Brock Biology Of Microorganisms 14th Edition By Michael T. Madigan -Test Bank

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Brock Biology Of Microorganisms 14th Edition By Michael T. Madigan -Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Brock Biology Of Microorganisms 14th Edition By Michael T. Madigan -Test Bank

Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 14e (Madigan et al.)

Chapter 2  Microbial Cell Structure and Function

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) An organism of the genus Staphylococcus is ________, while an organism of the genus Spirochaeta is ________.

  1. A) spherical / rod shaped
  2. B) rod shaped / coiled
  3. C) spherical / coiled
  4. D) coiled / spherical

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.5

 

2) Bacteria with type IV pili

  1. A) possess tubular or stalk-like extensions of their cells.
  2. B) likely exhibit twitching motility.
  3. C) have capsules that promote dehydration.
  4. D) live in aquatic environments.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.13

 

3) The terms run and tumble are generally associated with

  1. A) eukaryotic cells.
  2. B) nutrient transport.
  3. C) chemotaxis.
  4. D) clustering of certain rod-shaped bacteria.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.17

 

4) The morphology of a cell influences its

  1. A) motility.
  2. B) metabolism.
  3. C) surface-to-volume ratio.
  4. D) motility and surface-to-volume ratio.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.5

 

 

5) Compared to Eukaryotes, Bacteria and Archaea have ________ surface-to-volume ratios, causing ________ nutrient exchange and growth rates.

  1. A) lower / lower
  2. B) lower / higher
  3. C) higher / lower
  4. D) higher / higher

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Chapter Section:  2.6

6) The cytoplasmic membrane could best be described as

  1. A) an impermeable barrier.
  2. B) a passive conduit for intracellular transport.
  3. C) a highly selective permeability barrier.
  4. D) a rigid structure that protects the cell.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.9

 

7) The use of the Gram stain in microbiology is important because it differentiates

  1. A) Bacteria from
  2. B) prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells.
  3. C) bacterial cells with different types of cell walls.
  4. D) archaeal cells with different types of metabolism.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

8) Some archaea have unique phospholipids in their cytoplasmic membrane that

  1. A) form a monolayer due to the presence of diglycerol tetraethers.
  2. B) form a bilayer due to the presence of sterols.
  3. C) form a stable ring structure due to the presence of crenarchaeol.
  4. D) form a bilayer due to the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

9) Carrier-mediated transport is necessary when

  1. A) diffusion will not allow adequate amounts of a substance to enter the cell.
  2. B) movement into the cell is against a concentration gradient.
  3. C) the level of nutrients in nature is very low.
  4. D) nutrient concentration is very low in the environment, is higher inside of the cell, or diffusion is not possible.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.6

 

10) Nutrient transport requires energy because the nutrients must be transported into the cell against a concentration gradient. The energy required for nutrient transport is supplied by

  1. A) ATP.
  2. B) the proton motive force.
  3. C) phosphoenol pyruvate.
  4. D) ATP, the proton motive force, or phosphoenol pyruvate.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.9

11) You have discovered a new microorganism, but you want to know if it is a eukaryote or a prokaryote. To investigate this question you prepare a slide with a simple stain and view it with a light microscope with a 40X objective lens and 10X ocular lens. You also prepare a control slide using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a unicellular eukaryote). You can see the cells on your control slide, but you dont see cells when you look at your unknown microorganism. What can you conclude from this experiment?

  1. A) The experiment failed to visualize the organism because the stain killed it.
  2. B) Your new unknown microorganism is probably a virus.
  3. C) The cells of the new unknown microorganism may be too small to see with the objective and ocular lenses you used.
  4. D) The new unknown microorganism is probably an archaeon.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

12) Bacteria stain as gram-positive or gram-negative because of differences in the cell

  1. A) wall.
  2. B) cytoplasm.
  3. C) nucleus.
  4. D) chromosome.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

13) You are given an electron micrograph of a bacterial cell. In the micrograph you can clearly see three thin layers of different densities surrounding the cell. Based on the micrograph, you can infer that this cell is ________ and would appear ________ after application of the Gram stain procedure.

  1. A) gram-positive / purple
  2. B) gram-negative / pink
  3. C) gram-positive / pink
  4. D) gram-negative / purple

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

 

14) In gram-positive Bacteria, the cell walls are composed mainly of thick ________ layers.

  1. A) protein
  2. B) poly--hydroxybutryic acid (PHB)
  3. C) lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
  4. D) peptidoglycan

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.10

15) You have discovered a new coccoid-shaped microorganism with no nucleus, a rigid cell wall, and a diameter of 2 m. Chemical tests reveal that its cell wall does NOT contain peptidoglycan. The new microorganism is

  1. A) most likely a bacterium.
  2. B) most likely a eukaryote.
  3. C) most likely an archaeon.
  4. D) either a bacterium or an archaeon.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

16) The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer is found ONLY in the cell walls of

  1. A) gram-positive Bacteria.
  2. B) gram-negative Bacteria.
  3. C) Archaea.
  4. D) Eukarya.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

17) An endotoxin is

  1. A) the toxic portion of the LPS.
  2. B) a toxin produced within archaeal cells.
  3. C) a toxin known for its primary attack on the epidermis of mammals.
  4. D) a toxin produced in the periplasm of most bacteria.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

18) Hydrolytic enzymes function in the

  1. A) initial degradation of nutrients.
  2. B) transport of substrates within the cell.
  3. C) chemotactic response, particularly in gram-negative Bacteria.
  4. D) regeneration of the periplasm.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.9

 

19) Using phase contrast microscopy on a wet mount of live cells, you observe motile bacilli moving rapidly and randomly through the field of view, changing directions after a brief tumble and taking off in a different direction. These cells are exhibiting ________ motility.

  1. A) twitching
  2. B) swimming
  3. C) gliding
  4. D) twitching or gliding

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.18

20) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) A flagellar protein subunit is flagellin.
  2. B) In flagellar motion, the basal body acts as a motor.
  3. C) Flagellar rotation generates ATP.
  4. D) The hook is the wider region at the base of the flagellum.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.17

 

21) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) Fimbriae are generally shorter and more numerous than flagella.
  2. B) Fimbriae enable cells to stick to surfaces.
  3. C) Pili serve as receptors and facilitate genetic exchange between prokaryotic cells.
  4. D) Fibriae are usually shorter than flagella and enable cells to adhere to surfaces, whereas pili are involved in genetic exchange.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.13

 

22) Cellular inclusions in prokaryotic cells serve to

  1. A) store energy rich compounds.
  2. B) protect DNA.
  3. C) position cells in the appropriate environment for survival.
  4. D) store energy rich compounds and position cells in the appropriate environment for survival.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.14

 

23) A major function of prokaryotic gas vesicles is to

  1. A) confer buoyancy on cells by decreasing their density.
  2. B) serve as a reservoir for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  3. C) keep the cells organelles separated during flagellar motion.
  4. D) store oxygen for aerobic growth when oxygen becomes depleted in the environment.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.15

 

24) The membrane of a gas vesicle is composed of

  1. A) various phospholipids.
  2. B) proteins.
  3. C) carbohydrates.
  4. D) both glycoproteins and phospholipids.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.15

25) What is the biological function of endospores?

  1. A) They are bacterial reproductive structures.
  2. B) They enable organisms to endure extremes of temperature, drying, and nutrient depletion.
  3. C) They transport toxins.
  4. D) Endospores can serve as reproductive structures, enable survival in harsh environments, and transport toxins.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

26) The lipids in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacteria and ________ contain ester linkages, while the cytoplasmic membrane of ________ contain ether linkages.

  1. A) Archaea / Eukarya
  2. B) Archaea / fungi
  3. C) Eukarya / prokaryotes
  4. D) Eukarya / Archaea

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

27) Aquaporins are

  1. A) water transport proteins.
  2. B) molecules that prevent water from crossing a membrane.
  3. C) enzymes involved in the generation of water within cells.
  4. D) cations bound to water molecules.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.8

 

 

28) Electron microscopy has greater ________ than light microscopy, because the wavelengths of visible light are much larger than the wavelengths of electrons.

  1. A) contrast
  2. B) magnification
  3. C) resolution
  4. D) penetration

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

29) The prokaryotic transport system that involves a substrate-binding protein, a membrane-integrated transporter, and an ATP-hydrolyzing protein is

  1. A) the ABC transport system.
  2. B) group translocation.
  3. C) symport.
  4. D) simple transport.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.9

30) ________ are charged molecules that are partially responsible for the ________ charge of the gram-positive bacterial cell surface.

  1. A) Diaminopimelic acids / positive
  2. B) Teichoic acids / negative
  3. C) Phospholipids / negative
  4. D) Peptide interbridges / neutral

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

31) Although the inner leaflet of the gram-negative outer membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, the outer leaflet of the outer membrane contains

  1. A) pseudopeptidoglycans.
  2. B) lipoteichoic acids.
  3. C) poly--hydroxybutyric acids (PHB).
  4. D) lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

 

32) One of the many types of proteins found in the cytoplasmic membrane is involved in the chemotactic response and is called a

  1. A) hydrolytic enzyme.
  2. B) chemoreceptor.
  3. C) binding protein.
  4. D) porin.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.19

 

33) When does endospore formation commence?

  1. A) when bacterial growth ceases due to limitation of an essential nutrient
  2. B) when the bacterium is undergoing binary fission
  3. C) when bacteria are dividing exponentially
  4. D) following bacterial death

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

34) Which is/are a function(s) of the cytoplasmic membrane in prokaryotes?

  1. A) It functions as a permeability barrier.
  2. B) It is an anchor for many proteins involved in bioenergetic reactions and transport.
  3. C) It is a major site of energy conservation.
  4. D) It serves as a permeability barrier, a docking station for proteins involved in bioenergetics reactions and transport, and a site for energy conservation.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.8

35) All eukaryotes contain

  1. A) a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
  2. B) mitochondria.
  3. C) hydrogenosomes.
  4. D) a nucleus, mitochondria, and hydrogenosomes.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.21

 

36) Mitochondria and hydrogenosomes are similar in that they both

  1. A) are the site of energy production in eukaryotic cells.
  2. B) evolved via endosymbiosis of bacterial cells.
  3. C) are the site of aerobic respiration.
  4. D) evolved via endosymbiosis and are sites for aerobic respiration and energy production.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.21

 

37) Membrane-enclosed organelles, such as nuclei, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chloroplasts,

  1. A) form specialized compartments within eukaryotic cells for specific functions to occur.
  2. B) increase the structural complexity of eukaryotic cells.
  3. C) help large eukaryotic cells overcome the limitations of diffusion imposed by their large cell size.
  4. D) increase structural complexity, help eukaryotes overcome diffusion limitation due to their size, and form specialized environments for specific functions to occur.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Chapter Section:  2.21

 

38) The Golgi complex functions to

  1. A) modify and secrete proteins to the external environment.
  2. B) sort proteins used within the cell.
  3. C) both modify and sort proteins into those destined for secretion and those that function in membrane structures.
  4. D) synthesize proteins.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.22

 

39) The membrane-enclosed compartments that contain digestive enzymes in eukaryotic cells are called

  1. A) cristae.
  2. B) mitosomes.
  3. C) lysosomes.
  4. D) stromas.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.22

40) Where within a eukaryotic cell is ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesized?

  1. A) cytoplasm
  2. B) lysosome
  3. C) mitochondrion
  4. D) nucleolus

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.20

 

 

41) The energy source derived from the charge separation across the cytoplasmic membrane is referred to as

  1. A) the proton motive force.
  2. B) carbohydrate charging.
  3. C) adenosine triphosphate.
  4. D) the voltage source.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

42) Based on the table of attributes given below, which of the following statements are FALSE about the two organisms?

 

Characteristic                  Bacterium A            Bacterium B

Endospore formation                yes                             no

Capsule                                      no                              yes

Type IV pili                               yes                             no

Flagella                                      no                              no

Morphology                           bacillus                      bacillus

 

  1. A) Bacterium A is more resistant to heat and ultraviolet light.
  2. B) Bacterium B likely forms a slime layer better than Bacterium A.
  3. C) Bacterium B is likely to exhibit motility.
  4. D) Both bacteria may attach to surfaces.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Chapter Section:  2.18

 

43) Small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) protect DNA from ultraviolet light and are found in high numbers within

  1. A) gram-positive Bacteria.
  2. B) endospores.
  3. C) inclusion bodies.
  4. D) gram-negative Bacteria.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.16

44) The peptide interbridge crosslinking between peptidoglycan layers is found ONLY in the cell walls of

  1. A) Archaea.
  2. B) Eukarya.
  3. C) gram-positive Bacteria.
  4. D) gram-negative Bacteria.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

45) Type IV pili are involved in

  1. A) attachment of cells to surfaces.
  2. B) twitching motility.
  3. C) pathogenesis.
  4. D) attachment to surfaces, twitching motility, and pathogenesis.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.18

 

46) Eukaryotes have ________ in their cytoplasmic membranes, which serve to strengthen and stabilize the membrane and make it less flexible. Many bacteria have similar molecules, known as ________, in their cytoplasmic membranes that have a similar role.

  1. A) ether bonds / ester bonds
  2. B) lipids / phospholipids
  3. C) sterols / hopanoids
  4. D) phospholipids / lipopolysaccharides

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

47) The rigid layer that is present in the cell walls of Bacteria that is primarily responsible for the strength of the wall is known as

  1. A) pseudomurein.
  2. B) S-layer.
  3. C) cellulose.
  4. D) peptidoglycan.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

48) Some of the intestinal symptoms elicited by pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia are due to the presence of

  1. A) pseudomurein.
  2. B) S-layers.
  3. C) lipopolysaccharides.
  4. D) peptidoglycan.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

49) Which of the following types of microscopy can be used with live cells?

  1. A) phase-contrast microscopy
  2. B) transmission electron microscopy
  3. C) bright-field microscopy
  4. D) scanning electron microscopy

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

50) Which of the following types of microscopy could be used to visualize the layers of the cell membrane and the cell wall?

  1. A) phase-contrast microscopy
  2. B) transmission electron microscopy
  3. C) bright-field microscopy
  4. D) confocal microscopy

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

51) Using bright-field microscopy to look at a slide prepared with a basic dye you observe cells under 400X magnification with a clear inner compartment within the cell. The cell is most likely a(n)

  1. A) prokaryote.
  2. B) bacterium.
  3. C) archaeon.
  4. D) eukaryote.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Chapter Section:  2.21

 

True/False Questions

 

1) In general, most cell inclusions function as energy reserves or as a reservoir of structural building blocks.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.14

 

2) Smaller prokaryotic cells generally grow faster than larger ones due to a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.6

 

 

3) In general, lipids in archaeal cytoplasmic membranes lack true fatty acids.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.7

4) Some membrane proteins are involved in bioenergetic reactions, while others are involved in membrane transport.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.9

 

5) Both hydrophilic and charged molecules readily diffuse through the cytoplasmic membrane.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.9

 

6) ATP-binding cassette transport systems have high substrate affinity and thus help microorganisms survive in low nutrient environments.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.9

 

7) Teichoic acids are commonly found in gram-negative cell walls.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

8) Despite the invariance of the peptidoglycan backbones structure, there are more than 100 different types of peptidoglycan.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

9) Lysozyme is an enzyme that can ultimately lyse and kill eukaryotic cells by breaking -1,4-glycosidic bonds in peptidoglycan.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

10) Porins are channels in the outer membranes of gram-positive Bacteria.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.11

 

 

11) A bacterial cell is interpreted as gram-positive when it forms purple insoluble crystal violet-iodine complexes within the cell during the Gram stain.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.10

 

12) In general, swimming is performed with flagella, whereas gliding uses other cellular components such as pili.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.18

13) Chemotaxis is a sensory response affecting the rotational direction of the flagellar motor.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.17

 

14) Photoreceptors are analogous to chemoreceptors in that they are both proteinaceous sensors.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.19

 

15) Pathogenic bacteria that contain S-layers are protected against host defense mechanisms.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.12

 

16) Poly--hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) is a carbon- and energy-storing polymer.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.14

 

17) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes, which supports the endosymbiosis hypothesis.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.21

 

18) Macromolecules resulting from lysosomal digestion are used in cellular biosynthesis and energy generation.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  2.22

 

 

19) Electron microscopes have less resolving power than light microscopes.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.4

Essay Questions

 

1) Why is energy required for nutrient transport? Give an example of a system that transports nutrients and describe what source of energy is used to move the nutrients into the cell.

Answer:  Energy is required for nutrient transport because nutrient concentration outside of the cell is lower than the nutrient concentrations inside the cell, thus nutrient transport moves solutes against a concentration gradient and requires energy. There are three examples in the text. The student could describe any one of them. They are (i) Simple transporter such as lac permease. Each nutrient molecule is cotransported into the cell with a H+ ion, thus the proton motive force provides the energy to transport nutrients. (ii) Group translocation such as sugar phosphotransferases. Each nutrient molecule is modified during the transport process. The modification, in this case, phosphorylation, releases energy, thus the energy source is an energy-rich compound such as phosphoenol pyruvate or some other phosphorylated compound. (iii) ABC transporters. In this example specific binding proteins bind to nutrient molecules with high affinity. Movement of the nutrient into the cell is coupled to ATP hydrolysis, thus ATP is the source of energy for transporting nutrients.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.9

 

2) Describe the makeup of the phospholipid bilayer. Include molecular orientation and proteins as well.

Answer:  The fatty acid components of the lipids in the cytoplasmic membrane are oriented toward each other, whereas the glycerol-phosphates point out toward the cytoplasm and external environment. Proteins can span the entire membrane (both layers) or be embedded in the phospholipids on either side of the membrane.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.7

 

3) Compare and contrast the chemical composition and structure of the cytoplasmic membranes found in Bacteria and Archaea. What is the advantage of the archaeal membranes in relationship to the types of environments many archaea inhabit?

Answer:  Bacterial cytoplasmic membranes contain fatty acids with ester linkages that always form a phospholipid bilayer that is highly fluid. Archaeal cytoplasmic membranes contain glycerol ethers that are either diether or tetraethers. Glycerol diether molecules form a bilayer membrane and glycerol tetraether form a monolayer membrane. Both the ether linkages and the monolayer structure are more rigid than the bilayer ester-linked fatty acids and are more stable at high temperatures and pressures. Archaea tend to inhabit more extreme environments in terms of temperature, pressure, and salt, thus the more stable membrane components allow archaea to survive under these conditions.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Chapter Section:  2.8

 

4) Explain the differences between uniporters, symporters, and antiporters.

Answer:  Answers should highlight differences in transport direction and energy input.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.9

5) You are studying swimming motility in a pathogenic bacillus. You create mutations in random genes and then test which mutations effect swimming motility by looking at the mutant cells under the microscope. One of the mutant bacteria can not swim anymore, but still rotates around in a one spot when you watch them. Using electron microscopy you discover that some parts of the flagella are still present in the cell wall, but no long flagella are visible. Which gene do you think is mutated (i.e., missing) and which motility-related parts are still present in this mutant?

Answer:  The flagellar apparatus is put together in a particular order first the MS ring, anchoring proteins, and the hook extend off of the cytoplasmic membrane. Flagellin proteins then pass through the narrow filament channel and cap proteins finally are put onto the end when roughly 20,000 flagellin have been assembled. Flagellar growth thus occurs after the assembly of the basal body, rings, and hook. The basal body provides the rotation and uses the proton motive force to rotate the basal body. From the information given above, one can infer that the basal body and hook can still rotate, but the flagellin proteins are missing or defective so that no long flagella can form. This would explain why the cells might still rotate in place, but not be able to move forward rapidly.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Chapter Section:  2.17

 

6) Describe the mechanisms by which certain prokaryotes glide. What are the ecological advantages of gliding motility?

Answer:  Mechanisms will vary depending on the organism described, some of which include the involvement of proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane, slime extrusion, and type IV pili. Examples of advantages could include biofilm formation on a surface, increased pathogenesis or movement towards a different habitat with new resources.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.18

 

7) What is the function of an endospore and how is an endospore formed?

Answer:  The function of an endospore is to allow the cell to survive harsh conditions by going into a dormant state. An environmental trigger, such as nutrient depletion or dehydration triggers the formation of compounds such as SASP and dipicolinic acid to protect the DNA from damage and reduce the water content inside the endospore. These changes protect the DNA and other critical chemical components from heat, dessication, and UV exposure. The function of an endospore is not for reproduction because every cell forms only one endospore. (The amount of detail expected in this answer should be commensurate with the amount of detail discussed in class.)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

8) What type of microscope would you use to visualize the internal structures of a chloroplast? Support your conclusion with evidence based on the size of the structures you want to see and the resolution and magnification power of different types of microscopes.

Answer:  Transmission electron microscopy would be necessary to visualize the internal structures of a chloroplast. Chloroplasts are less than 5 m in diameter and the internal membranes are only 10 nm thick. Light microscopes only have a resolution of 200 nm, thus any structure less than 200 nm will not be visible. Individual chloroplasts could be seen with a light microscope, but not the structures inside. Scanning electron microscopy can only see external features because electrons cannot penetrate the cell, thus the cell must be sectioned and prepared for transmission electron microscopy to see the inside of the chloroplasts.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Chapter Section:  2.4

 

9) You have discovered a new bacterial strain that causes urinary tract infections. Closely related bacterial species cannot cause infections. You compare the strains and find that your new strain has structures composed of protein external to its cell wall. What structures might your new strain have that the other strains do not? Why?

Answer:  Pili or fimbrae are the most likely structures that are found in the new pathogenic strain but missing in the nonpathogenic strains. Both pili and fimbrae aid in attachment of cells to surfaces and tissues. Attachment is important for pathogenesis. In addition, some pili are involved in twitching motility, which can help cells invade the body. (Other answers such as the capsule would only be partly correct, since the capsule is not made of protein. Flagella could also be an acceptable answer if they logically connect swimming motility to pathogenesis.)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Chapter Section:  2.13

 

10) Construct a chart to show at least five major differences between the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall of bacteria and archaea. What are the implications of these differences?

Answer:  Answers could include the following: the abundance or presence of amino acid stereoisomers, polysaccharides, pseudomurein and S-layers, action of lysozyme and penicillin, and type of glycosidic bonds.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Chapter Section:  2.12

 

11) Explain why prokaryotes tend to survive and adapt more rapidly to extreme and dynamic environmental conditions than eukaryotes.

Answer:  Answers will vary, but should reflect an understanding of how the higher surface-to-volume ratio influences the growth rate and total accumulation of mutations in prokaryotes. Another feature that increases mutation rate is the haploid nature of prokaryotes. Lastly, answers could mention that the rigid cell walls and various changes in the cytoplasmic membrane make it easier for prokaryotes to survive in unusual and extreme environments.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Chapter Section:  2.6

 

12) Compare and contrast the location and activities of periplasm-binding proteins of ABC transport systems in gram-negative and gram-positive Bacteria.

Answer:  Answers will vary, but the main difference is gram negatives have many transport proteins within the cells periplasmic space and gram positives (which lack a periplasm) have them anchored to the external surface of the cell; overall ATP-hydrolysis transportation is the same.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  2.6

 

13) Elaborate on why discovering endospores was important to microbiology.

Answer:  Endospores allow bacteria to survive boiling water, UV light, and extreme dessication, as well as allowing them to be in a dormant state for very long periods of time. Two possible themes could be how the discovery of endospores changed sterilization procedures for food and surgical instruments, as well as a change in our view of how bacteria can survive, such as surviving in space and surviving 1,000s of years in a dormant state.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Chapter Section:  2.16

 

14) Predict what would happen to a motile bacterium undergoing chemotaxis if the Mot proteins suddenly ceased to function.

Answer:  The function of Mot proteins should be described producing the rotation of the flagella. This would probably allow flagella to form, but they would not be able to rotate. The bacterium would not be able to move, but the flagella would still look normal.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Chapter Section:  2.19

 

15) Explain why a eukaryotic cell needs membrane-enclosed lysosomes and peroxisomes.

Answer:  The structures both contain high concentrations of enzymes that serve as a localized region to perform specific reactions. Enclosed membranes provide a barrier to maintain conditions within the lysosomes and peroxisomes that are unlike those in the cytoplasm, which is important because environmental conditions for these processes to be optimal are often different than the conditions in the cytoplasm.

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Chapter Section:  2.22

 

Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 14e (Madigan et al.)

Chapter 16  Diversity of Archaea

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) The microorganisms that are thought to resemble the first cellular forms of life on Earth are

  1. A) H2-oxidizing hyperthermophiles.
  2. B) acidophilic
  3. C) the Nanoarchaeota.
  4. D) fermentative thermophiles.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

2) Which statement is TRUE of methanogenic and extremely halophilic Archaea?

  1. A) The methanogens are obligate aerobes; the extreme halophiles are obligate anaerobes.
  2. B) The methanogens are obligate anaerobes; the extreme halophiles are mostly obligate aerobes.
  3. C) Both the methanogens and the extreme halophiles are obligate aerobes.
  4. D) Both the methanogens and the extreme halophiles are obligate anaerobes.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

3) The Archaea are

  1. A) primarily ancient organisms that have not evolved very much in the last billion years.
  2. B) phylogenetically diverse, but functionally restricted to extremophiles and chemolithotrophs.
  3. C) diverse microorganisms that inhabit almost every environment on Earth, including the colon of humans and other mammals.
  4. D) functionally diverse, but restricted to thermophilic or hyperthermophilic environments.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

4) Which of the following metabolisms is NOT found in Archaea?

  1. A) photosynthesis
  2. B) chemolithotrophy
  3. C) chemoorganotrophy
  4. D) aerobic respiration

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.9

 

 

5) Some of the largest naturally occurring plasmids occur in the

  1. A) methanogens.
  2. B) genus Thermoplasma.
  3. C) extreme halophiles.
  4. D) genus Picrophilus.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.1

6) What do MOST halobacteria use for carbon substrates?

  1. A) amino and organic acids
  2. B) carbohydrates
  3. C) lipids
  4. D) nucleic acids

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

7) Some strains of haloarchaea exhibit

  1. A) anoxic growth at the expense of sugar fermentation.
  2. B) anaerobic respiration.
  3. C) anoxygenic photosynthesis.
  4. D) light-driven ATP synthesis under oxygen-limiting conditions.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

8) The cytoplasmic proteins of Halobacterium are

  1. A) highly acidic.
  2. B) highly basic.
  3. C) generally neutral.
  4. D) variable, depending on the species.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

9) Retinal in prokaryotes is part of

  1. A) photosynthesis.
  2. B) phototaxis.
  3. C) light-driven ATP synthesis.
  4. D) light-driven ATP synthesis and phototaxis.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

 

10) Methanogens

  1. A) produce methane as a part of their energy metabolism.
  2. B) utilize methane as an energy source.
  3. C) process and store methane to detoxify it.
  4. D) produce, utilize, and detoxify methane.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.2

11) The taxonomy of the methanogens is based on

  1. A) phenotypic analysis.
  2. B) phylogenetic (comparative nucleic acid sequencing) analysis.
  3. C) phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses.
  4. D) neither phenotypic nor phylogenetic analysis.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

12) Most known methanogens are nonhalophilic

  1. A) psychrophiles.
  2. B) mesophiles.
  3. C) thermophiles.
  4. D) extremophiles (at either the psychrophilic or thermophilic end).

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

13) Which of the following are NOT substrates for methanogens?

  1. A) acetate and pyruvate
  2. B) carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and formate
  3. C) glucose and sucrose
  4. D) methanol, methylamine, and methylmercaptan

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

14) Which microbial grouping is the major oxygenic phototroph in most salt lakes?

  1. A) cyanobacteria
  2. B) Dunaliella, a eukaryotic alga
  3. C) halophilic Archaea
  4. D) purple nonsulfur bacteria

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

 

15) What special adaptation(s) has/have Thermoplasma evolved to survive in hot acidic environments?

  1. A) Thermoplasma stabilize their cytoplasmic membrane by incorporation of tetraether lipoglycans in the cytoplasmic membrane.
  2. B) Thermoplasma have a reinforced cell wall containing basic amino linkers in the peptidoglycan.
  3. C) Thermoplasma excrete hydrogen ions and import hydroxyl ions.
  4. D) Thermoplasma are highly motile to avoid destruction.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.3

16) Approximately ________ of the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii genes have no counterparts in known genes from other sequenced organisms.

  1. A) 10%
  2. B) 25%
  3. C) 40%
  4. D) 70%

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.3

 

17) Some members of the Thermoplasmatales can grow at pH levels below

  1. A) 4.
  2. B) 7.
  3. C) 0.
  4. D) 10.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.3

 

18) A chemoorganotroph growing optimally at 55C and pH 2 in complex media would most likely be a member of the genus

  1. A) Methanocaldococcus.
  2. B) Halobacterium.
  3. C) Methanococcus.
  4. D)

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.3

 

 

19) What characteristic do mycoplasmas (Bacteria) and Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma (Archaea) have in common?

  1. A) contain plasmids
  2. B) hyperthermophilic
  3. C) lack cell walls
  4. D) relatively large genomes from duplicated genes

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.3

 

20) Which genus within Archaea is capable of growth at the hottest temperature recorded of 122C?

  1. A) Methanopyrus
  2. B) Thermoproteus
  3. C) Thermosphaera
  4. D) Pyrococcus

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.4

21) Which archaeal phylum contains primarily extreme halophiles and methanogens?

  1. A) Crenarchaeota
  2. B) Euryarchaeota
  3. C) Nanoarchaeota
  4. D) Thaumarchaeota

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

22) What makes the metabolism of Ferroglobus interesting in the context of evolution?

  1. A) Ferroglobus is an anaerobic iron-oxidizing chemolithotrophic autotroph that may represent a key metabolism that allowed for the oxidation of ferrous iron without molecular oxygen.
  2. B) Ferroglobus can use H2or H2S as electron donors in its energy metabolism and is thermophilic, thus representing the earliest hypothesized forms of life.
  3. C) Ferroglobus lacks cells wall and becomes encrusted in oxidized iron.
  4. D) Ferroglobus is both an iron- and nitrate-reducer and is probably the last common ancestor of all iron- and nitrate-reducing organisms.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

 

23) Which of the following bioenergetic processes CANNOT occur in hyperthermophiles?

  1. A) chemoorganotrophy
  2. B) chemolithotrophy
  3. C) photosynthesis
  4. D) chemoorganotrophy, chemolithotrophy, and photosynthesis

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

24) Which of the following is TRUE about the crenarchael genera Sulfolobus?

  1. A) Sulfolobus grows in sulfur-rich hot alkaline springs.
  2. B) Sulfolobus is an anaerobic chemolithotroph.
  3. C) Sulfolobus can grow chemoorganotrophically.
  4. D) Sulfolobus is a gram-positive rod.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.10

 

25) ________ is a strict anaerobe with an optimum growth temperature of 105C that grows chemolithotrophically on H2 with S0 as an electron receptor or chemoorganotrophically on complex mixtures of organic compounds.

  1. A) Pyrodictium
  2. B) Pyrolobus
  3. C) Pyrobaculum
  4. D) Desulfurococcus

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.11

26) Many hyperthermophiles of Archaea are ________; however, Staphylothermus is a chemoorganotroph.

  1. A) chemolithotrophs
  2. B) mixotrophs
  3. C) parasites
  4. D) photoheterotrophs

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

27) The factor that MOST affects the thermostability of a protein is its

  1. A) highly hydrophobic core regions.
  2. B) folding pattern.
  3. C) ionic surface interactions.
  4. D) number of hydrogen bonds.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.13

 

28) One factor that seems to aid in maintaining lipid stability in hyperthermophilic Archaea is that dibiphytanyl tetraether lipids form a(n)

  1. A) covalently bonded monolayer cytoplasmic membrane.
  2. B) interlocking bilayer cytoplasmic membrane.
  3. C) interlocking lattice with the cell wall.
  4. D) pseudomembrane immediately inside the cytoplasmic membrane.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.13

 

29) The presence of genes encoding RubisCO enzymes in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and a species of Pyrococcus indicates that the organisms

  1. A) incorporate carbon dioxide via the acetyl-CoA pathway.
  2. B) incorporate carbon dioxide via the Calvin cycle.
  3. C) incorporate carbon dioxide via the reverse citric acid cycle.
  4. D) utilize molecular hydrogen as an electron donor in chemolithotrophic metabolism.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

30) What is the minimum concentration of sodium chloride that an extreme halophile requires for growth?

  1. A) 2 M
  2. B) 4 M
  3. C) 6 M
  4. D) 10 M

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.1

31) Cellular integrity and cell wall stabilization of the Halobacterium are aided by

  1. A) potassium ions.
  2. B) chloride ions.
  3. C) magnesium ions.
  4. D) sodium ions.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

 

32) Halobacterium salinarum and certain other extreme halophiles carry out light-driven synthesis of ATP under what condition?

  1. A) low oxygen concentrations
  2. B) low light
  3. C) high oxygen concentrations
  4. D) high carbon dioxide concentrations

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

33) Laboratory isolation of Nanoarchaeum equitans requires the presence of

  1. A) fatty acids.
  2. B) oxygen.
  3. C) Ignicoccus.
  4. D) sunlight.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.7

 

34) Thermostable proteins tend to have additional features that improve thermostability. Which of the following is NOT one of these features?

  1. A) increased ionic interactions on the protein surfaces
  2. B) highly hydrophilic cores
  3. C) decreased tendency of the protein to unfold
  4. D) highly hydrophobic cores

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.3

 

35) What is thought to be the maximum temperature for life to exist?

  1. A) 125C
  2. B) 150C
  3. C) 250C
  4. D) 500C

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.12

36) The most common electron donor among hyperthermophilic Archaea is

  1. A) Fe+3.
  2. B) H2.
  3. C) SO4.
  4. D) So.

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.12

 

37) Extremely halophilic Archaea often form ________ in order to access ________.

  1. A) stalks / nutrients
  2. B) intracellular inclusions / elemental sulfur
  3. C) gas vesicles / oxygen
  4. D) intracellular membranes / sunlight

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

38) Compatible solutes counteract the tendency of a cell to become

  1. A) buoyant in high ionic strength environments.
  2. B) hyperosmotic in low ionic strength environments.
  3. C) dehydrated in high ionic strength environments.
  4. D) viscous in low ionic strength environments.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

39) The ribosomes of Halobacterium require high ________ levels for stability and activity.

  1. A) KCl
  2. B) NaCl
  3. C) NaSO4
  4. D) acidic amino acids

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

40) The cytoplasmic membrane of Thermoplasma contains a lipopolysaccharide-like material called lipoglycan which

  1. A) behaves like peptidoglycan and creates a strong cell wall.
  2. B) forms a monolayer that stabilizes the cytoplasmic membrane.
  3. C) contains ether linkages.
  4. D) contains ether linkages and forms a monolayer that stabilizes the cytoplasmic membrane.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.3

41) Crenarchaeotes whose optimal growth temperature is over 80C are called

  1. A) hyperthermophiles.
  2. B) thermophiles.
  3. C) extreme halophiles.
  4. D) halophiles.

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.9

 

 

42) Hot sulfur-rich environments associated with terrestrial sulfur-rich springs are called

  1. A) acid-mine drainage.
  2. B) hydrothermal vents.
  3. C) solfataras.
  4. D) terrestrial volcanoes.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.9

 

43) Proteins known as ________ function to refold partially denatured proteins.

  1. A) histones
  2. B) chaperonins
  3. C) HU proteins
  4. D) histones and chaperonins

Answer:  B

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.13

 

44) The topoisomerase ________ introduces positive supercoils in DNA, which stabilizes DNA and prevents the DNA helix from denaturing at high temperatures.

  1. A) reverse ligase
  2. B) ligase
  3. C) DNA gyrase
  4. D) reverse DNA gyrase

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.13

 

45) Cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (cDPG) is present in molar quantities in the cytoplasm of many hyperthermophilic methanogens. The function of this compound is to

  1. A) prevent rRNA misfolding.
  2. B) prevent chemical damage to DNA at high temperatures.
  3. C) counteract the effects of high osmotic environments.
  4. D) activate hydrogen gas.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.13

46) It is difficult to estimate when cyanobacteria appeared on Earth using evidence from the oxidation state of the Earths crust, because

  1. A) several abiotic reactions could have formed Fe3+.
  2. B) there are multiple forms of anoxygenic photosynthesis.
  3. C) there are multiple groups of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria.
  4. D) several ancient anaerobic metabolisms form Fe3+.

Answer:  D

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.5

 

47) Nitrifying Thaumarchaeota outcompete nitrifying bacteria in many aquatic and terrestrial environments because Thaumarchaeota

  1. A) are well-adapted to high salinity and extreme UV irradiation.
  2. B) are well-adapted to temperature extremes.
  3. C) are well-adapted to very low nutrient and electron donor concentrations.
  4. D) have very resistant specialized cells that survive long periods of dehydration and nutrient starvation.

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

48) The bioenergetics of anaerobic respiring Archaea such as those of the Crenarchaeota involve ________ from which ________ is synthesized.

  1. A) proton translocation / ATP
  2. B) substrate level phosphorylation / ATP
  3. C) sodium translocation / ATP
  4. D) substrate level phosphorylation / GTP

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.9

 

49) Nitrifying Archaea such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus use ________ as a sole carbon source and are capable of obtaining sufficient energy by aerobically oxidizing ________.

  1. A) CO2/ NO
  2. B) sugars / NH3
  3. C) CO2/ NH3
  4. D) organic acids / NO

Answer:  C

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.6

 

50) The rRNA gene sequences of hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria have diverged ________ over time, likely due to ________.

  1. A) relatively little / strong constraints on sequence changes at higher temperatures
  2. B) substantially / higher mutation rates at higher temperatures
  3. C) relatively little / low mutation rates in these ancient organisms
  4. D) substantially / DNA damage at higher temperatures

Answer:  A

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

True/False Questions

 

1) Archaea is divided into three phyla.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

2) Many hyperthermophiles are chemolithoautotrophs.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

3) In general, the cold-dwelling thaumarchaeotes are evolving more slowly than the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.10

 

4) Most of the Archaea are phenotypically quite similar.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

5) Although the domain Archaea contains many acidophilic organisms, there are still many others within the domain that grow well in environments with a neutral pH.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.11

 

6) Some Archaea are chemoorganotrophs and use organic compounds as electron donors for energy metabolism.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

7) There are many genes in archaeal genomes that have no known function.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.11

 

8) In chemolithotrophic Archaea, H2 is a common electron donor.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.14

 

 

9) Thus far, only Archaea have been found in the salt lakes, while Bacteria and Eukarya are noticeably absent.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

10) Most halobacteria are motile by means of lophotrichous flagella.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

11) Replacing sodium with potassium can satisfy the requirement for sodium in the halobacteria.

Answer:  FALSE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

12) Many halophiles require a high ionic environment for survival.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

13) The light-stimulated proton pump of Halobacterium salinarum indirectly functions to pump sodium out of the cell by the activity of a Na+/H+ antiport system.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.1

 

14) Pseudopeptidoglycan (pseudomurein) is part of the cell wall of some methanogens.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

15) Despite GC pairs having an additional hydrogen bond than AT pairs, hyperthermophilic Archaea generally have a lower GC ratio in their genomes when compared to other heat-sensitive prokaryotes.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.13

 

16) Though the known diversity of acetotrophic methanogens is low, they are ecologically significant in nature.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.2

 

 

17) Methanogenesis is coupled with proton motive force formation and ATP synthesis through the activity of ATPases.

Answer:  TRUE

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Chapter Section:  16.2

&n

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