Brock Biology Of Microorganis 15 Th ed by. Madigan, Kelly S. Bender -Test Bank

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Brock Biology Of Microorganis 15 Th ed by. Madigan, Kelly S. Bender -Test Bank

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Brock Biology Of Microorganis 15 Th ed by. Madigan, Kelly S. Bender -Test Bank

Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 15e (Madigan et al.)

Chapter 2   Microbial Cell Structure and Function

 

2.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) An organism of the genus Staphylococcus is ________, while an organism of the genus Spirochaeta is ________.

  1. A) spherical / rod shaped
  2. B) rod shaped / coiled
  3. C) spherical / coiled
  4. D) coiled / spherical

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.1

 

2) Bacteria with type IV pili

  1. A) possess tubular or stalk-like extensions of their cells.
  2. B) likely exhibit twitching motility.
  3. C) have capsules that promote dehydration.
  4. D) live in aquatic environments.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

3) The terms run and tumble are generally associated with

  1. A) eukaryotic cells.
  2. B) nutrient transport.
  3. C) chemotaxis.
  4. D) clustering of certain rod-shaped bacteria.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.13

 

4) The morphology of a cell influences its

  1. A) motility.
  2. B) metabolism.
  3. C) surface-to-volume ratio.
  4. D) motility and surface-to-volume ratio.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.1

 

 

5) Compared to Eukaryotes, Bacteria and Archaea have ________ surface-to-volume ratios, causing ________ nutrient exchange.

  1. A) lower / lower
  2. B) lower / higher
  3. C) higher / lower
  4. D) higher / higher

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  2.2

6) The cytoplasmic membrane could best be described as

  1. A) an impermeable barrier.
  2. B) a passive conduit for intracellular transport.
  3. C) a highly selective permeability barrier.
  4. D) a rigid structure that protects the cell.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

7) The use of the Gram stain in microbiology is important because it differentiates

  1. A) Bacteria from
  2. B) prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells.
  3. C) bacterial cells with different types of cell walls.
  4. D) archaeal cells with different types of metabolism.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

8) Some archaea have unique phospholipids in their cytoplasmic membrane that

  1. A) form a monolayer due to the presence of diglycerol tetraethers.
  2. B) form a bilayer due to the presence of sterols.
  3. C) form a stable ring structure due to the presence of crenarchaeol.
  4. D) form a bilayer due to the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

9) Transport proteins located in the cytoplasmic membrane are necessary when

  1. A) diffusion will not allow adequate amounts of a substance to enter the cell.
  2. B) movement into the cell is against a concentration gradient.
  3. C) the level of nutrients in nature is very low.
  4. D) nutrient concentration is very low in the environment, is higher inside of the cell, or diffusion is not possible.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

10) Cells move polar molecules across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient using

  1. A) energy and transport proteins.
  2. B) simple diffusion.
  3. C) modifications to membrane lipids.
  4. D) random molecular movement.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

11) You have discovered a new microorganism and would like to classify it as a eukaryote or a prokaryote. To investigate this question you prepare a slide with a simple stain and view it with a light microscope with a 40X objective lens and 10X ocular lens. You also prepare a control slide using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a unicellular eukaryote). You can see the cells on your control slide, but you dont see cells when you look at your unknown microorganism. What can you conclude from this experiment?

  1. A) The experiment failed to visualize the organism because the stain killed it.
  2. B) Your new unknown microorganism is probably a virus.
  3. C) The cells of the new unknown microorganism may be too small to see with the objective and ocular lenses you used.
  4. D) The new unknown microorganism is probably an archaeon.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.2

 

12) Bacteria stain as gram-positive or gram-negative because of differences in the cell

  1. A) wall.
  2. B) cytoplasm.
  3. C) nucleus.
  4. D) chromosome.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

13) You are given an electron micrograph of a bacterial cell. In the micrograph you can clearly see three thin layers of different densities surrounding the cell. Based on the micrograph, you can infer that this cell is ________ and would appear ________ after application of the Gram stain procedure.

  1. A) gram-positive / purple
  2. B) gram-negative / pink
  3. C) gram-positive / pink
  4. D) gram-negative / purple

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

 

14) The cell wall of a Gram-positive bacterium is composed of a thick ________ layer.

  1. A) protein
  2. B) poly--hydroxybutryic acid (PHB)
  3. C) lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
  4. D) peptidoglycan

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

15) You have discovered a new coccoid-shaped microorganism with no nucleus, a rigid cell wall, and a diameter of 2 m. Chemical tests reveal that its cell wall does NOT contain peptidoglycan. The new microorganism is

  1. A) most likely a bacterium.
  2. B) most likely a eukaryote.
  3. C) most likely an archaeon.
  4. D) either a bacterium or an archaeon.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  2.6

 

16) The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer is found ONLY in the cell walls of

  1. A) gram-positive Bacteria.
  2. B) gram-negative Bacteria.
  3. C) Archaea.
  4. D) Eukarya.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.5

 

17) An endotoxin is

  1. A) the toxic portion of the LPS.
  2. B) a toxin produced within archaeal cells.
  3. C) a toxin known for its primary attack on the epidermis of mammals.
  4. D) a toxin produced in the periplasm of most bacteria.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.5

 

18) Hydrolytic enzymes function in the

  1. A) initial degradation of nutrients.
  2. B) transport of substrates within the cell.
  3. C) chemotactic response, particularly in gram-negative Bacteria.
  4. D) regeneration of the periplasm.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.5

 

19) Using phase contrast microscopy on a wet mount of live cells, you observe motile bacilli moving rapidly and randomly through the field of view, changing directions after a brief tumble and taking off in a different direction. These cells are exhibiting ________ motility.

  1. A) twitching
  2. B) swimming
  3. C) gliding
  4. D) twitching or gliding

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.11

20) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) A flagellar protein subunit is flagellin.
  2. B) In flagellar motion, the basal body acts as a motor.
  3. C) Flagellar rotation generates ATP.
  4. D) The hook is the wider region at the base of the flagellum.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

21) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) Fimbriae are generally longer and less numerous than flagella.
  2. B) Fimbriae are involved in genetic exchange between cells.
  3. C) Hami are common in Bacteria but not found in Archaea.
  4. D) Fimbriae are usually shorter than flagella whereas pili are involved in genetic exchange.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

22) Cellular inclusions in prokaryotic cells serve to

  1. A) store energy rich compounds.
  2. B) protect DNA.
  3. C) position cells in the appropriate environment for survival.
  4. D) store energy rich compounds and position cells in the appropriate environment for survival.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.8

 

23) A major function of prokaryotic gas vesicles is to

  1. A) confer buoyancy on cells by decreasing their density.
  2. B) serve as a reservoir for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  3. C) keep the cells organelles separated during flagellar motion.
  4. D) store oxygen for aerobic growth when oxygen becomes depleted in the environment.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.9

 

24) The membrane of a gas vesicle is composed of

  1. A) various phospholipids.
  2. B) proteins.
  3. C) carbohydrates.
  4. D) both glycoproteins and phospholipids.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.9

25) What is the biological function of endospores?

  1. A) They are bacterial reproductive structures.
  2. B) They enable organisms to endure extremes of temperature, drying, and nutrient depletion.
  3. C) They transport toxins.
  4. D) Endospores can serve as reproductive structures, enable survival in harsh environments, and transport toxins.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

26) The lipids in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacteria and ________ contain ester linkages, while the cytoplasmic membrane of ________ contain ether linkages.

  1. A) Archaea / Eukarya
  2. B) Archaea / fungi
  3. C) Eukarya / prokaryotes
  4. D) Eukarya / Archaea

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

27) Based on your knowledge of porins from the chapter, what is the best description of the specific type of porin called an aquaporin?

  1. A) water transport proteins
  2. B) molecules that prevent water from crossing a membrane
  3. C) enzymes involved in the generation of water within cells
  4. D) cations bound to water molecules

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.5

 

 

28) ________ are charged molecules that are partially responsible for the ________ charge of the gram-positive bacterial cell surface.

  1. A) Diaminopimelic acids / positive
  2. B) Teichoic acids / negative
  3. C) Phospholipids / negative
  4. D) Peptide interbridges / neutral

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

29) Although the inner leaflet of the gram-negative outer membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, the outer leaflet of the outer membrane contains

  1. A) pseudopeptidoglycans.
  2. B) lipoteichoic acids.
  3. C) poly--hydroxybutyric acids (PHB).
  4. D) lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.5

30) One of the many types of proteins found in the cytoplasmic membrane is involved in the chemotactic response and is called a

  1. A) hydrolytic enzyme.
  2. B) chemoreceptor.
  3. C) binding protein.
  4. D) porin.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.5

 

31) When does endospore formation commence?

  1. A) when bacterial growth ceases due to limitation of an essential nutrient
  2. B) when the bacterium is undergoing binary fission
  3. C) when bacteria are dividing exponentially
  4. D) following bacterial death

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

 

32) Which is/are a function(s) of the cytoplasmic membrane in prokaryotes?

  1. A) It functions as a permeability barrier.
  2. B) It is an anchor for many proteins involved in bioenergetic reactions and transport.
  3. C) It is a major site of energy conservation.
  4. D) It serves as a permeability barrier, a docking station for proteins involved in bioenergetics reactions and transport, and a site for energy conservation.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

33) All eukaryotes contain

  1. A) a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
  2. B) mitochondria.
  3. C) hydrogenosomes.
  4. D) a nucleus, mitochondria, and hydrogenosomes.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.14

 

34) Mitochondria and hydrogenosomes are similar in that they both

  1. A) are the site of energy production in eukaryotic cells.
  2. B) evolved via endosymbiosis of bacterial cells.
  3. C) are the site of aerobic respiration.
  4. D) evolved via endosymbiosis and are sites for aerobic respiration and energy production.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.15

35) Membrane-enclosed organelles, such as nuclei, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

  1. A) form specialized compartments within eukaryotic cells for specific functions to occur.
  2. B) increase the structural complexity of eukaryotic cells.
  3. C) help large eukaryotic cells overcome the limitations of diffusion imposed by their large cell size.
  4. D) increase structural complexity, help eukaryotes overcome diffusion limitation due to their size, and form specialized environments for specific functions to occur.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.14

 

 

36) The Golgi complex functions to

  1. A) modify and secrete proteins to the external environment.
  2. B) sort proteins used within the cell.
  3. C) both modify and sort proteins into those destined for secretion and those that function in membrane structures.
  4. D) synthesize proteins.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

37) The membrane-enclosed compartments that contain digestive enzymes in eukaryotic cells are called

  1. A) cristae.
  2. B) mitosomes.
  3. C) lysosomes.
  4. D) stromas.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

38) Where within a eukaryotic cell is ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesized?

  1. A) cytoplasm
  2. B) lysosome
  3. C) mitochondrion
  4. D) nucleolus

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.14

 

39) The energy source derived from the charge separation across the cytoplasmic membrane is referred to as

  1. A) the proton motive force.
  2. B) carbohydrate charging.
  3. C) adenosine triphosphate.
  4. D) the voltage source.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

40) Based on the table of attributes given below, which of the following statements are FALSE about the two organisms?

 

Characteristic                                   Bacterium A             Bacterium B

Endospore formation                         yes                             no

Capsule                                              no                              yes

Type IV pili                                        yes                             no

Flagella                                               no                              no

Morphology                                       bacillus                      bacillus

 

  1. A) Bacterium A is more resistant to heat and ultraviolet light.
  2. B) Bacterium B likely forms a slime layer better than Bacterium A.
  3. C) Bacterium B is likely to exhibit motility.
  4. D) Both bacteria may attach to surfaces.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

41) Small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) protect DNA from ultraviolet light and are found in high numbers within

  1. A) gram-positive Bacteria.
  2. B) endospores.
  3. C) inclusion bodies.
  4. D) gram-negative Bacteria.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

42) The peptide interbridge crosslinking between peptidoglycan layers is found ONLY in the cell walls of

  1. A) Archaea.
  2. B) Eukarya.
  3. C) gram-positive Bacteria.
  4. D) gram-negative Bacteria.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

43) Type IV pili are involved in

  1. A) attachment of cells to surfaces.
  2. B) twitching motility.
  3. C) pathogenesis.
  4. D) attachment to surfaces, twitching motility, and pathogenesis.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.7

44) Eukaryotes have ________ in their cytoplasmic membranes, which serve to strengthen and stabilize the membrane and make it less flexible. Many bacteria have similar molecules, known as ________, in their cytoplasmic membranes that have a similar role.

  1. A) ether bonds / ester bonds
  2. B) lipids / phospholipids
  3. C) sterols / hopanoids
  4. D) phospholipids / lipopolysaccharides

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

45) The rigid layer that is present in the cell walls of Bacteria that is primarily responsible for the strength of the wall is known as

  1. A) pseudomurein.
  2. B) S-layer.
  3. C) cellulose.
  4. D) peptidoglycan.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

46) Some of the intestinal symptoms elicited by pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia are due to the presence of

  1. A) pseudomurein.
  2. B) S-layers.
  3. C) lipopolysaccharides.
  4. D) peptidoglycan.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.5

 

47) Using bright-field microscopy to look at a slide prepared with a basic dye you observe cells with a clear inner compartment within the cell at 400X magnification. The cell is most likely a(n)

  1. A) prokaryote.
  2. B) bacterium.
  3. C) archaeon.
  4. D) eukaryote.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  2.14

 

 

48) While examining cellular material, you find that organelle DNA is present. What organelle(s) must be within the sample?

  1. A) lysosomes
  2. B) rough or smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  3. C) chloroplasts or mitochondria
  4. D) Golgi complex

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.15

49) Which of the following is evidence for the endosymbiotic theory?

  1. A) Mitochondria have circular DNA.
  2. B) The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
  3. C) Chloroplasts have thylakoids.
  4. D) The rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.15

 

50) Actin is found within ________.

  1. A) the prokaryotic cytoskeleton.
  2. B) eukaryotic microfilaments.
  3. C) eukaryotic microtubules.
  4. D) eukaryotic intermediate filaments.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

51) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) Eukaryotic flagella rotate in the same manner as prokaryotic flagella.
  2. B) Lysosomes synthesize proteins and carbohydrates.
  3. C) Cilia generally move with a slow, whiplike motion.
  4. D) The major function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is lipid synthesis.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

52) Archaeans have archaella that rotate like bacterial flagella though they

  1. A) have greater diameters than bacterial flagella.
  2. B) are longer than bacterial flagella.
  3. C) only rotate in one direction.
  4. D) consist of multiple protein types.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

 

53) You find endospores of a particular species. Which of the following is most likely TRUE of this species?

  1. A) It is an archaean.
  2. B) It is a gram positive bacterium.
  3. C) It is a gram negative bacterium.
  4. D) It is equally likely to be an archaean, a gram positive bacterium, or a gram negative bacterium.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  2.10

2.2   True/False Questions

 

1) In general, most cell inclusions function as energy reserves or as a reservoir of structural building blocks.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.8

 

2) Smaller prokaryotic cells generally grow faster than larger ones due to a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.2

 

3) In general, lipids in archaeal cytoplasmic membranes lack true fatty acids.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

4) Some membrane proteins are involved in bioenergetic reactions, while others are involved in membrane transport.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

5) Both hydrophilic and charged molecules readily diffuse through the cytoplasmic membrane.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

6) Teichoic acids are commonly found in gram-negative cell walls.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

 

7) Despite the invariance of the backbone of peptidoglycan, there are more than 100 different types of peptidoglycan.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

8) Lysozyme is an enzyme that can ultimately lyse and kill eukaryotic cells by breaking -1, 4-glycosidic bonds in peptidoglycan.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

9) Porins are channels in the outer membranes of gram-positive Bacteria.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

10) A bacterial cell is interpreted as gram-positive when it forms purple insoluble crystal violet-iodine complexes within the cell during the Gram stain.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

11) In general, swimming is performed with flagella, whereas gliding uses other cellular components such as pili.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

12) Chemotaxis is a sensory response affecting the rotational direction of the flagellar motor.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.13

 

13) Photoreceptors are analogous to chemoreceptors in that they are both proteinaceous sensors.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.13

 

14) Pathogenic bacteria that contain S-layers are protected against host defense mechanisms.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.6

 

 

15) Poly--hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) is a carbon- and energy-storing polymer.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.8

 

16) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes, which supports the endosymbiotic hypothesis.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.15

 

17) Macromolecules resulting from lysosomal digestion are used in cellular biosynthesis and energy generation.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

18) Viewing the shape of a bacterial or archaeal cell using a microscope gives a great deal of information about the metabolism and lifestyle of the organism.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.1

2.3   Essay Questions

 

1) Describe the makeup of the phospholipid bilayer. Include molecular orientation and proteins as well.

Answer:  The fatty acid components of the lipids in the cytoplasmic membrane are oriented toward each other, whereas the glycerol-phosphates point out toward the cytoplasm and external environment. Proteins can span the entire membrane (both layers) or be embedded in the phospholipids on either side of the membrane.

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

2) Compare and contrast the chemical composition and structure of the cytoplasmic membranes found in Bacteria and Archaea. What is the advantage of the archaeal membranes in relationship to the types of environments archaea may inhabit?

Answer:  Bacterial cytoplasmic membranes contain fatty acids with ester linkages that always form a phospholipid bilayer that is highly fluid. Archaeal cytoplasmic membranes contain glycerol ethers that are either diether or tetraethers. Glycerol diether molecules form a bilayer membrane and glycerol tetraether form a monolayer membrane. Both the ether linkages and the monolayer structure are more rigid than the bilayer ester-linked fatty acids and are more stable at high temperatures and pressures. Archaea tend to inhabit more extreme environments in terms of temperature, pressure, and salt, thus the more stable membrane components allow archaea to survive under these conditions.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.3

 

3) You are studying swimming motility in a pathogenic bacillus. You create mutations in random genes and then test which mutations effect swimming motility by looking at the mutant cells under the microscope. One of the mutant bacteria cannot swim anymore, but still rotates around in one spot when you watch them. Using electron microscopy you discover that some parts of the flagella are still present in the cell wall, but no long flagella are visible. Which gene do you think is mutated (i.e., missing) and which motility-related parts are still present in this mutant?

Answer:  The flagellar apparatus is put together in a particular order first the MS ring, anchoring proteins, and the hook extend off of the cytoplasmic membrane. Flagellin proteins then pass through the narrow filament channel and cap proteins finally are put onto the end when roughly 20,000 flagellin have been assembled. Flagellar growth thus occurs after the assembly of the basal body, rings, and hook. The basal body provides the rotation and uses the proton motive force to rotate the basal body. From the information given above, one can infer that the basal body and hook can still rotate, but the flagellin proteins are missing or defective so that no long flagella can form. This would explain why the cells might still rotate in place, but not be able to move forward rapidly.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

4) Describe the mechanisms by which certain prokaryotes glide. What are the ecological advantages of gliding motility?

Answer:  Mechanisms will vary depending on the organism described, some of which include the involvement of proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane, slime extrusion, and type IV pili. Examples of advantages could include biofilm formation on a surface, increased pathogenesis or movement towards a different habitat with new resources.

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  2.12

5) What is the function of an endospore and how is an endospore formed?

Answer:  The function of an endospore is to allow the cell to survive harsh conditions by going into a dormant state. An environmental trigger, such as nutrient depletion or dehydration triggers the formation of compounds such as SASP and dipicolinic acid to protect the DNA from damage and reduce the water content inside the endospore. These changes protect the DNA and other critical chemical components from heat, desiccation, and UV exposure. The function of an endospore is not for reproduction because every cell forms only one endospore. (The amount of detail expected in this answer should commensurate with the amount of detail discussed in class.)

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

 

6) You have discovered a new bacterial strain that causes urinary tract infections. Closely related bacterial species cannot cause infections. You compare the strains and find that your new strain has structures composed of protein external to its cell wall. What structures might your new strain have that the other strains do not? Why?

Answer:  Pili or fimbrae are the most likely structures that are found in the new pathogenic strain but missing in the nonpathogenic strains. Both pili and fimbrae aid in attachment of cells to surfaces and tissues. Attachment is important for pathogenesis. In addition, some pili are involved in twitching motility, which can help cells invade the body. (Other answers such as the capsule would only be partly correct, since the capsule is not made of protein. Flagella could also be an acceptable answer if they logically connect swimming motility to pathogenesis.)

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

7) Construct a chart to show at least five major differences between the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall of bacteria and archaea. What are the implications of these differences?

Answer:  Answers could include the following: the abundance or presence of amino acid stereoisomers, polysaccharides, pseudomurein and S-layers, action of lysozyme and penicillin, and type of glycosidic bonds.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.3, 2.4

 

8) Explain why prokaryotes tend to survive and adapt more rapidly to extreme and dynamic environmental conditions than eukaryotes.

Answer:  Answers will vary, but should reflect an understanding of how the higher surface-to-volume ratio influences the growth rate and total accumulation of mutations in prokaryotes. Another feature that increases mutation rate is the haploid nature of prokaryotes. Lastly, answers could mention that the rigid cell walls and various changes in the cytoplasmic membrane make it easier for prokaryotes to survive in unusual and extreme environments.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.2

9) Elaborate on why discovering endospores was important to microbiology.

Answer:  Endospores allow bacteria to survive boiling water, UV light, and extreme desiccation, as well as allowing them to be in a dormant state for very long periods of time. Two possible themes could be how the discovery of endospores changed sterilization procedures for food and surgical instruments, as well as a change in our view of how bacteria can survive, such as surviving in space and surviving 1,000s of years in a dormant state.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

10) Predict what would happen to a motile bacterium undergoing chemotaxis if the Mot proteins suddenly ceased to function.

Answer:  The function of Mot proteins should be described producing the rotation of the flagella.

This would probably allow flagella to form, but they would not be able to rotate. The bacterium would not be able to move, but the flagella would still look normal.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.13

 

11) Explain why a eukaryotic cell needs membrane-enclosed lysosomes and peroxisomes.

Answer:  The structures both contain high concentrations of enzymes that serve as a localized region to perform specific reactions. Enclosed membranes provide a barrier to maintain conditions within the lysosomes and peroxisomes that are unlike those in the cytoplasm, which is important because environmental conditions for these processes to be optimal are often different than the conditions in the cytoplasm.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

12) Explain why being small is advantageous for cells and how it affects growth rates.

Answer:  A smaller cell has a greater surface area to volume ratio than a larger cell. This means that smaller cells can more rapidly exchange materials with their surroundings because there is so much surface membrane relative to the internal volume. This increases growth rates, meaning that smaller cells generally grow faster than larger cells.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.2

 

13) Antibiotics such as penicillin interfere with the ability of bacteria to synthesize cell walls. Explain why cell walls are a good target for a useful antibiotic and whether you think that penicillin would be effective against a bacterial cell in an isotonic environment.

Answer:  Because human cells do not use peptidoglycan, an antibiotic that affects peptidoglycan can harm bacterial cells with less risk of damage to human cells even though all medications may have some adverse effects (such as causing an allergic reaction). In an isotonic environment, a bacterial cell can survive without a cell wall and therefore penicillin would be less effective than in a hypotonic environment.

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 15e (Madigan et al.)

Chapter 16   Diversity of Bacteria

 

16.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Which phylum harbors the most functional diversity observed and also has the most cultured representatives?

  1. A) Actinobacteria
  2. B) Bacteroidetes
  3. C) Firmicutes
  4. D) Proteobacteria

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

2) Isolating a bacterium of the ________ class would be of high impact due to it only having one cultured representative.

  1. A) Alphaproteobacteria
  2. B) Betaproteobacteria
  3. C) Epsilonproteobacteria
  4. D) Zetaproteobacteria

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

3) A pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacterium is LEAST likely to be classified as a member of

  1. A) Rhizobiales.
  2. B) Rhodobacter.
  3. C) Methylobacterium.
  4. D) Proteobacteria.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

4) Which genus would you most likely find in the photic layer of the oceans due to its abundance and aerobic chemoorganotrophic phenotype?

  1. A) Acetobacter
  2. B) Nitrosomonas
  3. C) Paracoccus
  4. D) Pelagibacter

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

5) Which of the following traits is NOT a characteristic of Caulobacter?

  1. A) abundant in aquatic habitats rich in nutrients
  2. B) produces a cytoplasmic outgrowth (prostheca)
  3. C) aerobic chemoorganotrophs
  4. D) asymmetric cell division

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

6) Treating wastewater requires the removal of organic material, and an ideal phenotype of a bacterium to do this would flocculate to make the cells settle (rather than staying in suspension) in a wastewater stream. Which species would be best for this application?

  1. A) Bartonella quintana
  2. B) Burkholderia cepacia
  3. C) Wolbachia pipientis
  4. D) Zoogloea ramigera

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

7) While not all members of ________ are pathogenic, two medically relevant species cause meningitis and gonorrhea in humans.

  1. A) Enterobacter
  2. B) Neisseria
  3. C)
  4. D) Staphylococcus

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

8) Chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidization is a metabolic requirement for members of

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C) Nitrosomonas and
  4. D) Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, and Nitropseudomonas.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

 

9) Biosynthesis of vitamin K (menaquinone) by ________ spp. inhabiting the ________ of humans is a potentially important mutualistic relationship for human health.

  1. A) Bifidobacterium / intestinal tract
  2. B) Bifidobacterium / stomach
  3. C) Escherichia / intestinal tract
  4. D) Escherichia / stomach

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.3

10) A gram-negative, obligately aerobic, bacillus-shaped bacterium that can degrade a large variety or aromatic compounds (making them potentially useful for bioremediation) is likely a(n)

  1. A) actinobacterium.
  2. B) enteric.
  3. C) pseudomonad.
  4. D) sphingomonad.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

11) Which characteristic is NOT associated with Vibrio spp.?

  1. A) aquatic
  2. B) gliding motility
  3. C) gram-negative
  4. D) pathogenic

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.4

 

12) A pseudomonad that loses its R plasmid in the soil is LEAST likely to

  1. A) cause an infection in a human.
  2. B) colonize a surface.
  3. C) infect a shrub.
  4. D) survive a habitat dominated by antibiotic-producing Streptomyces

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.4

 

13) Which of the following is NOT a member of the Deltaproteobacteria?

  1. A) Campylobacter
  2. B) Desulfovibrio
  3. C) Geobacter
  4. D) Syntrophobacter

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

14) Which of the following is NOT a trait of rickettsias?

  1. A) They are obligate intracellular parasites.
  2. B) They lack cell walls.
  3. C) They have not been cultivated in the absence of host cells.
  4. D) Both the host and parasite are required in order to be alive and metabolically active.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.1

15) Which of the following best distinguishes deltaproteobacteria from epsilonproteobacteria?

  1. A) Deltaproteobacteria are most commonly found at anoxic-oxic interfaces while epsilonbacteria are most commonly found in anoxic environements.
  2. B) Many epsilonbacteria oxidize sulfur compounds, which could be produced by a sulfur-reducing deltaproteobacterium.
  3. C) A sulfate-reducing epsilonbacterium produces sulfite, which a deltaproteobacterium reduces further to hydrogen sulfide.
  4. D) An epsilonbacterium reduces sulfur compounds whereas all deltaproteobacteria oxidize sulfur compounds.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

16) Which of the following organisms is most likely to form a relationship with Syntrophobacter wolinii?

  1. A) a bacterium that oxidizes acetate
  2. B) a bacterium that consumes sulfate
  3. C) a bacterium that consumes H2
  4. D) a bacterium that consumes pyruvate

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

17) Based on oxygen requirements and metabolic strategies, you would most likely isolate an epsilonproteobacterium from

  1. A) anoxic and sulfate-rich waters.
  2. B) a plants rhizosphere.
  3. C) sulfate-rich anoxic-oxic interfaces.
  4. D) sulfide-rich soils.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

 

18) Which of the following is NOT true of Epsilonproteobacteria?

  1. A) They include the genera Campylobacter and Helicobacter.
  2. B) Many species require relatively low O2 levels to grow.
  3. C) Epsilonproteobacteria are present in freshwater, marine systems, and terrestrial environments.
  4. D) Epsilonproteobacteria are prolific metal reducers.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

19) Which taxon is NOT gram-positive?

  1. A) Actinobacteria
  2. B) Firmicutes
  3. C) Sphingobacteria
  4. D) Streptococcus

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.6

20) Which feature(s) differentiate(s) Actinobacteria from Firmicutes?

  1. A) absence/presence of a cell wall
  2. B) endospore production capability
  3. C) motility and chemotaxis abilities
  4. D) relative G+C content in their genomes

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

21) The order Lactobacillales within Firmicutes are also called the lactic acid bacteria, because these bacteria

  1. A) can aerobically catabolize lactic acid.
  2. B) can ferment lactate.
  3. C) produce lactate.
  4. D) uniquely require lactic acid as a precursor for cell wall biosynthesis.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

 

22) What would most likely result if an exponentially growing culture of Lactobacillus spp. fermenting glucose was accidentally transferred into a highly aerated environment?

  1. A) Aerobic catabolism of glucose would begin rather than aerobic degradation, due to the presence of O2.
  2. B) Fermentation of glucose would continue, because the cells are insensitive to O2 despite lacking aerobic metabolism capabilities.
  3. C) The cells would halt their metabolism due to the presence of N2, which acts as a global repressor of fermentation in this group.
  4. D) The population would die due to the presence of O2, because it is a strict anaerobe.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

23) Which bacterial genus would be best to select for fermenting cabbage to make homemade sauerkraut?

  1. A) Clostridium
  2. B) Lactobacillus
  3. C) Propionibacterium
  4. D) Staphylococcus

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

24) Which phenotypic assay could be used to determine whether a new Streptococcus spp. is of the pyogenes or viridans group?

  1. A) catalase assay with H2O2
  2. B) hemolytic type after growth on a blood agar plate
  3. C) occurrence of cells being in clusters or as individual cells under a microscope
  4. D) product(s) formed during lactose fermentation

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.6

25) Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause all of the following diseases EXCEPT

  1. A) acne.
  2. B) arthritis.
  3. C) boils.
  4. D) dental caries.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

 

26) Which species does NOT produce endospores?

  1. A) Bacillus cereus
  2. B) Clostridium pasteurianum
  3. C) Listeria monocytogenes
  4. D) Paenibacillus popilliae

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.7

 

27) A gram-negative, nonsporulating rod that is highly motile, oxidase negative, facultatively aerobic, ferments glucose, and urease-positive is likely to be of which genus?

  1. A) Pseudomonas
  2. B) Proteus
  3. C) Lactobacillus
  4. D) Rickettsia

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.3

 

28) A yogurt, which had contains live cultures on its label, was transferred onto an acidic carbohydrate-containing medium for selective enrichment. Eventually, isolates of the ________ genus were obtained.

  1. A) Lactobacillus
  2. B) Leuconostoc
  3. C) Peptococcus
  4. D) Streptococcus

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

29) A moistened swab rubbed onto a persons forearm then onto a nutrient agar plate with 7.5% NaCl would most likely result in the isolation of ________ spp.

  1. A) Clostridium
  2. B) Halobacterium
  3. C) Sarcina
  4. D) Staphylococcus

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

30) Which genus is most easily distinguishable from others below by occurring in cell clusters of 8 or more?

  1. A) Peptostreptococcus
  2. B) Sarcina
  3. C) Staphylococcus
  4. D) Streptococcus

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.7

 

31) The ability to form endospores in bacteria within Bacillales, Clostridiales, and Lactobacillales suggests the genotype/phenotype evolved

  1. A) at least three separate times in these divergent orders.
  2. B) at least once, and horizontal gene transfer among relatives explains its presence in other orders.
  3. C) only once in an ancestor to these three orders, due to the high number of genes required.
  4. D) either at least once and horizontal gene transfer among relatives occurred or once in a common ancestor.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  16.8

 

32) Which organisms would most likely be isolated from aerobic growth conditions with acetate and a soil sample heated to 80C for 10 minutes?

  1. A) aerobic or facultative anaerobic acetogens
  2. B) endospore-forming bacteria
  3. C) hyperthermophilic heterotrophic bacteria
  4. D) mycoplasmas

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.8

 

33) Which of the following is LEAST commonly associated with endospore-forming bacteria?

  1. A) They are coccus-shaped organisms.
  2. B) They are primarily soil dwellers.
  3. C) They can survive adverse environmental conditions.
  4. D) They are saprophytic.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.8

 

 

34) Which bacillus-shaped genus are primarily intracellular parasites of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects?

  1. A) Coxiella
  2. B) Klebsiella
  3. C) Roseospirillum
  4. D) Wolbachia

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.1

35) Campylobacter and Helicobacter are two genera within the ________ class of Proteobacteria.

  1. A) Alphaproteobacteria
  2. B) Betaproteobacteria
  3. C) Deltaproteobacteria
  4. D) Epsilonproteobacteria

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

36) Which group in Bacteria lacks cell walls?

  1. A) Corynebacterium
  2. B) Mycoplasma
  3. C) Sporosarcina
  4. D) Tenericutes

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.9

 

37) Mycoplasmas lack cell walls, thus

  1. A) they have a larger cytoplasmic volume.
  2. B) frequently exist as obligate symbionts.
  3. C) they have a higher sensitivity to osmotic lysis.
  4. D) they are unable to survive conditions under which protoplasts lyse.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.9

 

38) The need for additional supplementation of ________ make developing growth media to culture mycoplasmas especially challenging.

  1. A) unsaturated fatty acids
  2. B) sterols
  3. C) vitamins
  4. D) unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and vitamins

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.9

 

39) Snapping division is a hallmark trait of ________ which can be visualized under a microscope by ________.

  1. A) Actinobacteria / two adjacent cells linked, appearing as an M dividing into four
  2. B) Actinobacteria / one cell appearing as a V dividing into two
  3. C) Coryneform bacteria / two adjacent cells linked, appearing as an M dividing into four
  4. D) Coryneform bacteria / one cell appearing as a V dividing into two

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.10

40) Due to the presence of mycolic acids in the cell wall of Mycobacterium spp., the ________ staining procedure can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify this genus.

  1. A) acid-fast
  2. B) DAPI
  3. C) Gram
  4. D) lipo

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.11

 

41) Which bacterial genus is LEAST related to the others listed?

  1. A) Actinomyces
  2. B) Mycobacterium
  3. C) Nocardia
  4. D) Streptomyces

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.12

 

42) A soil sample was diluted into a nutrient broth, then spread onto a plate and grown for one week at room temperature. Several colonies appeared dusty or fuzzy and yet were identified as bacterianot as fungi. Which genus do these isolates likely belong in?

  1. A) Actinomyces
  2. B) Mycobacterium
  3. C) Nocardia
  4. D) Streptomyces

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  5-6: Evaluating/Creating

Chapter Section:  16.12

 

 

43) The ________ produce over 500 characterized antibiotics.

  1. A) Bacteroidetes
  2. B) mycobacteria
  3. C) pseudomonads
  4. D) streptomycetes

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.12

 

44) Members of the ________ are the most abundant bacteria present in the large intestine of humans and contain unusual ________ in their cell membranes.

  1. A) Bacteroides / glycerolipids
  2. B) Bacteroides / sphingolipids
  3. C) Sphingobium / glycerolipids
  4. D) Sphingobium / sphingolipids

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.13

45) Members of the ________ are particularly abundant in the oceans, chemoorganotrophic, rarely pathogenic, and often produce pigments when grown on complex media.

  1. A) Clostridiales
  2. B) Flavobacteriales
  3. C) Pelagibacterales
  4. D) Rhizobiales

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

46) Bacteria in the phylum ________ occur as elementary or reticulate bodies depending on their life cycle stage, are obligate intracellular parasites, and also have relatively small genomes.

  1. A) Bacteroidetes
  2. B) Chlamydiae
  3. C) Planctomycetes
  4. D) Rickettsia

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.15

 

47) Which of the following is NOT a trait of the Planctomycetes?

  1. A) undergo budding cell division
  2. B) have intracellular compartmentalization
  3. C) lack peptidoglycan
  4. D) undergo plant symbiosis

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.16

 

48) Which structural feature is common in BOTH Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia but RARELY found in bacteria outside these two phyla?

  1. A) intracellular compartmentalization
  2. B) prosthecae appendages
  3. C) sheathlike toga cell envelopes
  4. D) tubulins

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.16, 16.17

 

49) Despite ether-linked lipids being a hallmark of the Archaea, the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in ________ also contain ether-linked lipids, which suggests they may be more closely related to Archaea than many other groups in Bacteria.

  1. A) Aquifex
  2. B) Thermodesulfobacterium
  3. C) Thermus
  4. D) Verrucomicrobium

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.18

16.2   True/False Questions

 

1) The most metabolically diverse phylum of Bacteria known to date is the Proteobacteria.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

2) Agrobacterium tumefaciens can form root nodules in plants and can mate with bacteria, which makes it an excellent host organism for genetic transformations among different domains of life.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

3) Rhodobacter and Roseobacter are two genera with a common ancestor in Alphaproteobacteria.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

4) The enteric bacteria are a group classified within Proteobacteria that cause disease in animals.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

Chapter Section:  16.3

 

 

5) Due to the genetic similarities of non-pathogenic and pathogenic enterics, phenotypic assays are often performed in favor over taxonomy-based sequencing/probing to distinguish pathogens from non-pathogens.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

Chapter Section:  16.3

 

6) Betaproteobacteria is a functionally

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