Biopsychology 9th Edition by John P.J. Pinel test bank

<< Brock Biology of Microorganisms Michael T.- Madigan 13th Edition Test Bank Biology The Unity and Diversity of Life 13th Edition by Cecie Starr Ralph Taggart Christine Evers Test Bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Biopsychology 9th Edition by John P.J. Pinel test bank

Description

CHAPTER 11
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND AMNESIA: HOW YOUR BRAIN STORES INFORMATION

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

!) One of the major turning points in the study of the neuropsychology of memory was the year H.M. had his operation:
A) 1923.
B) 1934.
C) 1953.
D) 1983.
E) 1991.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 260
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

2) H.M. was
A) a famous neuropsychologist.
B) a person who had epilepsy.
C) an Egyptian.
D) a famous physiological psychologist.
E) a sad product of prefrontal lobotomy.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 260
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

3) The brain operation performed on H.M. was a
A) unilateral temporal lobectomy.
B) bilateral prefrontal lobotomy.
C) bilateral temporal lobotomy.
D) bilateral medial temporal lobectomy.
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 260
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Applied)

4) If you were going to illustrate the extent of H.M.s bilateral lesion, you could accomplish this best if you drew H.M.s brain from __________ perspective.
A) an inferior
B) a dorsal
C) a posterior
D) a lateral
E) a dorsolateral
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

5) H.M.s surgery was a success in that
A) the incidence of his seizures was markedly reduced.
B) his IQ was increased.
C) it became possible to reduce the level of his anticonvulsant medication.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Applied)

6) After his surgery, H.M.s IQ
A) dropped to 68.
B) dropped slightly.
C) dropped to 89.
D) stayed about the same.
E) increased.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

7) The shaded areas on this drawing of the inferior surface of the brain illustrate the position of the
A) hippocampuses.
B) amygdalas.
C) striatums.
D) medial parietal lobes.
E) medial temporal lobes.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

8) Following his surgery, H.M. seemed to experience
A) an extreme retrograde amnesia for remote events.
B) a complete disruption of short-term memory.
C) a mild retrograde amnesia for events of the 2 years preceding the surgery.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

9) H.M.s greatest postsurgical problem was his
A) anterograde amnesia.
B) retrograde amnesia.
C) deficit in short-term memory.
D) loss of remote memory.
E) drop in IQ.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

10) The most commonly employed test of short-term verbal memory is the
A) block-tapping test.
B) digit-span test.
C) digit-span +1 test.
D) WAIS.
E) paired-associate test.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

11) H.M.s postsurgical digit span was found to be
A) 109.
B) 125.
C) 112.
D) 114.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

12) H.M. showed no long-term retention on the
A) digit-span +1 test.
B) mirror-drawing test.
C) rotary-pursuit test.
D) incomplete pictures test.
E) Pavlovian conditioning test.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 261
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

13) On which of the following tests did H.M. display substantial long-term memory as indicated by improved performance?
A) Pavlovian conditioning test
B) block-tapping +1 test
C) mirror-drawing test
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 262
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

14) In a nutshell, H.M.s main problem seems to be that he
A) has no long-term memories.
B) can form no new long-term memories.
C) can form no new explicit long-term memories.
D) has a devastating retrograde amnesia for remote events.
E) can form no new implicit long-term memories.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 263
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

15) A major contribution of H.M.s case was the following: It
A) was the first to strongly implicate the medial temporal lobes in memory.
B) effectively challenged the view that memorial functions are diffusely and equivalently distributed throughout the brain.
C) provided support for the view that there are distinct modes of short-term and long-term storage.
D) provided evidence of memory without conscious awareness.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 263
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Conceptual)
Rationale: These ideas together changed the way that scientists thought about the brain mechanisms of memory.

16) Which of the following is a correct statement about medial temporal lobe amnesics? They often have
A) medial temporal lobe pathology.
B) no ability to form long-term semantic memories.
C) a profile of mnemonic deficits similar to that of H.M.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 263
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Applied)
Rationale: Many temporal lobe amnesics have normal semantic memories, thus B and D are wrong.

17) The tests commonly used to assess implicit memory in neuropsychological patients are
A) object recognition tests.
B) repetition priming tests.
C) digit span tests.
D) episodic tests.
E) delayed nonmatching-to-sample tests.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 263
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Applied)
Rationale: Other than B, only E measure implicit memory memory, but they are rarely used in neuropsychological testing.

18) Why do we have two memory systems explicit and implicit that are both capable of learning the same material? What advantage is there in having a second, conscious system? Recent evidence suggests that the answer is
A) ischemia resistance.
B) evolution.
C) greater flexibility.
D) direct motor control.
E) the advantage of bilateral systems.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 264
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Conceptual)
Rationale: Explicit memories because they are conscious, can be used in a variety of ways and contexts.

19) Explicit memories for the particular events or experiences of ones life are __________ memories.
A) semantic
B) procedural
C) episodic
D) remote
E) implicit
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 264
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

20) K.C., the man who cant time travel, experienced a severe deficit in __________ memory.
A) implicit
B) semantic
C) episodic
D) short-term
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 264
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

21) Cerebral ischemia is
A) a condition characterized by cancerous brain tumors.
B) a type of cerebral hemorrhage.
C) a shortage of blood to the brain.
D) an area of brain damage.
E) an area of brain damage caused by a toxin.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 265
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Applied)
Rationale: The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to damage from global cerebral ischemia.

22) The study of which of the following amnesic subjects seemed to provide particularly strong evidence of the involvement of the hippocampus in memory?
A) R.B.
B) N.A.
C) R.M.
D) J.P.
E) K.C.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 265
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

23) Which of the following patients suffered ischemia-produced hippocampal damage?
A) H.M.
B) R.B.
C) P.B.
D) K.C.
E) N.A.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 265
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

24) Which of the following amnesic patients suffered what appeared to be selective bilateral damage to the CA1 subfield of the hippocampal pyramidal-cell layer?
A) H.M.
B) P.B.
C) J.P.
D) R.B.
E) K.C.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 265
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

25) R.B.s amnesia was similar to
A) H.M.s. amnesia, but less severe.
B) H.M.s. amnesia, but more severe.
C) Korsakoffs amnesia.
D) Alzheimers amnesia.
E) other causes of cerebral ischemia.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 265
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

26) Korsakoffs syndrome is typically associated with
A) amnesia.
B) chronic alcohol consumption.
C) damage to the medial diencephalon.
D) confusion and personality changes.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 266
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Applied)
Rationale: All of these effects are listed in the text.

27) One major difference between the amnesia associated with advanced Korsakoffs syndrome and that associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe damage is that patients with advanced Korsakoffs syndrome have
A) a retrograde amnesia that can extend back into childhood.
B) a mild retrograde amnesia for recent events.
C) deficits in consolidation.
D) anterograde amnesia.
E) difficulty forming new explicit long-term memories.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 266
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Applied)
Rationale: All of the effects other than A are experienced by patients with medial temporal lobe amnesia.

28) It is difficult to differentiate between anterograde and retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff patients because
A) the damage associated with Korsakoffs syndrome is diffuse.
B) the damage associated with Korsakoffs syndrome is not diffuse.
C) Korsakoffs syndrome has a gradual onset.
D) the anterograde deficits are so much milder than the retrograde deficits.
E) the retrograde deficits are so much milder than the anterograde deficits.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 266
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Conceptual)
Rationale: Korsakoffs syndrome typically begins long before it is diagnosed, or even recognized by the patient. It is thus impossible to say which deficits precede or follow the onset.

29) Which of the following medial diencephalic structures are commonly damaged in Korsakoff patients?
A) thalamus
B) mediodorsal nuclei
C) mammillary bodies
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 266
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Applied)
Rationale: The text emphasizes that the damage is diffuse and not restricted to a single medial diencephalic structure although B is the most commonly damaged. Therefore D is correct.

30) The first theories of Korsakoffs amnesia attributed it to mammillary body damage, but later evidence suggested that damage to the __________ is more likely the major contributing factor.
A) frontal cortex
B) hippocampus
C) mediodorsal nuclei
D) temporal infarction
E) cribriform plate
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 266
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Factual)

31) The mediodorsal nuclei, which are often damaged in cases of Korsakoffs amnesia, are nuclei of the
A) thalamus.
B) hypothalamus.
C) hippocampus.
D) cerebellum.
E) mammillary bodies.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 266
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Factual)

32) The up-the-nose case of N.A. had a major impact on theories of amnesia because
A) he died soon after his accident, and this enabled his physician to perform a postmortem examination of his hippocampus.
B) a CT scan revealed the full extent of his lesion in the hippocampus.
C) the foil penetrated the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus.
D) by chance, his hippocampal lesion was bilaterally symmetrical.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Factual)
Rationale: This case was about the medial diencephalon, not the hippocampus.

33) With respect to the study of amnesia, R.B. is to the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus as
A) N.A. is to the medial dorsal nucleus of the hippocampus.
B) N.A. is to the medial diencephalon.
C) R.M. is to the medial diencephalon.
D) aspirations are to infarcts.
E) H.M. is to the medial diencephalon.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Factual)

34) An MRI of N.A.s brain later revealed
A) extensive medial diencephalic damage.
B) selective damage to the mammillary bodies.
C) selective damage to the mediodorsal nuclei.
D) total destruction of the thalamus.
E) deficits in forming new explicit memories.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Factual)

35) Damage to the brains of Alzheimers patients is often apparent in the
A) medial temporal lobe structures.
B) basal forebrain.
C) prefrontal cortex.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: (Applied)
Rationale: The text emphasizes that the brain damage in Alzheimers patients is extremely diffuse and lists A, B, and C as common areas of damage, thus D is correct.

36) Alzheimers amnesia is usually studied in
A) monkeys.
B) predementia Alzheimers patients.
C) advanced cases of Alzheimers disease.
D) neuropsychological patients with mediodorsal nucleus damage.
E) neuropsychological patients with medial temporal lobe damage.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: (Factual)

37) In addition to the memory deficits commonly observed in medial temporal lobe amnesics, predementia Alzheimers patients commonly experience deficits in
A) short-term memory.
B) implicit memory for verbal and perceptual material.
C) implicit memory for sensorimotor learning.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: (Factual)
Rationale: It is explained in the text that A and B are correct and C is not, Thus E is the correct answer.

38) In the brains of Alzheimers patients, the level of __________ is greatly reduced, resulting from degeneration of the basal forebrain.
A) epinephrine
B) norepinephrine
C) acetylcholine
D) dopamine
E) serotonin
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: (Factual)

39) The main source of the brains acetylcholine is the
A) frontal cortex.
B) hippocampus.
C) basal forebrain.
D) mammillary bodies.
E) substantia nigra.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: (Factual)

40) The reduction of cholinergic activity in the brains of predementia Alzheimers patients results from damage to the
A) basal forebrain.
B) frontal cortex.
C) mediodorsal nuclei.
D) rhinal cortex.
E) mammillary bodies.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: (Factual)

41) The identification of basal forebrain degeneration Alzheimers disease implicated
A) the hippocampus in memory.
B) cholinergic neurons in memory.
C) the amygdala in memory.
D) serotonin in memory.
E) dopamine in memory.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: (Factual)

42) In Alzheimers disease, the brain damage is
A) diffuse.
B) restricted to the basal ganglia.
C) restricted to the basal forebrain.
D) unilateral.
E) contralateral.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: (Factual)

43) Amnesia that is produced by a blow to the head that does not penetrate the skull is called __________ amnesia.
A) postconcussion
B) posttraumatic
C) retrograde
D) anterograde
E) postepisodic
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

44) Islands of memory following concussion are memories of
A) a few things from lists that have been otherwise forgotten.
B) events that occurred during periods of time for which there is otherwise total amnesia.
C) implicit events that occurred during a background of amnesia for explicit events.
D) vacations to Hawaii.
E) of early childhood.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

45) Illustrated here is the time course of events occurring before and after
A) concussion.
B) contusion.
C) consolidation.
D) islands of memory.
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

46) The retrograde amnesia associated with closed-head injury has been frequently studied in laboratory animals by
A) hitting them on the head with a little rubber hammer.
B) administering acetylcholine agonists.
C) administering electroconvulsive shock.
D) using multiple-trial learning tests that must be learned over several days.
E) both B and D
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

47) Electroconvulsive shock is commonly used in studies of memory because it
A) improves semantic memory.
B) has amnesic effects similar to those produce by concussion.
C) causes hippocampal damage.
D) is an effective form of therapy for anxiety.
E) produces no retrograde effects on memory.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

48) Currently, consolidation is thought to last
A) 10 seconds.
B) 2 minutes.
C) 10 minutes.
D) 2 days.
E) a very long time, if not indefinitely.
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

49) In an innovative series of experiments, Squire and his colleagues assessed the retrograde amnesia of patients following ECT. They assessed the patients memory for television shows that
A) had played for more than 5 years.
B) had played for more than 3 years.
C) were currently playing during the experiment.
D) had played for only one season.
E) were first shown in other countries.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

50) The long-term progressive increase in the resistance of memories to disruption by electroconvulsive shock was demonstrated in a classic study by Squire, Slater, and Chace (1975) in which the memory for __________ was assessed.
A) digits
B) faces
C) shocks
D) television shows that played for only one year
E) names
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

51) Research has consistently shown that memory consolidation usually takes about
A) 1 minute.
B) 10 minutes.
C) 1 hour.
D) 2 years.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

52) Because H.M.s surgery seemed to disrupt only those retrograde memories acquired shortly before his surgery, it was once widely believed that the hippocampus
A) stores most long-term memories.
B) stores all long-term memories.
C) temporarily stores memories before they are transferred to a more permanent storage site.
D) stores spatial memories.
E) temporarily consolidates short-term memories.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 269
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

53) According to the reconsolidation notion, long-term memories are temporarily susceptible to posttraumatic amnesia when they are
A) recalled.
B) transferred to the cortex.
C) transferred to the hippocampus.
D) transferred to LTP.
E) consolidated.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 269
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

54) A change in the brain that stores a memory is called
A) LTP.
B) an engram.
C) a memorial.
D) a stilton.
E) synaptic facilitation.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 269
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Factual)

55) In retrospect, the major reason for the initial difficulty in developing an animal model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia was that efforts focused on
A) implicit memory tests.
B) explicit memory tests.
C) the hippocampus.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 270
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

56) Which of the following has been used extensively in the assessment of explicit object-recognition deficits in monkeys?
A) radial arm maze
B) one-trial appetitive learning paradigm
C) nondelayed matching-to-sample task
D) delayed nonmatching-to-sample task
E) Mumby box
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 270
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

57) In one test commonly used to study medial-temporal-lobe amnesia in macaque monkeys,
A) the sample appears over the central food well during the test phase of each trial.
B) food is available under both objects during the test phase of each trial.
C) food is available under the nonsample object during the test phase of each trial.
D) no food is available during the sample-presentation phase of each trial.
E) no food is available during the test phase of each trial.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

58) At delays of a few minutes or less, healthy control monkeys score about __________ correct on the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task
A) 90%
B) 76%
C) 70%
D) 60%
E) 5%
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

59) Monkeys with large medial-temporal-lobe lesions displayed deficits on the __________ similar to those displayed by H.M.
A) digit-span +1 test
B) WAIS
C) incomplete-pictures test
D) delayed nonmatching-to-sample test
E) digit-span test
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

60) The human medial temporal lobe includes the
A) hippocampus.
B) amygdala.
C) medial temporal cortex.
D) CA1 subfield.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

61) Illustrated here is one phase of the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task. It is the
A) delay phase.
B) recall phase.
C) sample phase.
D) recognition phase.
E) choice phase.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

62) In early studies of medial-temporal-lobe amnesia in monkeys, the cortex underlying the hippocampus and amygdala was always damaged because the lesions were
A) electrolytic.
B) epileptic.
C) cryogenic
D) made by aspiration.
E) bilateral.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

63) Hippocampectomy in rats usually involves damage to a small area of overlying __________ so that the aspiration can be performed.
A) parietal cortex
B) frontal cortex
C) amygdala
D) medial temporal cortex
E) temporal cortex
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

64) Rats have one advantage over monkeys in the study of medial temporal lobe amnesia:
A) In rats, the hippocampus can readily be aspirated without substantial medial temporal cortex damage.
B) Rats live longer.
C) Rats learn object-recognition tasks more readily.
D) Rats have better episodic memories.
E) Rats have a subcortical hippocampus.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

65) The Mumby-box is an apparatus that has been frequently used to study
A) delayed matching-to-sample in monkeys.
B) delayed nonmatching-to-sample in rats.
C) delayed matching-to-sample in mice.
D) delayed nonmatching-to-sample in monkeys.
E) nondelayed matching-to-sample in rats.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

66) Rats can perform the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task
A) only at chance levels.
B) at levels that are only slightly above chance.
C) at levels that are not significantly above chance.
D) almost as well as monkeys at retention delays up to a minute or so.
E) as well as humans when food is involved.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

67) Bilateral lesions of the medial temporal cortex that do not damage the hippocampus or amygdala produce
A) slight object-recognition deficits in rats.
B) no object-recognition deficits in monkeys.
C) slight object-recognition deficits in monkeys.
D) major object recognition deficits in both rats and monkeys.
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 272
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

68) Here is an illustration of coronal section of a monkey brain cut through the hippocampus and amygdala. The shaded area indicates the position of the
A) hippocampus.
B) rhinal cortex portion of the medial temporal cortex.
C) amygdala.
D) parietal cortex.
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 272
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

69) Monkey and rat experiments on the effects of medial-temporal-lobe lesions on nonrecurring-items delayed nonmatching-to-sample suggest that __________ damage contributes substantially to the amnesic effects of bilateral medial-temporal lobectomy.
A) medial temporal cortex
B) hippocampus
C) amygdala
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 273
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

70) Mumby and his colleagues showed that object-recognition deficits that were caused in rats by cerebral ischemia could be prevented by the bilateral removal of the
A) hippocampus.
B) amygdala.
C) rhinal cortex.
D) cingulate.
E) reinforcement.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 273
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

71) Mumby and his colleagues showed that large hippocampal lesions blocked the object-recognition deficits caused in rats by cerebral ischemia when the lesions were
A) unilateral but not bilateral.
B) contralateral but not ipsilateral.
C) made 1 hour, but not 1 week, after the ischemia.
D) ipsilateral but not contralateral.
E) made 1 week, but not 1 hour, after ischemia.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 273
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

72) Strong evidence that the object-recognition deficits produced by cerebral ischemia do not result from hippocampal damage comes from
A) the case of R.B.
B) a demonstration that hippocampal lesions can prevent ischemia-produced object-recognition deficits.
C) demonstrations that the deficits are the result of CA1 damage.
D) the case of N.A.
E) demonstrations that ischemia can prevent the amnesic effects of hippocampal lesions.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 273
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

73) The hippocampus appears to play a special role in memory for
A) spatial location.
B) sounds.
C) names.
D) faces
E) odors.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 274
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Factual)

74) Hippocampal lesions in rats reliably disrupt the performance of tasks that involve memory for
A) Pavlovian conditioning.
B) time.
C) spatial location.
D) instrumental conditioning.
E) objects.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 274
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

75) Which of the following tasks is commonly used to study the spatial abilities of rats?
A) Morris water maze
B) radial-arm maze
C) Mumby box
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 274
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

76) The ability to refrain from visiting an arm of the radial arm maze more than once on a given test is a measure of __________ memory.
A) semantic
B) episodic
C) working
D) reference
E) spatial
Answer: C Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 274
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

77) Memory for general principles and skills required to perform a task is called __________ memory.
A) complex
B) reference
C) working
D) place
E) inclusive
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 275
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

78) Some hippocampal neurons become active only when the subject is
A) remembering.
B) forgetting.
C) in a particular place.
D) thinking.
E) eating.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 275
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

79) Hippocampal cells that become active only when the subject is in particular locations are called
A) location cells.
B) place cells.
C) complex cells.
D) simple cells.
E) spot cells.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 275
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

80) The location in a test environment in which a subject must be for a place cell to become active is called its
A) place field.
B) area of activity.
C) location field.
D) playing field.
E) area of sensitivity.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 276
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

81) When rats are not sure where they are, their place cells fire in accordance with where they
A) think they are.
B) want to be.
C) came from.
D) are going.
E) expect to be picked up.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 276
Topic: 11.6
Type: (Factual)

82) Grid cells, head direction cells, and border cells are located in the
A) entorhinal cortex.
B) amygdala.
C) frontal cortex.
D) place field.
E) Morris water maze.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 276
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

83) Food-caching species of birds tend to have __________ hippocampi than non-food-caching species.
A) fewer
B) smaller
C) more complex
D) larger
E) more
Answer: D Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 276
Topic: 11.6
Type: (Factual)

84) Although much evidence from various species suggests that hippocampal damage disrupts spatial memory, evidence from __________ has been inconsistent.
A) mice
B) primates
C) birds
D) rats
E) place cells
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 276
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

85) Neurons that respond only to specific individuals or objects have been discovered in the human brain. These have been termed
A) Halle Berry cells.
B) Jennifer Aniston cells.
C) Lisa Kudrow cells.
D) Yoda cells.
E) person cells.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 277
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

86) Jennifer Aniston cells are also called
A) concept cells.
B) Lisa Kudrow cells.
C) person cells.
D) hippocampal cells.
E) movie cells.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 277
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: (Factual)

87) The current consensus is that memories of experiences are likely stored
A) diffusely throughout the structures of the brain that participated in the original experience.
B) throughout the hippocampus.
C) in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus.
D) in the diencephalon.
E) in the rhinal cortex.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 278
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

88) Which structure is thought to store memories for visual images?
A) amygdala
B) inferotemporal cortex
C) striatum
D) prefrontal cortex
E) cerebellum
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 278
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

89) The amygdala is thought to play a role in
A) object recognition memory.
B) memory for time.
C) memory for the emotional significance of experiences.
D) space and working memory.
E) memory for language.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 278
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

90) Patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex often display __________ deficits on conventional tests of memory.
A) few
B) extreme
C) many
D) complex.
E) both B and C
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

91) Patients with prefrontal cortex damage often display deficits in
A) working memory.
B) memory for the temporal order of events.
C) reference memory.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

92) One patient with prefrontal damage could not cook a meal because she could not
A) remember the various steps involved in preparing a meal.
B) find her utensils.
C) carry out the various steps involved in preparing a meal in proper sequence.
D) read her cookbooks.
E) recognize Wilder Penfield.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

93) The amygdala appears to be involved in the __________ component of memory, whereas the cerebellum appears to be involved in the __________ component.
A) emotional; sensorimotor
B) visual; temporal
C) spatial; visual
D) sensory; emotional
E) procedural; implicit
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

94) The cerebellum is thought to store memories of
A) learned sensorimotor skills.
B) faces.
C) time.
D) objects.
E) spatial locations.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

95) The cerebellum has been found to play an important role in
A) eye blink conditioning.
B) face memory.
C) music memory.
D) aversive conditioning.
E) operant conditioning.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

96) The striatum is thought to store
A) memories for consistent relationships between stimuli and responses.
B) the type of memories that develop incrementally over many trials (habit formation).
C) memory for habits.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: (Factual)

97) Long-term potentiation has been most frequently studied in the
A) hippocampus.
B) amygdala.
C) substantia nigra.
D) neocortex.
E) cerebellum.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

98) In one common type of LTP experiment, the perforant path is stimulated and the response is recorded in the
A) neocortex.
B) cerebellum.
C) granule-cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus.
D) motor neuron.
E) nictitating-membrane circuit.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

99) Long-term potentiation
A) is usually induced by the intense stimulation of motor neurons.
B) cannot be induced by electrical stimulation.
C) has been most commonly studied in several different neural circuits in the hippocampus.
D) has not been studied in mammals.
E) is not associated with changes in synaptic transmission.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

100) Stimulation of the __________ elicits a response in the __________ layer of the hippocampal __________.
A) perforant path; granule-cell; dentate gyrus
B) dentate gyrus; perforant-path; pyramidal cells
C) dentate gyrus; granule-cell; pyramidal cells
D) pyramidal cells; dentate-gyrus; granule cells
E) perforant layer; pyramidal-cell; gyrus
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

101) Illustrated here is a neural circuit in which __________ is commonly studied.
A) maintenance
B) LTD
C) LTP
D) amnesia
E) forgetting
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

102) The main reason why LTP is one of the most widely studied neuroscientific phenomena is that it
A) involves a synaptic change similar to the synaptic change that has been hypothesized to be the basis of memory storage.
B) can easily be studied in human volunteers.
C) involves readily accessible neocortical circuits.
D) occurs in only mammals.
E) can be induced by a method called Hebbs postulate.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Conceptual)
Rationale: B, C, and D are not true; E is silly

103) LTP is one of the most widely studied models of the physiology of memory because it
A) can last for a long time.
B) does not depend on co-occurrence.
C) depends on co-occurrence.
D) both A and B
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Conceptual)

104) Co-occurrence has been shown to be critical for the induction of LTP. Co-occurrence refers to the requirement for simultaneous activity in
A) the hippocampus and dentate.
B) sensory neurons and motor neurons.
C) presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.
D) the CA1 and CA3.
E) pyramidal and granule cells.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

105) Which of the following is regarded as a critical factor in the induction of LTP?
A) the hippocampus
B) co-occurrence of activity in presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
C) the amygdala
D) reinforcement
E) expression
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

106) LTP is induced only when the high-intensity, high-frequency stimulation activates the
A) presynaptic neurons but not the postsynaptic neurons.
B) postsynaptic neurons but not the presynaptic neurons.
C) both presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.
D) hippocampus.
E) the hippocampus and the perforant path.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 280
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

107) Support for the hypothesis that long-term potentiation is the mechanism of memory came from the discovery that
A) LTP can be induced by levels of stimulation that mimic normal neural activity.
B) LTP effects are prominent in neural structures that have been implicated in memory.
C) behavioral conditioning can produce LTP-like effects.
D) the induction of maximal LTP in the hippocampus blocks learning of the Morris-water-maze task.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 281
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

108) The NMDA receptor is a type of __________ receptor.
A) serotonin
B) glutamate
C) dopamine
D) GABA
E) nitric oxide
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 281
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

109) Which is the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?
A) NMDA
B) GABA
C) glycine
D) epinephrine
E) glutamate
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 281
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

110) In searching for the neural bases of LTP, many researchers assume that separate mechanisms account for
A) maintenance and extinction.
B) maintenance, reinforcement, and forgetting.
C) expression and induction.
D) induction, maintenance, and expression.
E) learning, memory, and motivation.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 281
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Conceptual)
Rationale: D is the widely accepted trichotomy.

111) The induction of LTP at glutaminergic synapses appears to
A) be a postsynaptic phenomenon.
B) be a presynaptic phenomenon.
C) depend on an influx of calcium ions into the postsynaptic neuron.
D) both B and C
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 282
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Conceptual)

112) The specificity of LTP to particular synapses on the postsynaptic neuron is likely attributable to compartmentalizing effects of
A) serotonergic receptors.
B) glutamate.
C) dendritic spines.
D) axoaxonal synapses.
E) presynaptic inhibition.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 283
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Conceptual)
Rationale: This likelihood is described in the text, and none of the alternatives make any sense.

113) Evidence suggests that the induction of LTP is postsynaptic and the maintenance and expression involve presynaptic changes. This implies the existence of a retrograde messenger. Recent studies suggest that this messenger may be
A) glutamate.
B) dopamine.
C) serotonin.
D) nitric oxide.
E) NMDA.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 283
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

114) The NMDA receptor is thought to be involved in
A) all LTP phenomena.
B) postsynaptic inhibition.
C) habituation.
D) LTP at some synapses.
E) eye blink inhibition.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 284
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

115) Approximately what proportion of healthy people experience infantile amnesia?
A) 0%
B) 5%
C) 8%
D) 21%
E) 100%
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 284
Topic: 11.9 Conclusion
Type: (Factual)

116) Recent studies have demonstrated that infantile amnesia can occur for __________ memories without affecting __________ memories for the same information.
A) implicit; explicit
B) explicit; implicit
C) reference; working
D) working; reference
E) short-term; long-term
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 284
Topic: 11.9 Conclusion
Type: (Factual)

117) According to the text, the scientific evidence has not proven the effectiveness of
A) NMDA.
B) nitric oxide.
C) nootropics.
D) dendritic spines.
E) LTP.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 284
Topic: 11.9 Conclusion
Type: (Factual)

118) The aspect of R.M.s case that is most ironic is that
A) he is a sleep researcher who sleeps a lot.
B) during his amnesia, his circadian cycles were disturbed.
C) during his posttraumatic amnesia, when he recalled few of the details of his own life, he remembered the case of H.M.
D) he should not have been skiing after a head injury.
E) he never forgot how to ski during his amnesia..
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 285
Topic: 11.9 Conclusion
Type: (Factual)

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS

1) H.M.s operation was a bilateral __________ lobectomy.
Answer: medial temporal
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 260
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: Factual

2) H.M.s main problem is that he cannot form new __________ long-term memories.
Answer: explicit
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 263
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: Factual

3) Medial temporal lobe epileptics often have good explicit long-term memories for __________ information.
Answer: semantic
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 264
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: Factual

4) R.B. had obvious damage to the __________ subfield of the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus.
Answer: CA1
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 265
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: Factual

5) Damage to the __________ nuclei of the thalamus is currently thought to account for many of the memory problems experienced by patients with Korsakoffs syndrome.
Answer: mediodorsal
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 266
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: Factual

6) The major source of the brains acetylcholine is often degenerated in Alzheimers patients. This area is the __________.
Answer: basal forebrain
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 267
Topic: 11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimers Disease
Type: Factual

7) Posttraumatic amnesia for events that occur in the period after a concussive blow to the head is called __________ amnesia.
Answer: anterograde
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 268
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: Factual

8) According to one hypothesis, each time a memory is retrieved from long-term storage, it is temporarily susceptible to posttraumatic amnesia and then is strengthened again. This restrengthening process has been termed __________.
Answer: reconsolidation
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 269
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: Factual

9) The delayed nonmatching-to-sample test is a good measure of __________ long-term object-recognition memory in both rats and monkeys.
Answer: explicit
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: Factual

10) The human medial temporal lobe includes the hippocampus, the __________, and the medial temporal cortex.
Answer: amygdala
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 271
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: Factual

11) The rhinal cortex (perirhinal cortex + entorhinal cortex) is an area of medial ___________ cortex.
Answer: temporal
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 277
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: Factual

12) There is substantial evidence that the__________ plays a major role memory for spatial location.
Answer: hippocampus
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 276
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: Factual

13) The radial arm maze can be used to study both reference memory and __________ memory.
Answer: working
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 274
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: Factual

14) Many __________ cells are located in hippocampus, whereas many grid cells are located in the entorhinal cortex.
Answer: place
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 276
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: Factual

15) Neurons in the medial temporal lobes of humans respond only to particular people or objects. These neurons are called ____________ neurons.
Answer: Jennifer Aniston
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 277
Topic: 11.6 Neurons of the Medial Temporal Lobes
Type: Factual

16) The __________ is thought to play a role in the storage of the emotional significance of various experiences.
Answer: amygdala
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 278
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: Factual

17) The __________ is thought to play a role in working memory and memory for temporal order.
Answer: prefrontal cortex.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: Factual

18) The __________ is thought to store memories for consistent relationships between stimuli and responses.
Answer: striatum
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 279
Topic: 11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?
Type: Factual

19) The __________ glutamate receptor appears to play a critical role in LTP at some synapses in the brain.
Answer: NMDA
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 281
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: Factual

20) NMDA receptors respond to the __________ neurotransmitter.
Answer: glutamate
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 281
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: Factual

21) Approximately __________% of people experience infantile amnesia.
Answer: 100
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 284
Topic: 11.9 Conclusion
Type: Factual

ESSAY AND OTHER MULTIPLE-MARK QUESTIONS

1) Discuss medial temporal lobe amnesia, emphasizing the cases of H.M. and R.B. What have we learned from the study of this disorder?
Answer:
25% for discussing H. M.
25% for discussing R. B.
25% for a general discussion of medial temporal amnesia
25% for explaining what we have learned from the study of medial temporal lobe amnesia
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 269-275
Topic: 11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
Type: (Factual)

2) Discuss Korsakoffs syndrome and the amnesia associated with it. What areas of the brain have been linked to Korsakoffs syndrome, and what is the evidence for these links?
Answer:
30% for discussing Korsakoffs syndrome
40% for linking the mammillary bodies, mediodorsal nuclei, and the medial diencephalon to Korsakoffs amnesia
30% for describing relevant evidence
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 275-276
Topic: 11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoffs Syndrome
Type: (Factual)

3) Describe the major symptoms of posttraumatic amnesia and how these symptoms have provided support for the theory of consolidation. Describe studies that have been conducted to determine consolidation times and what they have accomplished.
Answer:
30% for a description of posttraumatic amnesia
20% for a description of consolidation and the evidence for it
30% for a description of studies of gradients of retrograde amnesia
20% for reaching a conclusion based on the discussion
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 276-278
Topic: 11.4 Amnesia After Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
Type: (Conceptual)

4) It is widely believed that damage to the hippocampus is the major factor in the difficulties that medial temporal lobe amnesics have in recognizing objects. Why? What does relevant research on monkeys and rats suggest?
Answer:
40% for describing the evidence linking the hippocampus to object recognition amnesia
40% for describing relevant experiments in rats and monkeys
20% for reaching a conclusion based on the evidence
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 280-286
Topic: 11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
Type: (Applied)

5) Summarize the evidence that the hippocampus is involved in memory for space. Describe three kinds of evidence, and reach a conclusion.
Answer:
30% for describing relevant lesion studies
30% for describing research on place cells
30% for describing comparative research
10% for reaching conclusions based on the evidence
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 284-287
Topic: 11.6 Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location
Type: (Conceptual)

6) What is LTP? Why is LTP so interesting to researchers? Describe a specific demonstration of LTP at a hippocampal site of your choice, and include a diagram.
Answer:
30% for defining LTP
30% for explaining why it is to interesting to researchers
30% for describing a specific demonstration of LTP
10% for a relevant diagram
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 290-294
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Factual)

7) Label this illustration of how LTP is typically studied. Then use this illustration, and any others that you may wish to supply, to describe and explain how LTP is typically produced and measured.

Answer:
40% for effective use of illustration or illustrations to answer the question
30% for describing how LTP is typically produced
30% for describing how LTP is typically measured
Diff: 3 Page Ref 291
Topic: 11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Type: (Applied)

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here