Biopsychology 8th Edition by John P.J. Pinel test bank

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Biopsychology 8th Edition by John P.J. Pinel test bank

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CHAPTER 9
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: FROM FERTILIZED EGG TO YOU

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1) The process of the growth of a fertilized egg into a mature nervous system is called

A) neural growth.
B) neuroplasticity.
C) neurodevelopment.
D) psychological development.
E) rewiring.

Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 220
Topic: Chapter 9 Introduction

2) The case of Genie emphasizes the role of
A) the brain in behavior.
B) experience in human neural and psychological development.
C) the brain in language.
D) language in learning.
E) neuroplasticity in development.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 220
Topic: Chapter 9 Introduction

3) A zygote divides to form

A) a sperm cell and an ovum.
B) two ova.
C) two zygotes.
D) two daughter cells.
E) two sperm cells.

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 220
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

4) The first major phase of neurodevelopment is induction of the

A) neural tube.
B) neural grove.
C) growth cones.
D) neural plate.
E) neural growth factors.

Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 220
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

5) The neural plate is a patch of

A) multipolar neurons.
B) ectoderm.
C) mesoderm.
D) endoderm.
E) growth cones.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 220
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

6) Totipotential means that a developing cell
A) is capable of developing into any type of cell in the organism.
B) is totally committed to one cell for life.
C) cannot divide.
D) is totally developed and will not differentiate.
E) is entirely potent in excitation or inhibition.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

7) The very first cells to develop in the embryo are

A) multipolar.
B) bipolar.
C) myelinated.
D) totipotent.
E) mesodermal.

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

8) Embryonic cells that have the potential for unlimited renewal and have the ability to develop into different kinds of mature cells if they are transplanted to different sites are often called

A) daughter cells.
B) embryonic stem cells.
C) zygotes.
D) multipolar cells.
E) ectodermal cells.

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

9) Cells of the neural plate are

A) ectodermal.
B) totipotent.
C) multipotent.
D) both A and B
E) both A and C

Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

10) Immature cells that have the potential to develop into various kinds of mature cells are called

A) ependymal cells.
B) multipotent cells.
C) ventricular cells.
D) radial cells.
E) branch cells.

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

11) Stem cells are cells that

A) are multipotent.
B) have a seemingly unlimited capacity to multiply.
C) are multipolar.
D) both a and B
E) both B and C

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

12) The neural plate develops directly into the

A) neural tube.
B) neural groove.
C) brain.
D) CNS.
E) PNS.

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

13) The neural groove develops into the neural

A) tube.
B) plate.
C) mesoderm.
D) endoderm.
E) cord.

Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

14) At 18 days after conception, this structure is visible in the developing embryo: the
neural
A) groove.
B) tube.
C) plate.
D) floor.
E) crest.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

15) By 40 days after conception, three swellings become visible at the anterior end of the human neural tube. The most anterior of these swellings eventually develops into the

A) brain.
B) midbrain.
C) hindbrain.
D) forebrain.
E) ventricles.

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

16) By 40 days after conception, swellings are clearly visible at the anterior end of the neural tube. There are

A) 2.
B) 3.
C) 4.
D) 32.
E) 64.

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

17) After the formation of the neural tube, the number of cells destined to become part of the adult nervous system
A) actually declines.
B) stays the same until the end of the neural-plate phase.
C) stays the same until the end of the neural-groove phase.
D) increases rapidly.
E) doubles and then stays the same until birth.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

18) Most cell division in the developing neural tube occurs in the

A) hindbrain zone.
B) ventricular zone.
C) ventricles.
D) posterior zone.
E) subventricular zone.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

19) Most neural proliferation occurs in the layer of the neural tube that is adjacent to

A) the fluid-filled central canal.
B) the cortex.
C) the marginal zone.
D) layer 6.
E) the neural crest.

Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

20) Neural tube cells migrate radially

A) along axons of other cells.
B) along special glial cells.
C) to the ventricular zone.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C

Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

21) In addition to the radial migration of developing neurons, there is considerable __________ migration.

A) rapid
B) tangential
C) intermediate
D) circuitous
E) axonal

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

22) The pattern of neural migration that is indicated by the arrows in this illustration is
A) radial.
B) tangential.
C) inside out.
D) outside in.
E) posterior.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

23) There seem to be two different mechanisms of neural migration: glial-mediated migration and

A) amoeboid migration.
B) somal translocation.
C) pioneer migration.
D) growth cone translocation.
E) neural cresting.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

24) Research on the migration of future neocortical neurons has made one important point: __________ is everything.

A) Timing
B) Location
C) Genetics
D) Experience
E) Age

Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

25) The pattern of migration of future neocortical neurons is referred to as

A) accelerated.
B) insidious.
C) inside out.
D) subventricular.
E) ependymal.

Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

26) During the formation of the neural tube, a few cells break off from the neural plate and form a structure that lies dorsal to the tube. This structure is the neural

A) groove.
B) canal.
C) crest.
D) zone.
E) layer.

Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

27) At 24 days after conception, the precursor of the PNS is visible in the developing embryo. This structure, which is illustrated here, is the neural
A) tube.
B) plate.
C) crest.
A) groove.
E) stem.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

28) The neural crest develops into the

A) ventricular system.
B) cortex.
C) peripheral nervous system.
D) circulatory system of the brain.
E) neural tube.

Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

29) The neural crest

A) is anterior to the neural tube.
B) is the bottom of the neural tube.
C) develops into the hindbrain.
D) develops into the PNS.
E) develops into the spinal cord.

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

30) Cell adhesion molecules are thought to mediate

A) differentiation.
B) aggregation.
C) proliferation.
D) sprouting.
E) cell death.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 223
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

31) Which of the following are amoeba-like in their appearance and movements?

A) growth cones
B) ependymal cells
C) neural cell-adhesion molecules
D) radial glial cells
E) retinal ganglion cells

Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 224
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

32) At the tip of each growing axon or dendrite is an amoeba-like process called

A) an amoeba cell.
B) a growth cone.
C) a pioneer cell.
D) a blueprint cell.
E) a growth cell.

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

33) Growth cones extend and retract finger-like cytoplasmic extensions as if they were feeling their way. These extensions are called

A) adhesion digits.
B) growth cone adhesion digits.
C) filopodia.
D) pseudopodia.
E) siphons.

Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 224
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

34) Sperrys experiments on eye-rotation in frogs led to an influential hypothesis that explains how growth cones find their way to their targets: the

A) radial glial hypothesis.
B) cell-adhesion hypothesis.
C) chemoaffinity hypothesis.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B

Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

35) Frogs, unlike mammals, have retinal ganglion cells that are capable of

A) degeneration.
B) proliferation.
C) color vision.
D) regeneration.
E) aggregation.

Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

36) In frogs, salamanders, and other simple vertebrates, retinal ganglion cells project primarily to the

A) thalamus.
B) tectum.
C) tegmentum.
D) cerebellum.
E) visual cortex.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 224
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

37) In Sperrys classic studies of eye rotation and regeneration of the optic nerves, he assessed the visual capacities of his subjects by assessing their ability to

A) strike accurately at fly-like stimuli.
B) identify colors.
C) perform a visual discrimination task.
D) detect the presence of dim lights.
E) solve maze problems.

Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

38) Sperrys initial version of the chemoaffinity hypothesis of axon growth has difficulty accounting for
A) the results of Sperrys own eye-rotation regeneration experiments.
B) the ability of axons to grow to their correct targets.
C) the ability of axons to follow exactly the same circuitous route to their target in every member of a species.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

39) The first growth cone of a developing tract to reach the target is called a __________ growth cone.

A) fast
B) pioneer
C) quick
D) early
E) premier

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

40) Only those growth cones that are not pioneer growth cones can normally find their way to their targets by

A) chemoaffinity.
B) fasciculation.
C) blueprints.
D) topographic gradients.
E) stopping at a service station and asking for directions.

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

41) If an optic nerve of a mature frog is transected and half of the associated retina is destroyed,
A) the axons grow out from the retinal ganglion cells in the remaining half of the retina to their original targets on the optic tectum.
B) the destroyed retina regenerates and then axons grow out from the complete retina and innervate the optic tectum in the species-typical fashion.
C) the axons grow out from the remaining retinal ganglion cells to targets systematically distributed over the entire optic tectum.
D) half of the optic tectum degenerates.
E) both A and D
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

42) In support of the topographic-gradient hypothesis, it has been shown that
A) axons do not grow out from the retinas until the retinas are fully grown, which is why babies have disproportionately large eyes.
B) axons do not grow out from the retinas until their target structures (e.g., optic tectums) are fully grown.
C) retinas and optic tectums always grow in precise proportion to one another.
D) the synaptic connections originally formed by retinal ganglion cells on the optic tectums gradually shift as both the eyes and optic tectums grow at different rates during development.
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

43) Eyes and optic tectums grow at different rates. As they grow, the synaptic connections that were originally formed on the tectum by axons of retinal ganglion cells shift so that the retina is always fully and faithfully mapped on the tectum. This finding supports the

A) chemoaffinity hypothesis.
B) pioneer hypothesis.
C) topographic-gradient hypothesis.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C

Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

44) Less is known about synapse formation than axon growth because synapse formation requires

A) fasciculation.
B) coordinated activity in at least two cells.
C) growth cones.
D) guidance molecules.
E) regeneration.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

45) A recent finding is that synaptogenesis depends on the presence of

A) astrocytes.
B) neurons.
C) growth cones.
D) pioneer cones.
E) guidance molecules.

Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

46) When it comes to synaptogenesis, neurons display a substantial degree of

A) specificity.
B) promiscuity.
C) monogamy.
D) faithfulness.
E) inertia.

Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 226
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

47) In vitro, neurons will form synapses

A) only with their correct targets.
B) only with neurons of the same type.
C) with almost any neuron.
D) only with glial cells.
E) only with the correct glial cells.

Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 226
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

48) Neuron death
A) starts to occur in humans around the age of 50.
B) is a stage of normal early neural development.
C) is rare in healthy humans until after puberty.
D) is a common, but unfortunate, consequence of accidental exposure to neural gradients.
E) is always followed by regeneration.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 226
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

49) Evidence suggests that many neurons die during development because of
A) faulty growth cones.
B) their inability to compete successfully for their targets neurotrophins.
C) genetic deformations.
D) metabolic excess.
E) synapse rearrangement.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 226
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

50) Most of the cell death associated with early development of the brain is

A) necrotic.
B) passive.
C) apoptotic.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C

Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 226
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

51) Apoptosis is safer than necrosis because apoptosis does not involve

A) neuron death.
B) inflammation.
C) suicide.
D) degeneration.
E) synapse rearrangement.

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 226
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

52) Neurotrophins

A) are life-preserving chemicals for neurons.
B) are supplied to neurons by their targets.
C) promote neuron death.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 227
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

53) Neurotrophins can

A) promote neuron growth.
B) promote neuron survival.
C) function as axon guidance molecules.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B

Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 227
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

54) The general effect of synapse rearrangement is to
A) increase the number of different target cells innervated by each neuron.
B) increase the number of synaptic contacts received by each neuron.
C) focus the output of each neuron on fewer postsynaptic cells.
D) increase the ratio of axosomatic synapses to axodendritic synapses.
E) increase the number of synapses.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 227
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

55) The development of the human brain is unique in that

A) there is no early cell death.
B) there is no early reorganization.
C) it develops so slowly.
D) it develops so quickly.
E) the PNS develops before the CNS.

Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

56) Between birth and adulthood, the size of the human brain

A) doubles.
B) quadruples.
C) actually declines.
D) stays the same.
E) increases 10 fold.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 228
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

57) With a few exceptions, all of the neurons that will compose the adult human brain have developed and are in their appropriate location by the

A) sixth day of prenatal development.
B) sixth week of prenatal development.
C) third month of prenatal development.
D) seventh month of prenatal development.
E) early teens.

Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 228
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

58) The postnatal growth of the human brain results from

A) synaptogenesis.
B) an increase in the number of neurons.
C) myelination.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C

Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 228
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

59) The human brain grows after birth because of

A) synaptogenesis.
B) myelination.
C) increased dendritic branching.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

60) Synaptic density in the primary visual cortex of infants
A) is maximal by the seventh or eighth postnatal month, and then it declines.
B) reaches adult levels by the seventh or eighth prenatal month.
C) follows the same course of development as the myelination of prefrontal cortex.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 228
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

61) The course of human cognitive development is thought to reflect development in the

A) prefrontal cortex.
B) hippocampus.
C) secondary neocortex.
D) posterior parietal cortex.
E) hypothalamus.

Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 229
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

62) The prefrontal cortex seems to play a role in
A) working memory.
B) planning and carrying out sequences of action.
C) inhibiting responses that are inappropriate in the current situation.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 229
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

63) Functions of the prefrontal cortex include

A) working memory.
B) planning and carrying out sequences of action.
C) locating objects in space.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B

Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 229
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants
64) Perseveration is the tendency to
A) form long-term working memories.
B) form permanent short-term memories.
C) continue making formerly correct responses that are currently incorrect.
D) continue making formerly incorrect responses that are currently correct.
E) fasciculate in private.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 229
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

65) Perseverative errors are often made by children between the ages of

A) 3 to 5 months.
B) 7 to 12 months.
C) 1 to 2 years.
D) 2 to 4 years.
E) 4 to 8 years.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 229
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

66) In an experiment by Diamond, perseverative errors were made by
A) infant monkeys.
B) infant monkeys with hippocampal damage.
C) adult monkeys with bilateral lesions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 230
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

67) Neurons and synapses that are not activated by experience usually

A) develop more slowly.
B) develop more quickly.
C) develop abnormally.
D) do not survive.
E) become more responsive.

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 230
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

68) In comparison to the cortices of rats that had been reared in enriched environments, the cortices of rats that had been reared by themselves in barren cages

A) were thinner.
B) had less dendritic development.
C) had fewer synapses per neuron.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 230
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

69) The disruptive effects of total visual deprivation of the left eye on subsequent vision through the left eye are greater when the

A) right eye is deprived at the same time.
B) deprivation occurs early in life.
C) right eye is not deprived at the same time.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C

Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

70) If just one eye is deprived of input early in life,
A) the contralateral visual cortex totally degenerates, but the ipsilateral visual cortex does not.
B) there is a decrease in the number of visual cortex neurons that can be activated by stimulation of the early-deprived eye.
C) there is an increase in the number of visual cortex neurons that can be activated by stimulation of the nondeprived eye.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

71) Early monocular deprivation
A) eliminates ocular dominance columns.
B) decreases the width of ocular dominance columns from the deprived eye.
C) increases the width of ocular dominance columns from the nondeprived eye.
D) causes ocular dominance columns to develop sooner.
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

72) How long does one eye have to be totally deprived of stimulation early in life in order to produce significant reductions in the proportion of visual cortex neurons that can be activated by stimulation of the deprived eye?

A) a few days
B) a few hours
C) a few minutes
D) a few weeks
E) a few months

Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

73) A few days of early monocular deprivation produces a massive decrease in the axonal __________ of lateral geniculate nucleus neurons that normally conduct signals from the deprived eye.

A) branching
B) regeneration
C) width
D) layers
E) degeneration

Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

74) Roe and his colleagues (1990) caused the developing axons of ferret retinal ganglion cells to synapse in the medial geniculate nuclei of the auditory system. Once the ferrets matured, their
A) auditory cortex responded to visual stimuli.
B) auditory cortex was laid out retinotopically.
C) thalamus had totally degenerated.
D) both A and B
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

75) Knudsen and Brainard (1991) raised barn owls with vision-displacing prisms over their eyes. This led to the ontogenetic development of
A) a corresponding shift in the auditory topographic map in the tectum.
B) a discrepancy between where a stimulus was heard to be and where it was seen to be.
C) the degeneration of the tectum.
D) the degeneration of the visual tectum.
E) the degeneration of the auditory cortex.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

76) Several studies have shown that early music training increases the size of the

A) auditory cortex that responds to complex musical tones.
B) right hemisphere.
C) auditory cortex that responds to pure tones.
D) brain.
E) auditory cortex.

Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

77) It is now generally acknowledged that adult brains are

A) set in their own ways.
B) capable of major adaptation.
C) not as plastic as developing brains.
D) both B and C
E) none of the above

Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

78) The first evidence that new neurons can be created in the brains of adult animals came in the early 1980s from the study of

A) the hippocampus.
B) the olfactory bulbs.
C) songbirds.
D) hamsters.
E) the amygdala.

Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

79) In mammals, adult neurogenesis occurs in the

A) hippocampus.
B) olfactory bulb.
C) amygdala.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B

Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

80) Studies have shown that about __________ new neurons are created each hour in the hippocampus of adults?

A) 4
B) 8
C) 50
D) 100
E) 2,000

Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

81) Adult stem cells that migrate to the olfactory bulbs are created at certain sites in the

A) ventricles.
B) ependymal layer.
C) hippocampus.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B

Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

82) Adult stem cells that become hippocampal neurons are created near the

A) hippocampus.
B) olfactory bulbs.
C) ventricles.
D) ependymal layer.
E) central canal.

Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

83) The function of the neurons created in the adult hippocampus by neurogenesis is

A) to improve long-term memory.
B) to improve episodic memory.
C) to improve implicit memory.
D) to improve short-term memory.
E) currently unknown.

Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 233
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

84) Tinnitus
A) is ringing in the ears.
B) leads to degeneration restricted to the contralateral auditory cortex.
C) leads to a reorganization of primary auditory cortex.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 233
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

85) The area of somatosensory cortex receiving input from the left hand was found to be bigger in

A) African drummers.
B) tennis players.
C) piano players.
D) accordionists.
E) musicians who finger stringed instruments with the left hand.

Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 233
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

86) Autism usually becomes apparent

A) before the age of 6 months.
B) before the age of 3 years.
C) after the age of 5 years.
D) after the age of 7 years.
E) after the age of 10 years.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 234
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

87) A core symptom of autism is

A) reduced ability to detect emotions and intentions of others.
B) reduced capacity for social interaction and communication.
C) tremor at rest.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B

Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 234
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

88) Many children with autism display

A) epilepsy.
B) mental retardation.
C) empathetic talkativeness.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B

Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 234
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

89) A major feature of the symptoms of autism is their

A) serenity.
B) heterogeneity.
C) homogeneity.
D) consistency.
E) universality.

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 235
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

90) About how many individuals with autism are savants?

A) 1%
B) 10%
C) 50%
D) 70%
E) 90%

Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 235
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

91) Which of the following statements is true?
A) About 50% of savants are diagnosed with autism.
B) About 10% of autistic individuals are savants.
C) About 50% of autistic individuals are savants.
D) both A and B
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 235
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

92) Evidence suggests that autism
A) has no genetic basis.
B) is caused by a single dominant gene.
C) is caused by a single recessive gene.
D) is caused by two abnormal genes.
E) is caused by several genes and interactions with the environment.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 236
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

93) The brain damage associated with autism tends to

A) be widespread and variable.
B) involve the cerebellum in some cases.
C) involve the frontal cortex in some cases.
D) involve the amygdala in some cases.
E) all of the above

Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 236
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

94) Both autism and Williams syndrome are associated with

A) mental retardation.
B) talkativeness.
C) emotional insensitivity.
D) severe language problems.
E) empathy.

Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 236
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

95) Considering their mental retardation, people with Williams syndrome tend to have remarkably good

A) spatial ability.
B) language ability.
C) mathematical ability.
D) explicit memory.
E) drawing ability.

Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

96) Although they have many cognitive problems, Williams people have good

A) musical abilities.
B) drawing abilities.
C) language abilities.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C

Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 237
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

97) Most cases of Williams syndrome are associated with

A) a missing section on chromosome 7.
B) Hoxa 1.
C) an abnormal gene on chromosome 1.
D) multiple sclerosis.
E) Parkinsons disease.

Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 237
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

98) Despite general cortical thinning in cases of Williams syndrome, the thickness of the __________ cortex is often normal, or even greater than normal.

A) orbitofrontal
B) dorsolateral frontal
C) superior temporal
D) posterior parietal
E) both A and B

Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 238
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

99) People with Williams syndrome tend to look like

A) leprechauns.
B) their fathers more than their mothers.
C) Williams.
D) young children.
E) hippies.

Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 238
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS

1) When the lips of the neural __________ fuse, the result is the neural tube.
Answer: groove
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

2) Radial migration of developing neurons occurs along __________ cells.
Answer: radial glial
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

3) The cortex develops in six waves of radial migration. These waves occur in an __________ pattern.
Answer: inside-out.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

4) The __________ is situated just dorsal to the neural tube and develops into the PNS.
Answer: neural crest
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

5) Aggregation of neurons is thought to be mediated by __________ molecules.
Answer: cell-adhesion
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 223
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

6) Pioneer growth cones lead their followers by a process known as __________.
Answer: fasciculation
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

7) The first neurotrophin to be isolated was __________ factor.
Answer: nerve growth
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 227
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

8) If just one eye is deprived of light for several days early in life, the width of the associated ocular __________ in layer IV of primary visual cortex become narrower.
Answer: dominance columns
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 231
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

9) Experience has been shown to influence gene__________ , which may been the main mechanism by which experience influences brain development.
Answer: expression
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

10) The growth of new neurons in adults is called adult __________.
Answer: neurogenesis
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

11) Adult neurogenesis was convincingly documented in __________ before being described in mammals.
Answer: birds
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

12) In mammals, adult neurogenesis occurs in the __________ and hippocampi.
Answer: olfactory bulbs
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

13) Adult neural stem cells that eventually migrate to the olfactory bulbs are created at certain sites in the ependymal layer lining the cerebral __________.
Answer: ventricles
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 232
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

14) Enriched environments increase adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampus. This effect occurs largely, if not entirely, because rats living in enriched environments tend to get more __________.
Answer: exercise
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 233
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

15) __________, or ringing in the ears, causes a reorganization of primary auditory cortex.
Answer: Tinnitus
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 233
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

16) Approximately 80% of children with __________ are male; 50% suffer from mental retardation; and 35% suffer from seizures.
Answer: autism
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 234
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

17) Despite being intellectually handicapped, about 10% of autistic individuals display __________ abilities.
Answer: savant
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 235
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

18) Autism has been linked to abnormalities of the fusiform face area and __________ neurons.
Answer: mirror
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 236
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

19) In several respects, autism and ___________ are opposites, which is why it may prove useful to investigate them together.
Answer: Williams syndrome
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 236
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

20) The __________ and social skills of people with Williams syndrome are remarkable considering their poor intellectual development.
Answer: language (or verbal)
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

ESSAY AND OTHER MILTIPLE-MARK QUESTIONS

1) Discuss the developmental progression of totipotency, multipotency, and embryonic stem cells. Why are stem cells so interesting to medical researchers ?
Answer:
30% for defining totipotency, multipotency, and embryonic stem cells
50% for describing the increased specification of cells that occurs with embryonic development
20% for explaining the potential of stem cells in the treatment of neurological disorders
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

2) Describe Sperrys eye-rotation experiments and the important theoretical point that they made.
Answer:
70% for describing the experiments
30% for describing the chemoaffinity hypothesis
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 224-225
Topic: 9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

3) Discuss the increase in size of the human brain after birth and three kinds of growth that contribute to it.
Answer:
25% for describing the postnatal growth of the human brain
25% for describing postnatal synaptogenesis
25% for describing postnatal myelination
25% for describing postnatal dendritic branching
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 228-230
Topic: 9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

4) Discuss the effects of early experience on neurodevelopment, and describe two examples.
Answer:
60% for discussing the effects of experience on development including critically sensitive periods and the use-it-or-lose-it principle
40% for two examples of the effects of experience on neurodevelopment
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228-230
Topic: 9.3 Effects of Early Experience on Development

5) Describe and discuss the research on adult neurogenesis. Describe both early and current research.
Answer:
20% for explaining the concept of adult neurogenesis
40% for describing the research that led to the recognition of adult neurogenesis
40% for describing research that is contributing to our current understanding of adult neurogenesis
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232-233
Topic: 9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

6) Describe Williams syndrome and its genetic and neural correlates.
Answer:
50% for describing Williams syndrome
25% for discussing the relevance of chromosome 7 and elastin
25% for describing the associated pattern of cortical thinning
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 236-238
Topic: 9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment

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