CDEV 1st Edition by Rathus Test Bank

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CDEV 1st Edition by Rathus Test Bank

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Chapter 5Infancy: Physical Development

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. All of the following are sequences in physical development except:
a.
integration.
c.
differentiation.
b.
cephalocaudal.
d.
proximodistal.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

2. How does the brain regulate development of the infants body?
a.
by sending electrical signals to the muscles and bones
b.
through a predetermined sequence that is initiated at birth
c.
through the secretion of hormones
d.
through regulation of the somatic nervous system

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Factual

3. Which sequence of development means from head to tail?
a.
differentiation
c.
integration
b.
proximodistal
d.
cephalocaudal

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

4. Which sequence of development means from the center outward?
a.
proximodistal
c.
cephalocaudal
b.
integration
d.
differentiation

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

5. Which of the following can infants do or control first?
a.
They can hold objects.
b.
They can lift their heads off of the floor.
c.
They can make coordinated movements with their feet.
d.
They can control their fingers.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

6. The tendency of behavior to become more specific and distinct is called:
a.
integration.
c.
globalization.
b.
conceptualization.
d.
differentiation.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

7. A childs finger is hurt. He cries and withdraws the finger, but makes no other move. This is an example of:
a.
cephalocaudal development.
c.
proximodistal development.
b.
differentiation in development.
d.
general distress syndrome.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

8. The most dramatic gains in height and weight occur:
a.
during prenatal development.
b.
during the first year of life.
c.
It depends upon whether the child was born prematurely.
d.
It depends upon postnatal nutrition levels.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

9. Infants grow:
a.
only about 5 percent of the time.
c.
about 6 months out of the first year.
b.
constantly during the first year.
d.
for about 2 weeks out of every month.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 81 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

10. Children will reach about half of their adult height by:
a.
4 years of age.
b.
3 years of age.
c.
2 years of age.
d.
2 years of age, but it varies depending upon gender.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Factual

11. Which of the following is true about infant growth?
a.
There is no consistency across infants.
b.
Shorter than average infants tend to speed up in growth.
c.
Taller than average infants continue to speed up in growth.
d.
Shorter than average infants slow down in speed of growth.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

12. Why is the head disproportionately large during infancy and childhood?
a.
Muscle grows slower than brain tissue.
b.
Because bone grows so slowly
c.
Because the brain is essential for all other growth
d.
There is no scientific reason; it just is.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

13. Can children grow overnight?
a.
no, it is not possible
b.
yes, but only during the teen years
c.
yes, but in childhood it is usually only girls that do
d.
yes, research seems to confirm this

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 81 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

14. Which of the following is true about the relationship between infant and adult heights?
a.
There is no relationship between height as an infant and height as an adult.
b.
There is an almost perfect relationship between height as an infant and height as an adult.
c.
Long infants always grow up to be tall adults.
d.
None of these is true about the infant/adult height relationship.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

15. Infants can grow:
a.
as much as .5 centimeters in one month.
c.
as much as 2.5 centimeters in one month.
b.
as much as 2.5 centimeters in one day.
d.
as much as .5 centimeters in one day.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 81 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

16. If the arms grow longer than the legs, this is an example of:
a.
proximodistal development.
c.
cephalocaudal development.
b.
differentiation in development.
d.
minimalistic development.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

17. Among neonates, the arms:
a.
are longer than the legs.
b.
are shorter than the legs.
c.
are about equal in length to the legs.
d.
develop more slowly than the legs after the first birthday due to the cephalocaudal trend.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

18. After the second birthday, the legs begin to grow rapidly and are soon longer than the arms. This is an example of:
a.
differentiation in development.
c.
minimalistic development.
b.
cephalocaudal development.
d.
proximodistal development.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Application

19. Kiley, a 5-month-old infant, refuses to eat and has not gained any weight in 2 months. Kiley:
a.
is a typical infant.
b.
may have colic.
c.
may have a protein deficiency.
d.
may suffer from Failure to Thrive syndrome.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

20. Failure to Thrive:
a.
is an organic illness.
b.
is apt to be created by a combination of organic and nonorganic causes.
c.
is a nonorganic problem.
d.
is caused by prenatal problems.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

21. Matthew is 20 months old and has been diagnosed as having nonorganic failure to thrive (NOFTT). The cause of this is thought to be:
a.
an underlying health problem.
c.
trouble accessing food.
b.
failure to make use of adequate nutrition.
d.
a psychological and/or social cause.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

22. Which of the following is a central feature of Failure to Thrive?
a.
irritability
c.
feeding problems
b.
poor REM sleep
d.
excessive eye contact with adults

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Application

23. Samantha has been treated for Failure to Thrive and is now returning to her normal growth rate. What does this represent?
a.
canalization
c.
differentiation
b.
proximodistal development
d.
phenalization

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

24. The tendency to return to ones predetermined growth after a problem is alleviated is referred to as:
a.
phenalization.
c.
canalization.
b.
proximodistal development.
d.
cephalocaudal development.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

25. Compared to children in other countries, how is the nutrition of children in the United States?
a.
worse than in many other countries
b.
better than in many countries, with few children experiencing poor nutrition.
c.
better than in many other countries, although poor children in the U.S. tend to have poor nutrition.
d.
the U.S. is on an equal basis with most other countries

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

26. At about what age can an infant begin ingesting solid foods?
a.
by about 4 to 6 months of age
b.
as early as 2 weeks, if they are really hungry
c.
not until about 1 year of age
d.
It varies significantly from child to child.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

27. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, how long should children be breastfed?
a.
only for the first two weeks
b.
for the first 6 months
c.
It does not matter, as formulas are just as nutritious.
d.
for at least one year

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

28. How should new foods be introduced to the infant?
a.
one at a time to assess for allergies or preferences
b.
it does not matter, as infants will not show taste preferences
c.
meat should be introduced before vegetables
d.
strained meat should never be introduced before age 2

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Application

29. Concerning an infants diet:
a.
infants will have a preference for those foods they need the most.
b.
provide as much fiber as possible early on.
c.
sugar and salt do not need to be minimized as the childs body is deficient in these.
d.
be sure to not restrict infant fat and cholesterol intake too much.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

30. When thinking of the infant diet, remember:
a.
infants need iron.
b.
infants need more sugar than adults.
c.
to restrict fat intake significantly.
d.
infants do not have the same nutritional needs as adults and older children.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

31. In terms of iron:
a.
infants need significantly less iron, pound for pound, than adults.
b.
infants do not need iron at all.
c.
infants need significantly more iron, pound for pound, than adults.
d.
iron needs depend upon the gender of the infant, just like it does in adults.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

32. What is the ratio of women in the United States who breastfeed their children for at least a while?
a.
1 in 10
c.
3 in 10
b.
1 in 20
d.
7 in 10

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

33. Why might women not breastfeed, even if physically capable?
a.
It provides more independence from traditional roles.
b.
so that feeding can be a shared responsibility
c.
so she can return to the work force
d.
all of these may be reasons

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

34. Compared to breast milk, formulas:
a.
are actually higher in nutritive value.
b.
are more easily digested.
c.
do not offer the immune system benefits of breast milk.
d.
are associated with fewer cases of childhood lymphoma than breast milk.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Application

35. What are the advantages of breastfeeding?
a.
It causes infant diarrhea.
b.
The nutritional content does not change with the infants changing needs.
c.
HIV can be transmitted to the infant via breastfeeding.
d.
It reduces the risk of asthma, ear infections, and cancer.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

36. Breast milk is related to:
a.
decreased likelihood of asthma later in life.
b.
decreased likelihood of breast cancer for the mother later in life.
c.
decreased likelihood of obesity for the child later in life.
d.
All of these are related to breast milk.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

37. Negatives to breastfeeding include:
a.
fear of pain.
b.
undernourishment of some mothers, which results in fewer nutrients in breast milk.
c.
mothers assumption of the sole responsibility for nighttime feedings.
d.
All of these are negatives of breastfeeding.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

38. Benefits to the mother who breastfeeds include:
a.
reduces risk of early breast and ovarian cancer.
b.
builds bone strength.
c.
shrinks the uterus after delivery.
d.
There are no benefits associated with breastfeeding.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Application

39. Which of the following is true about the brain?
a.
The neonates brain is more than 3/4 of its eventual adult size.
b.
It contains more neurons than the rest of the body.
c.
When born, the brain contains no neurons, as they develop due to experience.
d.
At birth, it contains over 40 million neurons.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

40. A neuron contains:
a.
soma.
c.
dendrite.
b.
axon.
d.
A neuron contains all of these.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

41. You use your phone to receive text messages. Which part of the neuron performs this function?
a.
dendrite
c.
axon
b.
soma
d.
synapse

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

42. You use your phone to transmit a message to another person. Which part of the neuron performs this function?
a.
axon
c.
dendrite
b.
soma
d.
synapse

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

43. The chemical messengers in the neuron are called?
a.
hormones
c.
neurotransmitters
b.
enzymes
d.
prolactins

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

44. Neurons are wrapped in a fatty substance. This substance is called:
a.
globulin.
c.
profferin.
b.
myelin.
d.
alduin.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

45. ____ is caused by the replacement of myelin with a hard fibrous tissue.
a.
SIDS
c.
Failure to Thrive
b.
Multiple Sclerosis
d.
PKU

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

46. What does myelin do?
a.
Its exact function is unknown.
b.
It prevents electrical messages from traveling down the axon.
c.
It creates neurotransmitters.
d.
It allows for electrical messages in the neuron to be conducted more efficiently.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

47. An individual develops mental retardation due to a disorder called PKU. What do we know about this?
a.
The individual has excessive myelination.
b.
The individual does not form myelin in the brain.
c.
The myelin travels into the soma and destroys the neuron.
d.
The myelin covers the dendrites and stops the communication process.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

48. A baby has begun to crawl. This means:
a.
myelin will soon form to coat motor neurons.
b.
a maturation process will be activated that will result in myelination of neurons by the end of the first year.
c.
myelination of neurons has already begun.
d.
myelin has nothing to do with this process.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

49. How big is the neonates brain?
a.
about half the size it will be in adulthood
b.
It depends greatly upon the size and shape of the infants head.
c.
about one-third the size it will be in adulthood
d.
less than one pound

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Factual

50. The infant brain:
a.
grows slower than the rest of the body
b.
triples in weight by the childs first birthday
c.
is fully developed at birth
d.
will not reach 70% of its adult weight until adolescence

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 73 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

51. If a childs brain cannot control heartbeat and respiration, which part of the brain might be damaged?
a.
medulla
c.
pituitary
b.
cerebellum
d.
hypothalamus

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Application

52. The medulla is part of the:
a.
hindbrain.
c.
brain stem.
b.
forebrain.
d.
midbrain.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Factual

53. Which part of the brain allows for learning, thought, and memory?
a.
cerebellum
c.
amygdala
b.
medulla
d.
cerebrum

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

54. When does the first brain growth spurt occur?
a.
during the second and third weeks of life
b.
during the fourth and fifth months of prenatal development
c.
about the first month after birth
d.
not until the end of the first year

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: p. 86 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

55. The rapid formation of neurons:
a.
may cause the first growth spurt in the infant brain.
b.
increases the density of the brain, but not the size or weight.
c.
does not occur until the child enters school and begins learning rapidly.
d.
is automatic and unrelated to learning.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: p. 86 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

56. Myelination of motor pathways:
a.
increases the speed at which the infant can process cognitive information.
b.
is unrelated to the infants motor skills.
c.
results in finely coordinated motor movements.
d.
enhances the childs ability to engage in stereotyped reflexes.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: p. 86 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Application
57. Voluntary motor movements require:
a.
myelination of neurons in the cerebral cortex.
b.
myelination of the neurons in the medulla.
c.
myelination of the neurons of the motor pathways.
d.
myelination of the neurons in the cerebrum.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Application

58. When does the second growth spurt of the brain occur?
a.
during the second and third weeks of life
b.
during the fourth and fifth months of prenatal development
c.
between the twenty-fifth week of prenatal development and the end of the second year after birth
d.
there is no such thing as a second growth spurt of the brain

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: p. 86 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

59. The second growth spurt of the brain is due to:
a.
neuron development.
b.
proliferation of dendrites and axons.
c.
enlargement of the brain ventricles.
d.
There is no such thing as a second brain growth spurt.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 86 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

60. Research shows that myelination:
a.
may continue into adolescence.
b.
is complete by the time the child is born.
c.
is enhanced by vitamin B intake.
d.
enhances cognitive functioning, but not motor functioning.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

61. The development of hearing in the fetus may be linked to:
a.
degree of external stimulation.
b.
the development of the cerebellum.
c.
myelination of the neurons involved in hearing.
d.
The fetus cannot hear.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Application

62. Which of the following is TRUE regarding development of vision?
a.
Myelination of the visual cortex is completed before birth.
b.
Myelination of the visual cortex is not completed until adolescence.
c.
Myelination of the visual cortex begins after birth and ends within 5-6 months after birth.
d.
Myelination is not needed for the visual cortex.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

63. Rats placed in enriched environments:
a.
develop comparably to all other rats.
b.
show significant development of the medulla.
c.
develop heavier brains than those not in enriched environments.
d.
show shrinkage of the visual cortex.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Application

64. Which of the following is true about infant brains in comparison to adult brains?
a.
Infant brains have more neural connections.
b.
Infant brains comprise a significantly smaller percentage of body size.
c.
Infant brains have connections that are not activated by experience.
d.
Infant brains have only about half the structures of adult brains.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Application

65. What is the implication of the phrase brain adaptability is a double-edged sword?
a.
It means that our brains are not good at adapting to changing environments.
b.
It means that excessive stimulation can be as damaging as too little stimulation.
c.
It means that our brains allow us to adjust to changing demands, but lack of stimulation can impair this ability.
d.
It means that once we learn something, we cannot unlearn it.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

66. Motor development:
a.
does not follow the same patterns as cognitive development.
b.
is much more predictable than cognitive development.
c.
occurs independent of other factors such as environment or nutrition.
d.
follows cephalocaudal, proximodistal, and differentiation patterns.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-03
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

67. Which body part will infants gain control over first?
a.
head
c.
legs
b.
arms
d.
fingers

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-03
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Factual

68. In terms of head control, what can newborns do?
a.
They can lift their heads for short periods of time.
b.
They can lift their heads after about the first week after birth.
c.
They can move their heads side to side but nothing else.
d.
If you lay them on their stomach, they can lift the head and torso for short periods of time.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 88 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

69. The development of hand skills demonstrates the process of:
a.
differentiation in development.
c.
cephalocaudal development.
b.
proximodistal development.
d.
linear development.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 88 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

70. A child is holding a toy clumsily, using only his fingers and palm. This is an example of:
a.
pincer grasp.
c.
ulnar grasp.
b.
palmar reflex.
d.
reflexive grasping.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 88 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

71. Which of the following can be said about a 5-month-old infant grasping an object?
a.
She can be increasingly successful at grasping objects.
b.
She may be able to grasp the object but does not know how to let go of it.
c.
She is probably using the ulnar grasp.
d.
All of these can be said about a 5-month-olds grasping behavior.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 88 OBJ: 05-03
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

72. Why is voluntary reaching and grasping not present at birth?
a.
Because it requires visual-motor coordination
b.
Infants can do voluntary reaching and grasping at birth.
c.
Because they cannot see the objects
d.
Infants do not find the environment interesting enough to motivate the actions.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 88 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Factual

73. At approximately what age do children start using their thumbs to aid them in grasping objects?
a.
4-6 months
c.
virtually at birth
b.
9-12 months
d.
2-3 months

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 88 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Factual

74. Use of the thumb to assist in picking up small objects is referred to as:
a.
the ulnar grasp.
c.
the pincer grasp.
b.
the palmar reflex.
d.
the grasping reflex.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 88 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Factual

75. In what order would an infant most likely display the following movement abilities?
a.
crawling, sitting up, creeping, and running
b.
sitting up, rolling over, crawling
c.
running, walking, crawling, and creeping
d.
rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and creeping

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Factual

76. Ben is 7 months old. Which of the following is he probably not yet able to do?
a.
roll over
c.
sit up unassisted
b.
sit up assisted
d.
crawl

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

77. When it comes to locomotor development:
a.
there is a great deal of consistency in the order of skill development.
b.
there is a great deal of consistency in the age at which these skills are acquired.
c.
there are significant gender differences in the age at which these skills are demonstrated.
d.
None of these is accurate in terms of locomotor development.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

78. When can infants usually sit up by themselves (without assistance)?
a.
by about 3 months
b.
not until 9-10 months
c.
as soon as they are old enough to lift their heads and torsos off the ground
d.
usually around 7 months

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Factual

79. Why do we call walking infants toddlers?
a.
It designates them as ages 18-24 months.
b.
It is an affectionate term with no real significance.
c.
Because they tend to walk or run in a bowlegged fashion
d.
None of these is accurate.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

80. Why do infants who first start to walk move about in a bowlegged fashion?
a.
to support the heavy weight of the head and torso
b.
because the legs are not fully developed enough to allow regular walking
c.
being bowlegged is normal and we all must learn not to walk this way
d.
Most infants do not walk this way.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

81. Which of the following accurately describes what a toddler will do when confronted with a steep slope while walking?
a.
They will adamantly refuse to go down it.
b.
They will usually stop and crawl down the slope.
c.
They cannot tell the difference and will try to walk down it, usually falling down.
d.
They cannot go down any slopes until approximately age 2.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

82. When it comes to motor development:
a.
it is simply a process of unfolding genetic tendencies (maturation).
b.
it depends solely upon experience and the environment.
c.
it is dependent upon a combination of maturation and experience.
d.
There is no way to answer this question.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Factual

83. Hopi children who spend their first year strapped to a cradleboard:
a.
are usually at least one year behind in learning to walk.
b.
walk sooner than children from other cultures.
c.
may never learn to walk.
d.
learn to walk at about the same time as children from other cultures.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 90 OBJ: 05-03
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

84. The reaction range is:
a.
the genetically determined range of outcomes for development.
b.
how a child will react to different visual and motor stimuli.
c.
the outcome of development based on ones environment.
d.
the upper limit of development when one has a great deal of environmental stimulation.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 90 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

85. Specific training of infant motor skills:
a.
leads to superior motor performance throughout life.
b.
may accelerate some motor skills but only slightly.
c.
can actually slow down motor development in the long run.
d.
is proven to have no affect whatsoever on motor development.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 90 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

86. In terms of motor development:
a.
limiting motor movement always impairs motor development.
b.
nurture is the sole determining factor in the range of someones motor abilities.
c.
there are no consistent findings on how to enhance or inhibit motor development.
d.
extreme social and physical deprivation can impair motor development.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: p. 90 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

87. Once motor development has been deprived:
a.
the damage can be improved with intervention.
b.
the damage is irreversible, although minimal progress can be made.
c.
social and intellectual functioning will decline as well.
d.
None of these is accurate.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 90 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

88. Research shows that:
a.
even Olympic athletes represent a combination of good genes and the right environment.
b.
Olympic athletes are born, not made.
c.
environment makes all the difference in who will and who will not become an Olympian.
d.
genetics are more likely to determine male accomplishments than female accomplishments.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 90 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

89. The greatest gains in visual acuity occur:
a.
from 9-12 months of age.
c.
from birth to 6 months of age.
b.
from 1-2 months of age.
d.
not until late childhood.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Factual

90. Newborns:
a.
have better peripheral vision than adults.
b.
are extremely farsighted.
c.
have poorer peripheral vision than adults.
d.
are unable to see in black and white because the rods of the retina are not developed at birth.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

91. How can we assess infant visual preferences?
a.
It is not possible to assess preferences, as they do not have enough experience to have developed preferences.
b.
by measuring how long infants look at particular objects
c.
by assessing the degree of peripheral vision, which approximates visual preference
d.
None of these is accurate about infant visual preference.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

92. Infants seem to have a visual preference for:
a.
the human face.
c.
simple outlines.
b.
pastel colors.
d.
small dot patterns.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Factual

93. How soon can an infant discriminate its mothers face from a strangers face?
a.
at birth
c.
after about 8 hours of exposure
b.
within one month of birth
d.
within 2 weeks

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Factual

94. When infants look at something:
a.
they actually bounce from feature to feature, rather than staring.
b.
they focus in on one feature and ignore all other features.
c.
they are prewired to pay attention to subtle features.
d.
they do not like anything out of the ordinary or different.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Application

95. When looking at human faces, infants under two months of age prefer to look at:
a.
the edges, such as the chin.
c.
the mouth.
b.
the eyes.
d.
the entire face.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 92 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Application

96. Camille is crawling and she stops before crawling off an edge. This suggests:
a.
that infants are prewired to avoid danger.
b.
that crawling infants perceive depth.
c.
that infants are afraid of changes in their environments.
d.
that differences in thresholds are surprising to infants.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 92 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Application

97. In their classic study of depth perception, Gibson and Walk (1960) found that:
a.
one-month olds would not cross the visual cliff.
b.
boys crossed the visual cliff earlier than girls.
c.
infants would cross the cliff if their mothers encouraged them to do so.
d.
8 out of 10 crawling infants would not cross onto the visual cliff.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 92 OBJ: 05-04
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

98. If an infant perceives a door as the same shape whether it is closed or ajar, this represents:
a.
size constancy.
c.
perceptual constancy.
b.
intellectual asymmetry.
d.
retinal parity.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Application

99. According to a research study by Thomas Bower (1974), at what age do infants show the ability of size constancy?
a.
2-3 months
c.
7-9 months
b.
5-6 months
d.
at approximately 12 months

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Factual

100. An example of shape constancy is:
a.
recognizing that a door is a rectangle whether it be closed or ajar.
b.
perceiving a ruler to be 12 inches long even when viewed from 6 feet away.
c.
seeing someone in your peripheral vision.
d.
scanning a human face from the edges inward.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Application

101. If stimuli A and B are the same object, but are seen from different angles, what does it mean if the infants heart rate and pattern of gazing do not change?
a.
The infant does not recognize shape A, as it is a novel object.
b.
The infant does not recognize shape B, as it is a novel object.
c.
The infant recognizes shape A and B to be the same.
d.
There is too little information to tell.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Application

102. By what age do infants show similar accuracy to adults in sound localization?
a.
6 months
c.
18 months
b.
12 months
d.
24 months

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Factual

103. In the habituation method:
a.
infants show new interest in something they have not seen or heard before.
b.
infants show recognition by no longer responding to something they have seen or heard before.
c.
infants show that they can distinguish parental voices by 4 weeks of age.
d.
infants show visual preferences by attending to objects they prefer longer.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

104. Research on language development shows that:
a.
infants are born prewired to learn their native language.
b.
children are born able to speak any language and this ability never goes away.
c.
children are born ready to learn any language but quickly adapt to their native language.
d.
Children cannot discriminate the sounds of any language until about 2 years of age.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 94 OBJ: 05-04
KEY: BTC MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

105. Research on infants coordination of senses has shown:
a.
infants have no ability to coordinate senses until they are one year of age.
b.
infants can coordinate sensory information at birth.
c.
infants can typically coordinate sensory information by one month of age.
d.
infants can coordinate visual and auditory information early on, but not visual and tactile information.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: p. 94 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Application

106. Which of the following provides evidence that nature, as opposed to nurture, plays an important role in infant perceptual development?
a.
Infants are born with a tendency to track moving objects and to scan the horizon.
b.
Failure to receive adequate sensory stimulation can result in sensory deficits.
c.
Infants who have one eye patched for an extensive period of time may develop impaired visual acuity.
d.
none of these

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 95 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

107. Which of the following does NOT support the notion that perception becomes more active through childhood?
a.
Infants scan their environments more purposefully with age.
b.
Infants search their environments more systematically with age.
c.
Infants are better able to ignore irrelevant information as they get older.
d.
Attention becomes more general with age, with children paying attention to more stimuli as they get older.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 95 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Factual

108. Which of the following suggests that nature is crucial in perceptual development?
a.
Neonates are born with a variety of sensory preferences.
b.
Neonates are unable to visually accommodate.
c.
Four-month-olds are able to distinguish between their mothers and fathers voices.
d.
Kittens whose eyes are patched develop few cells in their visual cortexes.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: p. 95 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

109. Which of the following supports the notion that nurture is important in perceptual development?
a.
Neonates recognize the differences among many language sounds.
b.
Neonates prefer the taste of sweet over bitter.
c.
Neonates prefer their mothers underarm odors to other womens odors.
d.
Kittens whose eyes are patched develop few cells in their visual cortexes.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: p. 95 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

MATCHING

Match the following:
a.
refuses to eat
k.
grabs using the thumb
b.
grabs without using the thumb
l.
development from top to bottom
c.
breast feed for at least one year
m.
pay attention to edges of objects
d.
the part of the neuron that receives information
n.
perceive objects as same even from an angle
e.
systematically scan within boundaries of objects
o.
returning to ones genetically determined pattern of growth
f.
development from center to outer
p.
myelination of nerves to muscles
g.
fatty substance that coats neurons
q.
facilitates motor control
h.
controls heartbeat and breathing
r.
perceive object as same even from a distance
i.
responsible for learning, thinking, memory and language
s.
associated with lower risk of child lymphoma
j.
sends messages from the neurons cell body
t.
chemical messengers released from neurons

1. Cephalocaudal

2. Axon

3. Cerebellum

4. Breastfeeding

5. Size constancy

6. Two years of age

7. One month olds

8. Proximodistal

9. Ulnar grasp

10. Dendrites

11. Failure to Thrive

12. Myelin

13. Neurotransmitters

14. Two month olds

15. Medulla

16. Cerebrum

17. Shape constancy

18. Pincer grasp

19. Gold standard

20. Canalization

1. ANS: L

2. ANS: J

3. ANS: Q

4. ANS: S

5. ANS: R

6. ANS: P

7. ANS: M

8. ANS: F

9. ANS: B

10. ANS: D

11. ANS: A

12. ANS: G

13. ANS: T

14. ANS: E

15. ANS: H

16. ANS: I

17. ANS: N

18. ANS: K

19. ANS: C

20. ANS: O

TRUE/FALSE

1. Cephalocaudal development goes from feet to head.

ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

2. Leg buds develop before arm buds during the prenatal period.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

3. During the prenatal period, the head is much larger than other parts of the body.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

4. Infants gain control over their trunks and their shoulders before they can control their arms, hands, and fingers.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

5. Differentiation refers to specific rather than global actions.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

6. The legs of a newborn will increase in length fivefold by adulthood.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

7. The most dramatic gains in height and weight occur during the first year of life.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 80 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

8. Infants have been shown to grow between half a centimeter to 2.5 centimeters in one day.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 81 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

9. Over 20 percent of newborns in the United States show Failure to Thrive.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

10. Failure to thrive syndrome has been found to be caused by psychological factors only.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

11. Children who had been diagnosed with Failure to Thrive in infancy were smaller, less cognitively advanced, and more emotionally disturbed than other children.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

12. Canalization is a genetic tendency to experience physical problems.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

13. A childs growth can be slowed from its genetically predetermined course by many organic factors, including illness and malnutrition.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: p. 82 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

14. It is important to restrict infants intake of fat and cholesterol just as much as it is for adults.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

15. Infants need more iron, pound for pound, than adults in their diet.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

16. Only about 20 percent of U.S. mothers breastfeed.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

17. Breast milk is not as nutritious as formula for babies over six months of age.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

18. Breast milk may reduce the childs risk of certain cancers.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

19. Breast milk has been shown to reduce the risk of asthma and chicken pox.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: p. 83 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

20. Breastfeeding has no health benefits for the mother.

ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Factual

21. HIV cannot be passed to the infant through breastfeeding.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-01
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

22. Dendrites send information on to connecting neurons.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

23. Myelin allows electrical messages to be conducted more efficiently.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

24. The cerebellum is the part of the brain that allows for balance and motor control.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

25. Reaction range refers to a childs genetic possibilities.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 90 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

26. Myelination of certain parts of the brain continues into the second decade of life.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

27. Multiple sclerosis damages the myelin sheath in the brain, affecting motor control.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Factual

28. The human brain reaches about half of its adult weight by one year of age.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: p. 86 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

29. The medulla is responsible for higher level thinking and memory.

ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: p. 85 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual

30. The first major growth spurt of the brain occurs during the fourth and fifth months after birth.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 86 OBJ: 05-02
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

31. Myelination of the neurons involved in hearing begins about the sixth month of pregnancy.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Factual
32. Only nature has an effect on brain development.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

33. Studies have shown that rats exposed to the more complex environments develop heavier brains than control animals.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

34. Infants have more connections among neurons than adults do.

ANS: T DIF: Difficult REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-02
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

35. Unlike physical development, motor development does not follow cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

36. Most infants can walk by 10 months of age.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

37. Crawling is an important developmental milestone.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

38. Only nature influence motor development.

ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: p. 89 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

39. Training has been shown to have moderate to no influence on speeding up motor development.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 90 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

40. The ulnar grasp develops before the pincer grasp in infants.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 88 OBJ: 05-03
MSC: TYPE: Application

41. A child reaches adult levels of visual acuity by about 6 months of age.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

42. Neonates have poor peripheral vision and low visual acuity.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Factual

43. Infants prefer to look at human faces over other visual arrays.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: p. 91 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

44. One-month-old infants tend to pay most attention to the edges of human faces.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 92 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

45. Crawling infants tend to crawl over the visual cliff when given the opportunity.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 92 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

46. Size constancy is the tendency to perceive the same objects as being of the same size even though their retinal sizes vary as a function of their distance.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

47. Size constancy is evident in young infants.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

48. It is only by four months of age that infants can turn their heads in the direction of a sound.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

49. Young infants are capable of perceiving most of the speech sounds present in the worlds languages

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 94 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

50. It is not until one year of age that infants are able to distinguish language sounds that are similar to each other.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 94 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Factual

51. Infants as young as one month of age can coordinate information from more than one sense.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 94 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

52. The coordination of the senses has been demonstrated in infants as young as five months of age.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 94 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Factual

53. Children become more passive in response to their environments as they age.

ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: p. 94 OBJ: 05-04
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Application

54. Sensory changes appear to be linked to maturation of the nervous system.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 95 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

55. Newborn kittens whose eyes are patched continue to develop connections in their visual cortex.

ANS: F DIF: Difficult REF: p. 95 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

56. Children tend to become more active in their responses to the sensory information as they age.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 94 OBJ: 05-04

57. Both nature and nurture have been shown to affect sensory development in children.

ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: p. 95 OBJ: 05-04
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

COMPLETION

1. The ____________________ principle is demonstrated by the fact that the head is the largest part of the embryo.

ANS: cephalocaudal

REF: p. 80

2. The ____________________ principle relates to the fact that the brain and spinal cord develop before the infant can control its arms and legs.

ANS: proximodistal

REF: p. 80

3. As children mature, their physical reactions become less global and more specific, demonstrating the principle of ____________________.

ANS: differentiation

REF: p. 80

4. ____________________ is a serious disorder that impairs growth in infancy and early childhood which may have organic and nonorganic causes.

ANS: Failure to thrive syndrome/FTT

REF: p. 82

5. The tendency to return to ones genetically determined pattern of growth is referred to as ____________________.

ANS: canalization

REF: p. 82

6. It is not recommended to introduce solid food to infants until ____________________ months of age.

ANS: 4 to 6

REF: p. 82

7. Breastfeeding for a minimum of ____________________ is considered the gold standard.

ANS: one year

REF: p. 83

8. ____________________ contains the mothers antibodies and helps the infant ward off health problems ranging from ear infections, pneumonia, wheezing, bronchiolitis, and tetanus to chicken pox, bacterial meningitis, and typhoid fever.

ANS: Breast milk

REF: p. 83

9. One downside of breastfeeding is that ____________________ can be transmitted from mother to child this way.

ANS: HIV/AIDS

REF: p. 84

10. ____________________ receive incoming messages from other neurons while ____________________ send messages to other neurons.

ANS: Dendrites; axons

REF: p. 84

11. Myelination increases the ____________________ of central nervous system.

ANS: efficiency

REF: p. 84

12. The ____________________ is responsible for controlling the basic living functions, such as breathing and heartbeat.

ANS: medulla

REF: p. 85

13. The first major ____________________ of the brain occurs during the fourth and fifth months of prenatal development, when neurons proliferate.

ANS: growth spurt

REF: p. 86

14. Rats exposed to ____________________ have been shown to have heavier brains than ____________________.

ANS: complex environments ; control animals

REF: p. 87

15. The ____________________ grasp does not involve the thumb, while the ____________________ does.

ANS: ulnar; pincer

REF: p. 88

16. ____________________ is the movement from one place to another.

ANS: Locomotion

REF: p. 89

17. Most infants can remain in a standing position by holding on to something at the age of ____________________ months.

ANS: 8 to 9

REF: p. 89

18. Certain voluntary motor activities are not possible until the brain has matured in terms of ____________________ and ____________________ of the motor areas of the cortex.

ANS: myelination; differentiation

REF: p. 89

19. The development of motor skills can be accelerated by ____________________, but the effect seems slight.

ANS: training

REF: p. 90
20. Neonates have poor ____________________ vision.

ANS: peripheral

REF: p. 90

21. Research has shown that infants have a preference for ____________________ lines over ____________________ lines.

ANS: curvy; straight

REF: p. 91

22. In a classic experiment, Fantz (1961) found that infants looked longer at images of ____________________ than ____________________.

ANS: human faces; bulls eyes/newsprint/color disks

REF: p. 91

23. Neonates appear to direct their attention to the ____________________ of objects.

ANS: edges

REF: p. 91

24. Research suggests that neonates are most concerned with ____________________ things are while older infants are more concerned about ____________________ things are.

ANS: where; what

REF: p. 92

25. Gibson and Walk (1960) designed a device called the ____________________ to study infants depth perception.

ANS: visual cliff

REF: p. 92

26. The decrease in heart rate of young infants placed on the visual cliff indicates ____________________ not ____________________.

ANS: interest; fear

REF: p. 92

27. Perceptual ____________________ is the tendency to perceive an object to be the same, even though the sensations produced by the object may differ under various conditions.

ANS: constancy

REF: p. 93

28. Bower (1974) conditioned 21/2- to 3-month-old infants to turn their heads to the left when shown a 12-inch cube from a distance of 3 feet. This showed their ability to detect ____________________.

ANS: size constancy

REF: p. 93

29. When the top of a cup or a glass is seen from above, the visual sensations are in the shape of a circle. When seen from a slight angle, the sensations are elliptical, but we perceive the image as a circle. This is because of our perception of ____________________.

ANS: shape constancy

REF: p. 93

30. As infants mature, the range of the pitch of the sounds they can sense gradually expands to include the adults range of ______________ to _________________ cycles per second

ANS: 20; 20,000

REF: p. 93

31. In a classic study using the ____________________ method, one-month-old infants learned to activate a recording of bah by sucking on a nipple. After getting tired of the bah sound, the babies sucked harder when they heard a pah sound.

ANS: habituation

REF: p. 93

32. Infants can screen out meaningless sounds as early as ____________________.

ANS: six months

REF: p. 94

33. Infants as young as ____________________ have been shown to be able to recognize objects experienced with one sense as similar to objects experience with another sense.

ANS: one month

REF: p. 94

34. According to the author of the text, while children may have more sophisticated sensory capabilities than expected, their ways of perceiving the world are largely ____________________.

ANS: mechanical/passive

REF: p. 94

35. As infants develop, ____________________ action replaces ____________________ responses to stimulation

ANS: intentional; automatic

REF: p. 95

36. According to Eleanor Gibson (1969, 1991), ____________________ search replaces ____________________ search in infants perception.

ANS: systematic; unsystematic

REF: p. 95

37. Infants are born with tendencies to track moving objects, to systematically scan the horizon, and to prefer certain kinds of stimuli. Each of these are evidence of the role of ____________________ in perceptual development.

ANS: nature

REF: p. 95

38. ____________________ is a disorder where the myelin sheath is destroyed and motor capabilities are diminished.

ANS: Multiple sclerosis

REF: p. 85

39. Regardless of the cause or causes of Failure to Thrive syndrome (FTT), ____________________ are central.

ANS: feeding problems

REF: p. 82

40. In the U.S., infants and young children from ____________________ are more likely to display signs of poor nutrition such as anemia or Failure to Thrive (FTT) syndrome than are other children.

ANS: poor families

REF: p. 85

41. The author of the text suggests not to overly restrict ____________________ and ____________________ in an infants diet but to be careful not to overdo the ____________________.

ANS: fat; cholesterol; fiber

REF: p. 83

42. Today, most American mothersmore than _____________ percentbreastfeed their children for at least a while, but only about ______________ continue to breastfeed after 6 months, and ____________________ is still breastfeeding after 1 year

ANS: 70; 2 in 5; 1 in 5

REF: p.83

43. Breast feeding has health benefits for the mother. It reduces the risk of early ____________________ and ____________________, and it builds the strength of ____________________.

ANS: breast cancer; ovarian cancer; bones

REF: p. 83

44. People are born with about ____________________ neurons, most of which are in the brain.

ANS: 100 billion

REF: p. 84

45. The development of intentional physical activity coincides with ____________________ as the unorganized movements of the neonate come under increasing control.

ANS: myelination

REF: p. 86-87

46. ____________________ that are activated by experience survive; the others do not.

ANS: Neural connections

REF: p. 87

47. On average, children can stack two blocks at ___________ months, three blocks at ___________ months, and five blocks at ___________ months.

ANS: 15; 18; 24

REF: p. 88

48. Most infants can roll over from back to stomach and from stomach to back by about the age of ____________________.

ANS: six months

REF: p. 89

49. Although the neonate shows stepping and swimming reflexes, these behaviors are controlled by more ____________________ parts of the brain.

ANS: primitive

REF: p. 89

SHORT ANSWER

1. When it comes to human development, what does the term differentiation mean?

ANS: In a technical sense, this term describes a tendency for behavior to become more specific and distinct as the child matures. For example, if a young infant gets a finger pinched in a toy, she may withdraw the hand but also may flail around and cry in a general pattern of distress. As the child gets older, she may withdraw the hand and cry but not show the overall pattern of distress. The infant appears to become increasingly able to isolate responses that are specific to what has occurred.

REF: p. 80

2. Briefly describe what the parts of a neuron do.

ANS: In a simple sense, there are three main parts to a neuron. The dendrites are branch-like fibers that are considered to be the receivers for the neuron. They will gather messages from other neurons and send that information to the cell body for processing. If a threshold is reached in the cell body, it will send that message down the axon for potential transfer to another neuron. The cell body is like the processing unit and the axon guides where the output goes. The axon contains neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) that may be deposited into the gap between neurons. The messengers may be received by dendrites of connecting neurons and the process continues. Another important structure is myelin. This is a fatty substance that wraps around neurons, insulating them and increasing the efficiency of the communication of messages.

REF: p. 84

3. Briefly describe the difference(s) between cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns of development.

ANS: Cephalocaudal development essentially means from head to tail. In other words, human beings tend to develop from the top down. For example, the most highly developed part of the body at birth is the head and brain. This is important because the brain is involved in all aspects of development that occur after birth, and as such, it needs to be the most highly developed. As the infant gains strength, this pattern continues. She can lift her head and torso off the ground, for example, before she can exert much control over her arms and legs. Proximodistal development is a pattern that means from the center out. Infants can control their trunks or torsos before they can control their fingers and toes.

REF: p. 80

4. Discuss what is meant by canalization when it comes to human development.

ANS: Canalization refers to the tendency to return to ones genetically determined pattern of growth. In other words, if something has happened that has interfered with the childs growth, such as an illness or poor nutrition, the child will tend to catch up once that challenge has passed or been taken care of. Frequently, this means that a child who has shown a deficiency will demonstrate acceleration in development and will return to approximately the normal course of development for that individual.

REF: p. 82

5. What are the benefits and problems associated with breastfeeding?

ANS: Breastfeeding has many benefits both to the infant and the mother. First of all, breast milk is less likely to upset an infants stomach than formula and provides adequate nutrition for at least the first six months of life. As the infant matures, the composition of breast milk changes to help meet the infants changing needs. The antibodies in breast milk helps the infant ward off a variety of health problems, ranging from respiratory problems such as asthma and pneumonia to tetanus, chicken pox, bacterial meningitis, and typhoid fever. It also has been shown to reduce the risk of childhood lymphoma and serious cases of diarrhea. Infants who are nourished by breast milk are less likely to develop allergic responses and constipation and to develop obesity later in life.
For the mother who breastfeeds, there is a reduced risk of early onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Breastfeeding women also tend to have stronger bones than those who did not breastfeed. The uterus shrinks after childbirth with the help of breastfeeding.
Some of the problems associated with breastfeeding may include less involvement of the other parent in feeding of the infant, more difficulties in returning to work, a need for better nourishment of the breastfeeding mother, and transmission of certain hazards such as PCBs and the HIV/AIDS virus through breast milk.

REF: p. 83-84

6. What are the roles of myelination?

ANS: The development of the myelin sheath, which acts as an insulation for neurons, improves conduction of nerve impulses, making neural transmiss

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