Campbell Biology Concepts & Connections 8th Edition by Jane B. Reece Test Bank

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Campbell Biology Concepts & Connections 8th Edition by Jane B. Reece Test Bank

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Campbell Biology Concepts & Connections 8th Edition by Jane B. Reece Test Bank

Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections, 8e (Reece et al.)
Chapter 2 The Chemical Basis of Life
2.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The four most common elements in living organisms are
A) C, H, O, Fe.
B) C, H, O, Na.
C) C, H, O, N.
D) C, N, O, Na.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.1
2) Which of the following is a trace element in the human body?
A) nitrogen
B) zinc
C) oxygen
D) hydrogen
Answer: B
Topic: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.1
3) Which of the following statements regarding matter is false?
A) All life is composed of matter.
B) All matter has mass.
C) All matter is composed of elements.
D) All matter exists in the form of compounds.
Answer: D
Topic: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.1
4) Which of the following statements best describes a compound?
A) A compound is a pure element.
B) A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
C) A compound is exemplified by sodium.
D) A compound is a solution.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.1
5) In the equation 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O,
A) H2, O2, and H2O are all compounds.
B) H2, O2, and H2O are all elements.
C) only H2O is a compound.
D) only H2 and O2 are compounds.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.1
Global LO: 2
6) Which of the following trace elements needed by humans is commonly added to table salt?
A) iodine
B) iron
C) magnesium
D) fluoride
Answer: A
Topic: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.1
Global LO: 5
7) In some areas, fluoride is added during the municipal water treatment process in order to help
A) prevent goiter.
B) prevent the growth of bacteria.
C) prevent the development of mental retardation.
D) reduce tooth decay.
Answer: D
Topic: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.1
Global LO: 5
8) Which of the following particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
A) protons and neutrons
B) protons and electrons
C) only protons
D) only electrons
Answer: A
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.2
9) Electrons move about the nucleus of an atom in the same way that
A) insects fly around a bright lamp at night.
B) cars are parked along the sides of a street.
C) boats cross a lake.
D) birds migrate to a new winter home.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 2
10) What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
A) 6
B) 8
C) 12
D) 18
Answer: C
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 2, 4
11) An uncharged atom of boron has an atomic number of 5 and an atomic mass of 11. How many electrons does boron have?
A) 11
B) 15
C) 5
D) 2
Answer: C
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 2
12) Which of the following is another term used for atomic mass?
A) darwin
B) mendel
C) dalton
D) calvin
Answer: C
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.2
13) The sodium atom contains 11 electrons, 11 protons, and 12 neutrons. What is the mass number of sodium?
A) 11
B) 22
C) 23
D) 34
Answer: C
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 2, 4
14) Which of the following best describes the atomic number of an atom?
A) the number of protons in the atom
B) the number of electrons in the atom
C) the number of neutrons in the atom
D) the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the atom
Answer: A
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.2
15) Typically, nitrogen atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. An isotope of nitrogen could
A) be positively charged.
B) be negatively charged.
C) have more protons than the usual nitrogen atom.
D) have more neutrons than the usual nitrogen atom.
Answer: D
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.2
16) A radioactive isotope is an isotope that
A) is stable.
B) decays.
C) has more protons than the common variant of the element.
D) has the same atomic mass but a different atomic number than the common variant of the element.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.2
17) If you found a fossilized dinosaur bone, what could be done to determine the age of the fossil?
A) Extract and sequence DNA from the bone.
B) Look at pieces of the bone under a microscope.
C) Analyze the isotopes of carbon in the fossil.
D) Compare the appearance of the bone to other fossilized bones.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 2
18) Which of the following statements about radioactive isotopes is true?
A) The nuclei of radioactive isotopes are unusually stable, but the atoms tend to lose electrons.
B) When given a choice between radioactive and nonradioactive isotopes of the same atom, living cells are more likely to incorporate the radioactive isotopes into their structures.
C) The energy emitted by radioactive isotopes can break chemical bonds and cause molecular damage in cells.
D) Radioactive elements are natural and therefore not harmful.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.2
19) Radioactive isotopes
A) are frequently added to foods as nutritional supplements.
B) can be used in conjunction with PET scans to diagnose diseases.
C) do not occur naturally.
D) are never incorporated into organic compounds.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 5
20) When full, the innermost electron shell of argon contains ________ electrons, and the outermost shell contains ________ electrons.
A) 2; 2
B) 2; 8
C) 4; 8
D) 8; 8
Answer: B
Topic: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.3
21) What happens to an atom if the electrons in the outer shell are altered?
A) The atom becomes radioactive.
B) The atom disintegrates.
C) The properties of the atom change.
D) The atoms characteristics change, and it becomes a different element.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.3
22) A(n) ________ forms when two atoms share electrons.
A) ion
B) covalent bond
C) ionic bond
D) hydrogen bond
Answer: B
Topic: 2.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4
23) A hydrogen atom has one electron. How many covalent bonds can hydrogen form?
A) one
B) two
C) four
D) none
Answer: A
Topic: 2.6
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.4
Global LO: 2
24) Table salt is formed when
A) chlorine gives an electron to sodium.
B) a hydrogen bond forms between sodium and chlorine.
C) sodium and chlorine share electrons to form a bond.
D) sodium donates its single outer electron to chlorine.
Answer: D
Topic: 2.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4
25) The body uses atoms in different ways to accomplish different tasks. For example, one portion of the bodys calcium supply strengthens bones, whereas another portion combines with proteins to stimulate blood clotting after tissue injury. Which of the following statements provides the most logical chemical explanation of calciums ability to perform such different functions?
A) The bone contains calcium salts, which are less reactive than the calcium ions found in the blood.
B) The calcium in blood is a more reactive form of the atom and therefore has fewer protons than the calcium in bone.
C) There are many different isotopes of calcium, and the most reactive isotope is found in the bone.
D) The calcium in blood has a lighter atomic mass than the calcium in bone and is in a more reactive form.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.7
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 2.4
Global LO: 2
26) Medicines are often administered in pill form. In many cases, the active ingredient of the pill (the drug) is joined to another substance by ________. This forms a(n) ________, which is stable in the dry environment of a pill bottle but dissociates under the wet conditions of the digestive system to release the drug to the body.
A) ionic bonds; salt
B) hydrogen bonds; base
C) ionic bonds; acid
D) covalent bonds; salt
Answer: A
Topic: 2.7
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.4
Global LO: 2
27) What is the fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding?
A) In a covalent bond, the partners share a pair of electrons; in an ionic bond, one partner accepts electrons from the other.
B) In covalent bonding, both partners end up with filled outer electron shells; in ionic bonding, one partner does and the other does not.
C) Covalent bonding involves only the outermost electron shell; ionic bonding also involves the next electron shell inside the outermost shell.
D) Covalent bonds form between atoms of the same element; ionic bonds form between atoms of different elements.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.6, 2.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4
28) Which of the following statements regarding the oxygen atom of a water molecule is true?
A) Oxygen is more positively charged than the hydrogen atoms.
B) Oxygen attracts electrons less strongly than the hydrogen atoms.
C) Oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.
D) Oxygen is attracted to the negatively charged atoms of other molecules.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.8
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4, 2.5
29) In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a ________ bond.
A) double covalent
B) nonpolar covalent
C) hydrogen
D) polar covalent
Answer: D
Topic: 2.8
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4, 2.5
30) A single water molecule (HOH) is held together by
A) a single covalent bond.
B) a double covalent bond.
C) two polar covalent bonds.
D) hydrogen bonds.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.8
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4, 2.5
31) The hydrogen atoms of a water molecule are bonded to the oxygen atom by ________ bonds, whereas neighboring water molecules are held together by ________ bonds.
A) hydrogen; polar covalent
B) polar covalent; hydrogen
C) ionic; covalent
D) polar covalent; ionic
Answer: B
Topic: 2.8
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4, 2.5
32) ________ are weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to form molecules but are strong enough to form bonds within and around large molecules.
A) Ionic bonds
B) Covalent bonds
C) Polar covalent bonds
D) Hydrogen bonds
Answer: D
Topic: 2.8
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4, 2.5
33) Water molecules stick to other water molecules because
A) water molecules are neutral, and neutral molecules are attracted to each other.
B) hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules.
C) covalent bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules.
D) the oxygen atoms of adjacent water molecules are attracted to one another.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.8
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4, 2.5, 2.6
34) Which of the following statements regarding chemical reactions is false?
A) Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds.
B) Some chemical reactions create electrons; others destroy them.
C) The reactants contain the same number of atoms as the products.
D) Although the atoms of a reactions reactants and products are identical to each other, their molecular formulas differ.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.9
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4
35) In the equation 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O, the H2 molecules are ________ and the H2O molecules are ________.
A) reactants; products
B) products; reactants
C) created; destroyed
D) used; stored
Answer: A
Topic: 2.9
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4
36) In plants, the process of photosynthesis produces glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Which of the following statements about photosynthesis is true?
A) All of the carbon atoms from the carbon dioxide atoms are found in glucose.
B) More atoms are present at the beginning than at the end.
C) More carbon dioxide is released from the plant than is absorbed.
D) Water is synthesized by the plant from H2 and O2.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.9
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.4
37) The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as
A) adhesion.
B) polarity.
C) cohesion.
D) transpiration.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.10
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
38) Waters surface tension and heat storage capacity are accounted for by its
A) orbitals.
B) hydrogen bonds.
C) mass.
D) size.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.10, 2.11
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
39) The temperature of evaporation is much higher for water than for alcohol. Without knowing more about the chemistry of alcohol, which of the following is the most logical chemical explanation for this phenomenon?
A) Ionic bonds form between alcohol molecules. These are the weakest type of bond and are easier to break than the hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
B) Alcohol has a higher surface tension than water. This means that alcohol molecules can easily break away from other alcohol molecules and evaporate at a lower temperature.
C) Alcohol molecules are more cohesive than water molecules. This means that as alcohol molecules evaporate, they pull other alcohol molecules into the air along with them.
D) Fewer hydrogen bonds form between alcohol molecules. As a result, less heat is needed for alcohol molecules to break away from solution and enter the air.
Answer: D
Topic: 2.11
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 2
40) As ice melts,
A) hydrogen bonds are broken.
B) water molecules become less tightly packed.
C) the water becomes less dense.
D) heat is released.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.12
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
41) Which of the following statements about water is false?
A) Ice is more dense than liquid water.
B) Water naturally exists in all three physical states on Earth.
C) Floating ice on a pond insulates the liquid water below, slowing its rate of freezing.
D) If ice sank, the oceans would eventually freeze solid.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.12
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
42) Youve made a hot drink by dissolving a teaspoon of instant coffee and a teaspoon of sugar in a cup of hot water. Which of the following statements is true?
A) Youve just prepared an aqueous solution.
B) The water is the solute portion of the drink.
C) The instant coffee and sugar are solvents.
D) The instant coffee and sugar dissolve because they have no charged regions to repel the partial positive and partial negative regions of the water molecules.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.13
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 2
43) Which of the following is dependent on the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules besides water?
A) the evaporative cooling of skin surfaces
B) the milder temperatures of coastal regions compared to inland areas
C) the ability of certain insects to walk on the surface of water
D) the universality of water as a solvent
Answer: D
Topic: 2.10, 2.11, 2.13
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 2
44) Clots in our blood can lead to a heart attack or stroke by blocking blood flow. If a clot were made up of a mass of proteins, what changed in the proteins to cause them to form the clot?
A) The proteins became more polar.
B) The blood became saturated with proteins.
C) The proteins were no longer soluble in the blood.
D) The proteins became more soluble in the blood.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.13
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 2, 5
45) A pharmaceutical company hires a chemist to analyze the purity of the water being used in its drug preparations. If the water is pure, the chemist would expect to find
A) only molecules of H2O.
B) H2O molecules and H+ ions.
C) H2O molecules, H+ ions, and OH- ions.
D) only H+ ions and OH- ions.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
46) A solution with a pH of 7 is
A) strongly acidic.
B) weakly acidic.
C) neutral.
D) weakly basic.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
47) Compared to a solution of pH 3, a solution of pH 1 is
A) 100 times more acidic.
B) 10 times more acidic.
C) 10 times more basic.
D) 100 times more basic.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 4
48) Which of the following statements about pH is true?
A) The pH scale is a measure of oxygen ion concentration.
B) A single unit change on the pH scale is equivalent to a 1% change in hydrogen ion concentration.
C) An increase in hydrogen ion concentration means a decrease in pH scale units.
D) Basic pH levels are less than 7.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
49) Household ammonia has a pH of 12; household bleach has a pH of 13. Which of the following statements about these substances is true?
A) Both of these substances are strong acids.
B) The ammonia has 10 times as many OH- ions as the bleach.
C) The ammonia has 10 times as many H+ ions as the bleach.
D) A solution that could buffer the bleach and ammonia would remove excess OH- ions.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 4
50) A buffer
A) is an acid that is used to offset overly basic conditions in the body.
B) is a base that is used to offset overly acidic conditions in the body.
C) donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic.
D) donates OH- ions when conditions become too basic and accepts OH- ions when conditions become too acidic.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.6
51) A diabetic, who does not utilize insulin properly, will metabolize fats instead of glucose. A condition called diabetic ketoacidosis is a common result of excessive fat metabolism, causing blood pH values of 7.1 or less (normal range is 7.35-7.45). What has happened to the blood pH and why?
A) The pH is above normal (basic) because the ketones are too basic.
B) The pH is below normal (acidic) because the buffering capacity was exceeded.
C) The pH is not affected because the blood buffers can absorb the excess H+.
D) The pH is below normal because buffers can donate OH+.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.6, 2.7
Global LO: 2, 5
52) Which of the following hypotheses would be supported if liquid water were found on Mars and contained evidence of bacteria-like organisms?
A) Life must evolve in the presence of oxygen.
B) The chemical evolution of life is possible.
C) Life on Earth must have originated on Mars.
D) Life is guided by intelligent design.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.16
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.7
Global LO: 2
53) Silicon is an element that is found directly underneath carbon in the periodic table. How many electrons are in the valence shell of a silicon atom?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 4
D) 6
Answer: C
Topic: 2.5
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.3
Global LO: 2
54) Consider the following situations: (1) a magnesium atom and two chlorine atoms join together to form a molecule of magnesium chloride; (2) water molecules interact with each other in a beaker; and (3) two carbon atom and six hydrogen atoms join together to form ethane. Rank the strength of the bonding interactions taking place in each situation, from the weakest bonds to the strongest bonds.
A) 1 < 2 < 3
B) 3 < 2 < 1
C) 2 < 3 < 1
D) 2 < 1 < 3
Answer: D
Topic: 2.6, 2.7, 2.8
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 2.4
Global LO: 2
55) In ocean acidification, dissolving CO2 gas ________ the pH of the ocean.
A) lowers
B) does not affect
C) raises
D) triples
Answer: A
Topic: 2.15
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.7
56) How will a lower ocean pH caused by ocean acidification affect coral reefs?
A) Coral reefs will grow faster because there are more carbonate ions available.
B) Coral reefs will grow slower because there are fewer carbonate ions available.
C) Coral reefs will grow faster because there are more bicarbonate ions available.
D) Coral reefs will grow slower because there are fewer bicarbonate ions available.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.15
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.7
57) Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration, in which glucose is used to generate ATP to power the cell. The major chemical reaction that takes place in glycolysis (ignoring some other reactants and products) is the conversion of glucose (C6H12O6) to pyruvate (C3H4O3) and hydrogen ions (H+). Using this information, what is the correct equation for the glycolysis chemical reaction?
A) C6H12O6 C3H4O3 + H+
B) C6H12O6 2 C3H4O3 + 2 H+
C) C6H12O6 2 C3H4O3 + H+
D) 2 C6H12O6 C3H4O3 + 2 H+
Answer: B
Topic: 2.9
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.4
Global LO: 2, 4
58) Household ammonia, or ammonium hydroxide, is a mixture of ammonia (NH3) and water. What types of bonding interactions will occur between molecules of ammonia and water in a bottle of household ammonia?
A) polar covalent bonds between positively charged nitrogen atoms in ammonia and negatively charged oxygen atoms in water
B) polar covalent bonds between negatively charged nitrogen atoms in ammonia and positively charged hydrogen atoms in water
C) hydrogen bonds between positively charged nitrogen atoms in ammonia and negatively charged oxygen atoms in water
D) hydrogen bonds between negatively charged nitrogen atoms in ammonia and positively charged hydrogen atoms in water
Answer: D
Topic: 2.8
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.4
Global LO: 2
59) A nutrition facts label from a fortified cereal states that in a single serving of cereal there is 8% of the percent daily value of the element phosphorous. The label also says that a single serving of cereal plus one-half cup of skim milk has 20% of the percent daily value of phosphorus. Which of the following statements is false?
A) A half-cup of skim milk contains 12% of the percent daily value of phosphorus.
B) A half-cup of skim milk contains twice as much phosphorus as a serving of cereal.
C) Eating five servings of cereal and two and a half cups of skim milk will give you 100% of the phosphorus that you need for one day.
D) The amount of phosphorus in six servings of cereal is equal to the amount of phosphorus in two cups of skim milk.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.1
Global LO: 2, 4
2.2 Art Questions
1) What change is occurring in this figure?
A) Chlorine is losing an electron.
B) Sodium is becoming negatively charged.
C) Sodium is filling its third electron shell.
D) Chlorine is filling its third electron shell.
Answer: D
Topic: 2.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 2.3, 2.4
Global LO: 3
2) The figure below shows five water molecules. The hydrogen bonds shown in this figure are each
A) between two hydrogen atoms.
B) between an oxygen and a hydrogen atom of the same water molecule.
C) between an oxygen and a hydrogen atom of different water molecules.
D) between two atoms with the same charge.
Answer: C
Topic: 2.8
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.4
Global LO: 2, 3
3) Below is the structure of octane, the major component of gasoline. What type(s) of bond is (are) found in a molecule of octane?
A) only nonpolar covalent bonds
B) only polar covalent bonds
C) hydrogen bonds and polar covalent bonds
D) ionic bonds and nonpolar covalent bonds
Answer: A
Topic: 2.6
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.4, 2.5
Global LO: 2
4) Below is the structure of leucine, an amino acid. What type of bond is the arrow pointing to?
A) a nonpolar covalent bond
B) a polar covalent bond
C) an ionic bond
D) a hydrogen bond
Answer: B
Topic: 2.6
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.4, 2.5
Global LO: 2
5) Below is a figure from an experiment that was performed to measure the effect of carbonate ion (CO32-) concentration on the calcification (growth) rate of coral reefs. At which point on the graph is the ocean pH the lowest?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
Answer: A
Topic: 2.15
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 2, 3
2.3 Scenario Questions
After reading the paragraph below, answer the questions that follow.
Youve been experiencing acid indigestion lately, and youd like a quick fix for the problem. You do a little research on the Internet and discover that your problem is caused by excess stomach acid. In the pharmacy aisles, however, youre having a little trouble deciding what to purchase to address the problem. At the pharmacy counter, the clerk recommends that you purchase PEPCID AC or Alka-Seltzer tablets.
1) If you could check the pH of the recommended tablets, you would expect it to be
A) higher than 7.
B) lower than 7.
C) exactly 7.
D) pH neutral.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 2
2) If you were able to chemically analyze your stomach fluids 30 minutes after taking two tablets, you would find
A) more hydrogen ions.
B) fewer hydrogen ions.
C) the same number of hydrogen ions.
D) that the pH in your stomach has decreased.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 2, 5, 6
3) You want to design a controlled experiment to determine which tablet, PEPCID AC or Alka-Seltzer, neutralizes stomach acid the quickest. Which of the following experiments would be the best to perform?
A) Place a PEPCID AC tablet in a beaker of acid at pH 2 and an Alka-Seltzer tablet in a separate beaker of acid at pH 2 and check the pH in the beakers every 2 minutes.
B) Take a PEPCID AC tablet at 8:00 AM on Monday and take an Alka-Seltzer tablet at 8:00 AM on Tuesday and take note of how long it takes you to feel better.
C) Find a group of your friends and go out to a big dinner. Then give half of them a PEPCID AC tablet and give the other half an Alka-Seltzer tablet and tell them to write down how long it takes them to feel better.
D) Place a PEPCID AC tablet in a beaker of acid at pH 2 and an Alka-Seltzer tablet in a separate beaker of acid at pH 2 and record how long it takes for the tablets to dissolve.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 1, 2
4) You hypothesize that a tablet of PEPCID AC can neutralize more stomach acid than a tablet of Alka-Seltzer. If you placed a tablet of each antacid in a beaker of acid at an initial pH of 2, which of the following experimental results would support your hypothesis?
A) After 1 hour, the pH of the solution in the PEPCID AC beaker was 9.2 and the pH of the solution in the Alka-Seltzer beaker was 8.3.
B) After 1 hour, the pH of the solution in the PEPCID AC beaker was 7.9 and the pH of the solution in the Alka-Seltzer beaker was 9.6.
C) After 1 hour, the pH of the solution in the PEPCID AC beaker was equal to that of the pH of the solution in the Alka-Seltzer beaker.
D) It took 3 minutes for the PEPCID AC tablet to fully dissolve and it took 5 minutes for the Alka-Seltzer tablet to fully dissolve.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 1, 2
5) You want to design an experiment to compare the effectiveness of Pepcid AC tablets and Alka-Seltzer tablets. Which of the following facts would be least likely to complicate your experiment and the analysis of your results?
A) PEPCID AC and Alka-Seltzer tablets contain different concentrations of the antacid drug.
B) PEPCID AC and Alka-Seltzer tablets contain different ingredients.
C) The recommended dosage for PEPCID AC and Alka-Seltzer tablets is different.
D) PEPCID AC and Alka-Seltzer tablets are sold in different countries throughout the world.
Answer: D
Topic: 2.14
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 2.6
Global LO: 1, 2
After reading the paragraph below, answer the questions that follow.
Uranium is a metallic element that is used in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. The vast majority of uranium found on Earth is in the form of uranium-238, an isotope with a mass number of 238, while the uranium that is used for nuclear reactors and weapons is uranium-235, an isotope with a mass number of 235.
6) What is the atomic difference between uranium-235 and uranium-238?
A) Uranium-235 has three fewer protons than uranium-238.
B) Uranium-235 has three fewer neutrons than uranium-238.
C) Uranium-235 has three fewer electrons than uranium-238.
D) Uranium-235 has three fewer atoms than uranium-238.
Answer: B
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 2, 5
7) If the atomic mass of uranium is 92, how many neutrons does an atom of uranium-235 have in its nucleus?
A) 92
B) 143
C) 146
D) 235
Answer: B
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 2, 4, 5
8) In a certain type of nuclear reactor, uranium-238 can be converted to plutonium-239, another radioactive element (with an atomic number of 94) that can be used to power nuclear reactions. Which of the following statements regarding uranium-238 and plutonium-239 is false?
A) An atom of plutonium-239 contains one more proton than an atom of uranium-238.
B) An atom of plutonium-239 contains 145 neutrons.
C) An atom of uranium-238 has a smaller mass than an atom of plutonium-239.
D) An atom of plutonium-239 contains two more protons and one fewer neutron than an atom of uranium-238.
Answer: A
Topic: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 2.2
Global LO: 2, 4, 5

Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections, 8e (Reece et al.)
Chapter 20 Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function
20.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The laryngeal nerve is 15 feet long in giraffes because
A) the giraffes throat is located far away from its brain.
B) this nerve connects to the spinal cord.
C) the nerve is modified from an ancestor that did not have a neck.
D) the laryngeal nerve is a vestigial organ.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.1
2) The connection between structure and ________ is a basic concept of biology.
A) species
B) adaptation
C) function
D) sex
Answer: C
Topic: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.2
3) A physiologist is a biologist who studies
A) the structure of body parts.
B) the evolution of animals.
C) the physics of living things.
D) the function of body parts.
Answer: D
Topic: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.2
4) An organ system consists of
A) organs that collectively perform a vital body function.
B) a group of coordinated tissues.
C) a collection of similar cells.
D) blood, lymph, and other body fluids.
Answer: A
Topic: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.2, 20.4
5) Structure in the living world is organized into hierarchical levels. Which of the following correctly lists these from least inclusive to most inclusive?
A) cell, molecule, organ, organ system, tissue, organism
B) molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
C) molecule, cell, organ, organ system, tissue, organism
D) cell, molecule, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Answer: B
Topic: 20.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.4
Global LO: 6
6) The human spine acts like a weight-bearing column. Compare this to the spine of a horse, which acts like an elastic suspension bridge. Which organism would you predict to experience more back pain and why?
A) the horse, because its spine is less evolutionarily advanced
B) the horse, because its spine supports more organ systems than human spines
C) the human, because in order to walk upright, the spine is compressed
D) the human, because of longer neurons
Answer: C
Topic: 20.1
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 20.1
Global LO: 2
7) A leiomyoma is a benign tumor that affects smooth muscle. A large tumor of this type might be predicted to
A) impair a patients ability to walk.
B) result in heart problems.
C) cause uterine pain in female patients.
D) do all of the above.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.6
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.3
Global LO: 2
8) Which of the following is an example of a tissue?
A) heart muscle
B) heart
C) red blood cell
D) circulatory system
Answer: A
Topic: 20.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.2, 20.3
Global LO: 2
9) Which of the following is a major category of animal tissue?
A) epithelium
B) heart
C) lymph
D) biceps
Answer: A
Topic: 20.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
10) Stratified squamous epithelium is well-suited for
A) exchanging materials by diffusion.
B) lining our lungs.
C) lining body surfaces subject to abrasion.
D) secreting mucus.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
11) Epithelial tissues
A) cause body movements.
B) cover both external and internal body surfaces.
C) sense stimuli.
D) form a framework that supports the body.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
12) Which of the following items has a shape most like a squamous epithelial cell?
A) a watermelon
B) a cupcake
C) a fried egg
D) the letter S
Answer: C
Topic: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
13) Which of the following statements about the cells of the mucous membrane lining your air tubes is false?
A) They manufacture secretory products.
B) They are stratified squamous epithelial cells.
C) They are cuboidal or columnar in shape.
D) They carry cilia that sweep mucus up and out of the respiratory system.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
14) The liquid part of the blood that consists of water, salts, and dissolved proteins is known as
A) interstitial fluid.
B) lymph.
C) plasma.
D) platelets.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
15) Which of the following is a type of connective tissue?
A) plasma
B) adipose tissue
C) epithelial tissue
D) muscle tissue
Answer: B
Topic: 20.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
16) Which of the following is formed from a matrix of collagen fibers embedded in a hard mineral substance?
A) cartilage
B) bone
C) adipose tissue
D) fibrous connective tissue
Answer: B
Topic: 20.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
17) What kind of connective tissue has an extracellular liquid matrix called plasma?
A) nerve tissue
B) loose connective tissue
C) adipose tissue
D) blood
Answer: D
Topic: 20.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
18) Connective tissue is different from the other major tissue types in that
A) it is made of cells.
B) the cells are sparsely scattered through a nonliving matrix.
C) it is not made of cells.
D) it is found only in humans.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
19) The most common type of connective tissue in the human body is
A) fibrous connective tissue.
B) adipose tissue.
C) loose connective tissue.
D) bone.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
20) Smooth muscle is responsible for
A) voluntary body activities.
B) the pumping action of the heart.
C) an athletes ability to run a 100-meter dash.
D) involuntary body activities.
Answer: D
Topic: 20.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
21) Which is the most abundant kind of tissue in an animal, such as a gorilla?
A) connective
B) epithelial
C) muscle
D) nerve
Answer: C
Topic: 20.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
22) Which of the following statements regarding skeletal muscle is true?
A) Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by tendons.
B) Skeletal muscle cells do not contain nuclei.
C) Skeletal muscle is largely responsible for involuntary body motions.
D) Skeletal muscle coordinates movement of nutrients and oxygen throughout the body.
Answer: A
Topic: 20.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
23) Unlike both smooth and skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle
A) has cells that contact one another.
B) has cells that are striated.
C) generally cannot be contracted at will.
D) has branched cells.
Answer: D
Topic: 20.6
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.3
Global LO: 2
24) The main function of muscle tissue is
A) sensation.
B) support.
C) contraction.
D) covering surfaces.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
25) Which type of tissue forms a communication and coordination system within the body?
A) nervous
B) epithelial
C) connective
D) muscle
Answer: A
Topic: 20.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
26) The structural and functional unit of nervous tissue is the
A) dendrite.
B) axon.
C) neuron.
D) nerve.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
27) An organ represents a higher level of structure than the tissue composing it and performs functions that the tissues cannot perform alone. This is an example of the principle of
A) structural adaptations.
B) cellular regulation.
C) emergent properties.
D) biotechnology.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.8
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.4
Global LO: 2
28) Which of the following statements about organs is false?
A) An organ represents a higher level of structure than the tissues composing it.
B) An organ consists of several tissues.
C) An organ can only carry out the functions of its component tissues.
D) An organ consists of many cells.
Answer: C
Topic: 20.8
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.4
29) Which of the following tissues would likely be found in the small intestine?
A) cardiac muscle
B) nervous tissue
C) bone tissue
D) tendons
Answer: B
Topic: 20.8
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.3
Global LO: 2
30) The respiratory system includes all of the following structures except the
A) esophagus.
B) trachea.
C) larynx.
D) lung.
Answer: A
Topic: 20.10
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.2
31) Which organ system removes nitrogen-containing waste products from blood?
A) lymphatic system
B) integumentary system
C) muscular system
D) urinary system
Answer: D
Topic: 20.10
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.2
32) Fingernails are a component of the ________ system.
A) respiratory
B) integumentary
C) muscular
D) skeletal
Answer: B
Topic: 20.10
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.2
33) Which of the following is a part of the immune system?
A) bone marrow
B) liver
C) pancreas
D) lungs
Answer: A
Topic: 20.10
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.2
34) A common knee injury in athletes involves the anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL. The ACL consists of tissue that connects the bones of the femur (upper leg bone) and tibia (lower leg bone). What kind of tissue would you expect to be damaged in an ACL injury?
A) bone tissue
B) striated muscle tissue
C) fibrous connective tissue
D) cartilage
Answer: C
Topic: 20.5
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.3
Global LO: 2
35) Which of the following is not an example of negative feedback?
A) After eating a meal containing high glucose levels, the pancreas secretes more insulin, a hormone that lowers blood glucose levels.
B) After cutting your finger, the injured tissue releases chemicals that activate platelets in the blood. These activated platelets release chemicals to activate more platelets, leading to the formation of a blood clot.
C) An elevation in blood pressure causes heart rate to decrease, thereby causing blood pressure to decrease.
D) The secretion of the hormone TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine. Thyroxine, in turn, inhibits the secretion of TSH.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.15
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.8
Global LO: 2
36) Which of the following forms of homeostasis would not be affected by a severe burn involving both the epidermis and dermis?
A) control of water loss by the integumentary system
B) protection from microbes by the integumentary system
C) defense against microbes by the immune system
D) sensation of external temperature
Answer: C
Topic: 20.11, 20.14
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.3, 20.7
Global LO: 2
37) Facelifts are a type of cosmetic surgery that are meant to tighten the skin. In addition to the skin, what else would you predict is also involved in this type of surgery?
A) loose connective tissue
B) smooth muscle
C) bone
D) simple cuboidal epithelium
Answer: A
Topic: 20.5, 20.6
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.3
Global LO: 2
38) Suppose that you have scratched a mosquito bite and, in the process, damaged some of your stratified squamous epithelial cells. What will happen?
A) The damaged cells will heal themselves.
B) The cells near the base of the epithelium will rapidly replicate to replace the damaged cells.
C) Vitamin D synthesis will begin, thus encouraging cell replacement.
D) The function of the skin will be totally lost.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.11
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.2
Global LO: 2
39) Which of the following is closely associated with the digestive, respiratory, and urinary systems?
A) the skeletal system
B) the circulatory system
C) the reproductive system
D) the muscular system
Answer: B
Topic: 20.13
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.7
40) Which of the following best represents an adaptation to increase surface-to-volume ratio?
A) the long bones of a giraffe
B) the smooth skin of an earthworm
C) the multilobed sacs in the lungs
D) the striations of skeletal muscle
Answer: C
Topic: 20.13
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.2, 20.7
Global LO: 2
41) Materials such as food, minerals, and oxygen are passed to cells through
A) water.
B) interstitial fluid.
C) matrix fibers.
D) neurons.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.13
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.7
42) Imagine an invertebrate that lives in an estuary where salinity varies cyclically with the tides. If this individual is able to adjust the salt concentration of its body fluids, its salt concentration will have
A) slight fluctuations that are kept within a narrow range.
B) regular variations that range from large to small.
C) a cyclic variation opposite that of the surrounding water.
D) a cyclic variation depending upon when the animal drinks.
Answer: A
Topic: 20.14
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.8
Global LO: 2
43) Homeostasis
A) is the maintenance of a relatively constant internal state.
B) results from hormone imbalance.
C) occurs when the external environment changes to match the internal environment
D) is the way the internal environment influences the external environment.
Answer: A
Topic: 20.14
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.8
44) The vertebrate kidney helps to keep the acidity of body fluids constant by varying the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) it secretes into the urine. You can confidently predict that this aspect of kidney function will be controlled by
A) a positive feedback mechanism.
B) a negative feedback mechanism.
C) nerve impulses from the brain.
D) a hormone produced in the kidney itself.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.15
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.8
Global LO: 2
45) Which of the following is most likely to be responsible if, when your blood sugar level rises, the level of sugar goes back down?
A) the use of the sugar for energy by your cells
B) a homeostatic mechanism based on negative feedback
C) type II diabetes
D) a homeostatic mechanism based on positive feedback
Answer: B
Topic: 20.15
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.8
Global LO: 2
46) Most homeostasis depends on
A) positive feedback control.
B) negative feedback control.
C) hormonal regulation.
D) predictable environmental conditions.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.15
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.8
47) When body temperature is too high, which of the following occurs?
A) The brain sends out distress signals.
B) Blood vessels in the skin dilate.
C) Capillaries contract.
D) The internal lining of the intestine increases in surface area.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.15
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.8
48) Hyperthyroidism treatment in cats usually involves antithyroid medication or the use of radioactive iodine to destroy the abnormal (overactive) tissue growing in the thyroid gland. Surgery to remove the abnormal tissue is generally not advised, as the surgery could also accidentally destroy parathyroid tissue. The parathyroid gland releases a hormone called PTH that increases blood calcium levels. Based on your knowledge of homeostasis, predict why surgery is ill-advised.
A) A lack of PTH will cause blood calcium levels to drop to abnormally low levels.
B) A lack of PTH will cause blood calcium levels to rise to abnormally high levels.
C) Positive feedback will compensate for any problems caused by negative feedback.
D) Surgery will not be a problem because homeostasis will find other ways to regulate blood calcium.
Answer: A
Topic: 20.14
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.8
Global LO: 2
49) The human wrist is very agile, but because of this agility it is also very prone to injuries involving the tissue connecting the wrist bones. This statement illustrates
A) that animal structures are not perfect.
B) that connective tissue can be damaged.
C) that muscle tissue can be damaged.
D) both A and B
Answer: D
Topic: 20.1, 20.5
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.1, 20.3
Global LO: 2
50) Bioengineering does not involve
A) growing cells on a balloon-like scaffold.
B) transplanting unaltered organs.
C) seeding a scaffold of connective tissue matrix with stem cells.
D) using printers to build structures layer by layer.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.9
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.5
51) Which layer of the skin contains connective tissue?
A) epidermis
B) dermis
C) hypodermis
D) Skin does not contain connective tissue.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.11
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.2
52) Which of the following would be additional evidence that one of the functions of skin is the synthesis of vitamin D?
A) Vitamin D levels are higher in people who take supplements, such as multivitamins.
B) Vitamin D levels are lower in people who wear sunscreen.
C) Cancer rates are higher in people with more sun exposure.
D) People living in the tropics are vitamin D deficient.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.11
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 20.2
Global LO: 2
53) Which of the following does not indicate a well-designed study?
A) a control group
B) variables were controlled
C) bias
D) follow-up studies
Answer: C
Topic: 20.12
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.6
Global LO: 1
54) You are looking at a sample of epithelial tissue under a microscope. What would you look for to determine the type of epithelium you are viewing?
A) the number of cell layers
B) the shape of the cells
C) the color of the cells
D) the number of cell layers and the shape of the cells
Answer: D
Topic: 20.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.3
Global LO: 2
55) You are looking at a tissue under a microscope. You see mostly densely packed fibers with some cells scattered throughout. You would predict that the function of this tissue is to
A) attach bones to muscles or other bones.
B) connect epithelia to underlying tissues.
C) conduct electrical impulses.
D) make voluntary movements of the body.
Answer: A
Topic: 20.5
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.3
Global LO: 2
56) If the epithelium that lines the air sacs of your lungs were to gain a layer of cells, which of the following would likely occur?
A) Oxygen will enter the lungs more quickly.
B) Oxygen will enter the lungs more slowly.
C) Secretion of mucus will increase.
D) Oxygen will enter at the same rate, because it is only the shape of the cells that matter.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.4
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 20.3
Global LO: 2
57) Structure in the living world is organized into hierarchical levels. Which of the following correctly lists these from least inclusive to most inclusive?
A) neuron, phospholipid, brain, nervous system, nerve tissue, human
B) phospholipid, neuron, nerve tissue, brain, nervous system, human
C) phospholipid, neuron, brain, nervous system, nerve tissue, human
D) neuron, phospholipid, nerve tissue, nervous system, human
Answer: B
Topic: 20.10
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.4
Global LO: 2, 6
20.2 Art Questions
Use the figure below to answer the questions that follow.
1) Which part of the figure above shows a complete organ system?
A) part A
B) part B
C) part C
D) part D
Answer: D
Topic: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.4
2) Which part of the figure above shows a tissue?
A) part A
B) part B
C) part C
D) part D
Answer: B
Topic: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.4
3) Which part of the figure above shows an organ?
A) part A
B) part B
C) part C
D) part D
Answer: C
Topic: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.4
4) Which type of epithelial tissue shown is a stratified tissue?
A) tissue A
B) tissue B
C) tissue C
D) tissue D
Answer: D
Topic: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.3
20.3 Scenario Questions
After reading the paragraph below, answer the questions that follow.
Under normal conditions, blood sugar levels are controlled within a narrow range by negative feedback. Two hormones are involved in maintaining blood sugar levels at the set point (about 90 mg of glucose/100 mL of blood). When blood sugar levels rise above the set point, the hormone insulin signals the liver to absorb the excess sugar. When blood sugar levels drop below the set point, the hormone glucagon signals the liver to release its stored glucose to the bloodstream. In juvenile onset diabetes, the body doesnt produce enough insulin and insulin supplements are required.
1) Based on your understanding of homeostasis, for negative feedback control of blood glucose levels to function properly,
A) the control center for glucose must be somewhere in the digestive system.
B) there must be sensors that monitor blood glucose levels.
C) there must be several other hormones involved (in addition to insulin and glucagon).
D) the body must prevent glucose levels from changing even slightly.
Answer: B
Topic: 20.15
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 20.8
Global LO: 2
2) If you hadnt eaten for several hours, which hormone would be responsible for returning your glucose levels to the set point?
A) insulin
B) glucagon
C) liver
D) pancreas
Answer: B
Topic: 20.15
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 20.8
Global LO: 2

Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections, 8e (Reece et al.)
Chapter 38 Conservation Biology
38.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The primary goal of conservation biology is to
A) estimate the total number of species that exist.
B) maximize the land set aside for wildlife.
C) integrate human culture back into nature.
D) counter the loss of biodiversity.
Answer: D
Topic: 38.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.1
Global LO: 5
2) By the year 1980, a wolf species (Canis rufus) once common to the southeastern region of the United States disappeared from all areas except for one small part of eastern Texas. This is an example of
A) extirpation.
B) extinction.
C) an invasive species.
D) genetic diversity.
Answer: A
Topic: 38.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 38.1
Global LO: 2
3) The current rate of extinction may be as much as ________ times higher than at any other time in the past 100,000 years.
A) 10
B) 100
C) 1,000
D) 10,000
Answer: C
Topic: 38.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.1
4) Biodiversity considers
A) the genetic diversity within and between populations of a species.
B) the fate of water in the ecosystem.
C) commensal relationships between species.
D) the relationships of individuals to a food chain.
Answer: A
Topic: 38.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.1
5) Currently, the single greatest threat to biodiversity is
A) global warming.
B) habitat destruction due to humans.
C) the introduction of exotic species.
D) overexploitation of populations for food.
Answer: B
Topic: 38.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.2
Global LO: 5
6) You arrive back in the United States after a visit to a foreign country located on another continent. The customs agent stops the person in front of you and confiscates the fruit basket this person is bringing home. Being the knowledgeable person you are, you calmly explain to your enraged fellow traveler that the reason for the detainment is that the fruit basket may be
A) carrying endangered fruit.
B) carrying an exotic species that could damage North American ecosystems.
C) contaminated with chemicals that will damage the ozone layer above North America.
D) contaminated with sufficient DDT to cause serious harm to anyone who eats the fruit.
Answer: B
Topic: 38.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 38.2
Global LO: 2, 5
7) The three greatest current threats to biodiversity, in order starting with the greatest, are
A) habitat loss, overharvesting, and invasive species.
B) habitat loss, invasive species, and overharvesting.
C) invasive species, habitat loss, and overharvesting.
D) invasive species, overharvesting, and habitat loss.
Answer: B
Topic: 38.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.2
Global LO: 5
8) Which of the following is an invasive species?
A) mallard duck in the western United States
B) brown tree snake in Guam
C) elephant in India
D) carrier pigeon in the continental United States
Answer: B
Topic: 38.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.2
Global LO: 5, 6
9) To decrease pollution from sulfur, your local power plant built very tall smokestacks. The ultimate consequence of this would most likely be
A) biological magnification.
B) to dilute the sulfur pollutants in the atmosphere and thus reduce their effects on the environment.
C) to create an environmental problem at a distance from the power plant.
D) a decrease in the pH of local lakes.
Answer: C
Topic: 38.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 38.2
Global LO: 2, 5
10) DDT and mercury
A) were once used as an energy source.
B) contribute to acid precipitation.
C) accumulate in the tissues of organisms.
D) deplete the ozone layer.
Answer: C
Topic: 38.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.2
Global LO: 5
11) Which of the following is a likely consequence of thinning of the ozone layer?
A) increases in skin cancer
B) increases in escape of heat from Earth
C) global warming
D) decreases in flying insect populations
Answer: A
Topic: 38.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.2
Global LO: 5, 6, 8
12) You spray your lawn with a pesticide. The concentration of the pesticide in the tissues of the grass on your lawn is 10-6 parts per million (ppm). Grasshoppers eat the grass and are in turn eaten by rats, which are then eaten by owls. At each successive trophic level, the concentration of pesticides increases. The term for this process is
A) extirpation.
B) biological magnification.
C) habitat loss.
D) climate change.
Answer: B
Topic: 38.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 38.2
Global LO: 5
13) Global warming is the result of
A) rising ocean levels.
B) rising concentrations of greenhouse gases.
C) increased solar activity.
D) habitat loss.
Answer: B
Topic: 38.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.3
Global LO: 5, 8
14) Greenhouse gases include
A) nitrous oxide and oxygen.
B) nitrogen and oxygen.
C) carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
D) carbon dioxide and methane.
Answer: D
Topic: 38.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.3
Global LO: 5
15) The average global temperature has risen ________ over the past 100 years.
A) 3C
B) 10C
C) 5C
D) 0.8C
Answer: D
Topic: 38.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.3
Global LO: 5
16) CO2 in the atmosphere is absorbed by ________ and converted into biomass.
A) the ozone layer
B) other atmosphere gases
C) photosynthetic organisms
D) large land masses
Answer: C
Topic: 38.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.3
Global LO: 5
17) Scientists worry that global warming will result in the oceans
A) becoming more acidic.
B) becoming more basic.
C) containing less dissolved oxygen.
D) containing less dissolved carbon dioxide.
Answer: A
Topic: 38.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.3
Global LO: 5, 8
18) One way in which populations and species have been responding to climate change is by
A) changing their coat color.
B) shifting their distribution.
C) changing their metabolism.
D) evolving a flexible mode of reproduction.
Answer: B
Topic: 38.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.3
19) Which of the following is not an observed effect of global warming on organisms?
A) Some species of birds and frogs now begin their breeding seasons later in the year.
B) Corals bleach when increased water temperatures cause them to expel their symbiotic algae.
C) Many butterfly populations have shifted their ranges to the north.
D) Many polar bears show signs of starvation as their hunting grounds melt away.
Answer: A
Topic: 38.5
Skill: Application/Analysis
Learning Outcome: 38.3
Global LO: 2, 8
20) The ability to change phenotype in response to local environmental conditions is called
A) genetic drift.
B) mutation.
C) alteration of generations.
D) phenotypic plasticity.
Answer: D
Topic: 38.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.3
21) Some populations, especially those with high genetic variability and short life spans, may avoid extinction as the climate changes through
A) enforcement of the Endangered Species Act.
B) bioprospecting.
C) distribution of populations.
D) evolutionary adaptation.
Answer: D
Topic: 38.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.3
22) Protecting the endangered black-footed ferret from extinction involved
A) captive breeding and reintroduction.
B) collecting individuals from multiple small populations and combining them into a single large population.
C) vaccinating the remaining population against sylvatic plague.
D) providing food during harsh winters.
Answer: A
Topic: 38.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.4
Global LO: 5
23) Captive breeding
A) has allowed for the reintroduction of many species to areas from which they had disappeared.
B) has advanced to the point where biologists believe it can be used to save most endangered species.
C) can work for animals but is generally not used for endangered plants.
D) is the main conservation technique used to try to save endangered species from extinction.
Answer: A
Topic: 38.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.4
Global LO: 5
24) A regional assemblage of interacting ecosystems is a
A) biome.
B) landscape.
C) corridor.
D) hot spot.
Answer: B
Topic: 38.8
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 38.4
25) Movement corridors
A) increase inbreeding.
B) reduce dispersal.
C) can be harmfu

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