstice.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

28) In New York, the warmest days of the year usually occur
A) around the summer solstice.
B) about one month after the summer solstice.
C) about one month before the summer solstice.
D) in mid-September.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

29) What is generally the warmest time of day in Houston, Texas?
A) 10 a.m.
B) noon
C) 2 p.m.
D) 5 p.m.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual

30) Valleys are usually ________ than nearby hilltops because ________.
A) warmer; they receive more solar irradiance
B) cooler; they usually hold a body of cool water
C) cooler; cool air is heavier than warm air
D) warmer; warm air is heavier than cool air
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual
31) Compared to the air above a nearby land mass, the air above a large body of water is
A) cooler in winter.
B) warmer in summer.
C) cooler in summer.
D) the same, unless wind is blowing.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

32) Hypothetically, scientists could lower Earths temperature by ________, in order to combat global warming.
A) moving ice from the Arctic to the tropical oceans
B) forcibly melting more glaciers and polar ice caps
C) reflecting more light from land masses
D) decreasing the reflectance of cities
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Applied

33) Prevailing winds coming from the north and south collide
A) at the intertropical convergence zone.
B) on the leeward side of a mountain.
C) on the windward side of a mountain.
D) within hurricanes.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

34) Hot-air balloons are able to fly for the same reason that
A) precipitation falls on the leeward side of a mountain.
B) water droplets can freeze inside clouds.
C) very little rain falls at 30 north and south of the equator.
D) the tops of hills are warmer than the valleys below.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Conceptual
35) Where would you expect a rain shadow to occur in the United States?
A) on the western side of the Cascade Mountains, in the Pacific Northwest
B) on the western side of the Appalachian Mountains, in the eastern United States
C) on the eastern side of Lake Ontario, in upstate New York
D) on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada mountains, in Utah
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual

36) In which general direction do the prevailing winds blow between 30 North and the equator?
A) from south to north
B) from east to west
C) from north to south
D) from southwest to northeast
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.1
Skill: Factual
37) The major deserts of the world are located at
A) 30 north and south of the equator.
B) 23.5 north and south of the equator.
C) 45 north and south of the equator.
D) the equator.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

38) Which of the following terrestrial biomes is dominated by woody plants?
A) desert
B) tundra
C) tropical grassland
D) chapparal
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

39) Which major biome type contains most of Earths biodiversity?
A) desert
B) tundra
C) grasslands
D) forests
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Conceptual

40) Which of the following has the most biomass per unit area?
A) boreal forest
B) tundra
C) temperate forest
D) tropical forest
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual
41) Swidden is another term for
A) tundra.
B) slash-and-burn agriculture.
C) the boreal forest.
D) biome.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

42) When all living organisms are included, ________ contain about 70% of the biomass found on Earths land surface.
A) forests
B) grasslands
C) tundras
D) deserts
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

43) The biodiversity of a tropical rainforest is very high because of the
A) high temperature found year-round.
B) low amount of solar irradiance.
C) high amount of solar irradiance.
D) high levels of nutrients in the soil.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

44) When a patch of land is cleared in a tropical rainforest, the vegetation is often burned to enrich the soil with nutrients from the burned plant material. This
A) works well because so many nutrients are trapped in tropical plants.
B) works for a few years, but the soil is soon depleted of nutrients.
C) isnt necessary because tropical soils are filled with nutrients.
D) helps to promote long-term sustainable agriculture.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual
45) Both tropical and temperate forests have
A) rainy and dry seasons.
B) seasonal changes in temperature.
C) enough precipitation to support large trees.
D) the same species of trees.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

46) Broadleaf deciduous trees of temperate forests
A) drop their leaves as they freeze solid.
B) reabsorb chlorophyll, resulting in the colorful autumn pigments becoming visible.
C) grow slower than narrow-leaved trees during summer months.
D) are the only type of plant life found in this biome.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

47) Coniferous trees are most abundant in
A) tropical forests.
B) temperate forests.
C) deciduous forests.
D) boreal forests.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

48) An adaptation of evergreen trees in boreal forests includes
A) a thick waxy coat on leaves.
B) lower levels of chlorophyll in leaves.
C) the ability to shed leaves when water availability is low in winter.
D) flower production in early spring.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual
49) Plants that are adapted to frequent fires are part of the
A) boreal forest.
B) temperate forest.
C) chaparral.
D) desert.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

50) The fragrant oils found in rosemary and thyme
A) encourage humans to pick them and spread their seeds.
B) protect the plants from fire.
C) help fuel fires, to which theyve become adapted.
D) discourage humans from consuming the plants.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

51) A biome that contains few shrubs or trees and has limited rainfall is called
A) grassland.
B) chaparral.
C) boreal forest.
D) tundra.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

52) Grazing animals that eat the tops of plants have resulted in the selection of plants that
A) dont reproduce via flowers.
B) grow from the tip of the plant.
C) grow from the base of the plant.
D) can grow only after a fire burns the top of the plant.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual
53) Introducing large numbers of grazing livestock to a savanna in the Sahel region of Africa has led to
A) an increase in the savanna.
B) the destruction of the biome.
C) more food in times of famine.
D) another form of sustainable agriculture.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

54) If you were to buy land in order to plant crops, which type of biome would you prefer?
A) savanna
B) prairie
C) tropical forest
D) chaparral
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Conceptual

55) Rainfall in a desert is
A) negligible (essentially 0 inches per year).
B) less than 1 inch per year.
C) less than 20 inches per year.
D) more than 20 inches per year.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

56) Which of the following is one evolutionary adaptation of a typical desert plant?
A) shallow roots to quickly capture water
B) broad leaves to capture the bright sunlight
C) long-blooming flowers to attract pollinators
D) deep roots to capture all available moisture
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual
57) Annual plants germinate, reproduce, and die in one season. These plants often evolved in
A) deserts.
B) tundra.
C) deciduous forests.
D) chaparral.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

58) An environment where the plants are low to the ground and many boggy areas are found is called
A) a boreal forest.
B) a savanna.
C) a tundra.
D) a prairie.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Conceptual

59) During the last few years, scientists have observed that caribou have had difficulty migrating due to the melting of the ________, creating impassable wetlands where there was once solid ground.
A) glaciers
B) ice caps
C) icebergs
D) permafrost
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Conceptual

60) Tropical rainforests exist in soils that are nutrient-poor because
A) there is a low rate of decomposition, and plants cannot absorb the undigested nutrients.
B) there is a low rate of decomposition, and plants quickly absorb the nutrients as they are available.
C) there is a high rate of decomposition, and plants quickly absorb the nutrients as they are available.
D) The plants cannot use the types of nutrients produced by tropical decomposers.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Conceptual
61) Why do the deciduous leaves on temperate forest trees turn from green to orange, red, and/or yellow before falling?
A) The chlorophyll changes color as its broken down.
B) The chlorophyll is absorbed by the tree, leaving the other pigments visible.
C) New photosynthetic pigments are created as the amount of daylight becomes limited.
D) New pigments are created in response to colder temperatures.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

62) The gradual replacement of plant species in a rainforest over time (for example, as it progresses from an old agricultural field back to a forest) is called
A) intertropical convergence.
B) desertification.
C) succession.
D) deforestation.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.2
Skill: Factual

63) By definition, fresh water contains ________ salt.
A) less than 0.0001%
B) less than 0.1%
C) about 1%
D) absolutely no
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.3
Skill: Factual

64) At least half of the oxygen in Earths atmosphere was created by
A) burning fossil fuels.
B) trees in the boreal forest.
C) phytoplankton in the ocean.
D) plants, algae, and phytoplankton in the intertidal zone.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.3
Skill: Factual

65) In order to reproduce, certain species of salamanders must migrate to a ________, where their aquatic eggs can develop free of predatory fish, which cant survive the annual drying up of this type of wetland.
A) vernal pond
B) intertidal zone
C) marsh
D) swamp
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.3
Skill: Conceptual

66) On a warm summer day in August, you decide to go for a walk through a new housing development that was built near your home a few years ago. As you walk by the pond thats in the center of this development, you notice an unpleasant smell. Then, you see that the pond is full of green algae, and there are dead fish floating on the surface. This is a pond that used to be clean and clear, and you used to play in it as a child. What could have most likely caused this change?
A) Too many people are discarding food and other wastes in the pond, causing increased algal growth.
B) Lawns are being overfertilized, causing excess fertilizer to wash into the pond, stimulating algal growth.
C) The low reflectance of the surrounding area is heating up the pond, causing increased algal growth.
D) The salting of the roads during icy conditions in the winter has resulted in the runoff of salt and thus stimulated algal growth.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: 16.3
Skill: Applied

67) The benefits of wetlands include
A) protection from flooding.
B) storage of drinking water.
C) increasing rate of water flow to bodies of water.
D) production of sediment that is useful for fertilizer.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.3
Skill: Factual
68) A food chain in the open ocean, from the base up, would be
A) zooplankton, phytoplankton, tuna, cod.
B) phytoplankton, zooplankton, sand lance, humpback.
C) shark, cod, phytoplankton, zooplankton.
D) albatross, cod, zooplankton, phytoplankton.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.3
Skill: Factual

69) Coral reefs are built of
A) the limestone skeletons of dead coral.
B) rock formations on the ocean floor.
C) inactive volcanoes.
D) the skeletal remains of fish.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.3
Skill: Factual

70) Coral animals harbor ________ inside their bodies to provide them with nutrition.
A) bacteria
B) dinoflagellates
C) photosynthetic algae
D) hydras
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.3
Skill: Factual

71) How can the amount of yard waste produced by people be reduced?
A) through recycling
B) through composting
C) by having people bring their own waste to dumps
D) through burning.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.4
Skill: Factual
72) Burning fossil fuels can result in
A) a decrease in ground-level ozone levels.
B) a decrease in carbon dioxide levels.
C) an increase in mercury levels.
D) a decrease in acid rain.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 16.4
Skill: Factual

73) Treatment of wastewater in industrial plants of developed countries includes
A) removing excess nutrients, such as phosphates and nitrates.
B) removing semisolid wastes.
C) discharging untreated wastewater into waterways.
D) burning semisolid wastes for energy.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 16.4
Skill: Conceptual

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