Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology 4th Edition by Simon Test Bank

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Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology 4th Edition by Simon Test Bank

Description

Chapter 5: Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States

Multiple Choice Questions

5.1-1. The book suggests that, to say the least, the term consciousness is

a. cogent.
b. precise.
Incorrect: In fact, there are many different definitions of consciousness, and it is a very imprecise term.
c. ambiguous.
Correct: We can use the term to refer to a general state of mind or to the specific contents of the mind. Sometimes we say we are conscious as opposed to unconscious. Sometimes we use the term to refer to awareness of internal and external events.
d. tangible.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 121
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. ambiguous.

5.1-2. With respect to the term consciousness, the textbook makes the point that the concept of consciousness

a. is typically defined in terms of specific physiological processes that are occurring in the brain.
b. refers to the contents of consciousness, not a general state of mind.
Incorrect: In the textbook, it is pointed out that consciousness can also refer to a general state of mind.
c. refers to a general state of mind, not the contents of consciousness.
d. can refer to a general state of mind or to its specific contents.
Correct: We are conscious when we are aware (a general state of mind). We are also conscious when we speak of the information of which we are aware (contents of consciousness).

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 121
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. can refer to a general state of mind or to its specific contents.

5.1-3. In his classic text written in 1892, William James defined psychology as the description and explanation of

a. behavior.
b. states of consciousness.
c. animal and human intelligence.
d. emotion and motivation.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 121
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. states of consciousness.

5.1-4. Although you were not thinking about what you had for dinner the night before, when your friend asked you about that meal, it sparked the recollection of your visit to a local restaurant and a very tasty spaghetti dish. Your recollection of the dinner is an example of

a. nonconscious processes.
b. preconscious memories.
Correct: These memories are accessible to consciousness only after something calls your attention to them. They function silently in the background of your mind until a situation arises in which they are consciously necessary.
c. unattended information.
d. the unconscious.
Incorrect: In the unconscious we are barred from accessing certain information, and thus the ability to recall this data suggests that it is not in the unconscious.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 122
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. preconscious memories.

5.1-5. A tourist had never been to Paris before, and when she got off the train she was totally confused. People were everywhere and she was being swept along by the crowd. Suddenly, she was aware that someone was calling her name. This example best illustrates

a. the unconscious.
b. preconscious memories.
Incorrect: In this example, the attention to certain stimuli but not others is not consistent with the concept of preconscious memories.
c. unattended information.
Correct: At any given time, we are surrounded by a vast amount of stimulation. We can only attend to a small part of it. What we focus on, in combination with the memories it evokes, will determine to a large extent what is in consciousness.
d. nonconscious processes.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 122
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. unattended information.

5.1-6. Sigmund Freud believed that certain experiences are so painful and threatening that they are barred from consciousness. These speculations were part of his development of a theory of

a. nonconscious processes.
b. preconscious memories.
Incorrect: While preconscious memories might not be in ones immediate, conscious radar, they are still accessible with some effort.
c. unattended information.
d. the unconscious.
Correct: Freud thought that in order to avoid anxiety, some unacceptable thoughts, ideas, and motives must be hidden from our conscious awareness. This process is called repression. Our behaviors are influenced still even though we are not aware of the source of the influence.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 122-123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. the unconscious.

5.1-7. Your analyst tells you that the reason you cannot remember your early childhood is because you have repressed it. According to Sigmund Freud, unconscious, repressed experiences

a. have never really existed.
b. can easily be brought into conscious awareness.
Incorrect: Although these memories do impact our actions, according to Freud, they are barred from conscious awareness.
c. are no longer threatening.
d. can still influence your behavior.
Correct: The strong feelings associated with repressed materials continue to influence behavior even when we are unaware of the influence.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: d. can still influence your behavior.
% correct 73 a= 3 b= 18 c= 3 d= 73 r = .53

5.1-8. The fact that people automatically use context to help decide between different meanings of ambiguous words in sentences supports the idea that

a. Freuds concept of repression is valid.
Incorrect: The idea of context-driven processing is not related to the Freudian defense mechanism of repression.
b. language processes are not capable of being consciously influenced.
c. processes that operate below the level of consciousness can affect behavior.
Correct: Unconscious language processes use context to make choices between the meanings of words that have been learned. The ease with which we understand ambiguous words depends on these unconscious processes and the contexts within which the words appear.
d. rational beings have access to all of the activities of their own minds.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. processes that operate below the level of consciousness can affect behavior.

5.1-9. A woman has volunteered for an investigation of mental strategies. The experimenter asks her to express verbally what she is thinking as she works through some problems. The researcher is probably

a. introspecting.
b. using the experience-sampling method.
Incorrect: This is another method used for studying consciousness, but it is not the correct one based on the given question.
c. collecting think-aloud protocols.
Correct: Think-aloud protocols are used to document mental strategies and knowledge that participants use to do tasks, in this case the problems presented to the woman. She reports in as much detail as possible the sequence of thoughts experienced as she completes the task.
d. measuring nonconscious processes.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. collecting think-aloud protocols.

5.1-10. Participants in a research study are asked to report what they are thinking about when a pager signals at different times during the day. The researcher is using a procedure that is known as the ________ method.

a. experience-sampling
Correct: Participants provide information about their thoughts and feelings in the normal course of their daily lives. They often carry a device such as the pager to signal when they should write down the contents of their consciousness. A response to questions provided gives researchers a running record of participants thoughts, awareness, and focus of attention.
b. think-aloud protocol
Incorrect: This is another method used for studying consciousness, but it is not the correct one based on the given question.
c. beeper
d. circadian rhythm

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: a. experience-sampling

5.1-11. Which of the following is NOT one of the types of comparisons that researchers found often occupy peoples thoughts when their immediate conscious experiences were assessed?

a. social
b. counterfactual
c. temporal-past
d. temporal-present

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. temporal-present

5.1-12. A psychologist would be most likely to use the experience-sampling method to determine

a. how much daydreaming people do.
Correct: The experience-sampling method allows researchers to provide an account of how people think throughout the day and what state of consciousness they are in (alert/daydreaming/concentrating.)
b. what strategies people use to solve problems.
c. how long it takes people to respond to changes in temperature.
d. how hunger affects the ability to store new information.
Incorrect: The experience-sampling method calls ones attention to their own conscious processes at various points in the day, thus potentially gaining information about daydreaming and not the relationship between hunger and memory.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. how much daydreaming people do.
% correct 38 a= 38 b= 38 c= 10 d= 14 r = .32

5.1-13. The restrictive function of consciousness is most responsible for your ability to

a. hide feelings of fear or anger.
Incorrect: This function allows us to shut off, or restrict, certain stimuli at any given moment in time.
b. decide whether you can lift a heavy object without hurting yourself.
c. tell the difference between the odors of fish and coffee.
d. carry on a conversation at a noisy party.
Correct: The restrictive function of consciousness reduces the flow of stimulus input (noise at the party) by restricting what you notice and focus on (a single conversation). Much of the conversation around you (noise) is tuned out because it is irrelevant to your immediate goals.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 124
Topic: The Functions of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. carry on a conversation at a noisy party.

5.1-14. Your best friends birthday is coming up and you ought to buy her a present. Your ability to consider what things she has, how she might react to what you get her, and how you are going to pay for her present, are all made possible by the ________ function of consciousness.

a. selective storage
b. preconscious
c. planning
Correct: One function of consciousness is to make us stop, think, and consider alternatives based on past knowledge, and imagine the consequences of each alternative. We suppress strong desires if they conflict with moral, ethical, or practical concerns, and use knowledge of the past and expectations of the future to influence current decisions.
d. restrictive
Incorrect: This function allows us to shut off, or restrict, certain stimuli at any given moment in time.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 124
Topic: The Functions of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. planning

5.1-15. After watching a television show on the use of physical punishment by parents, a husband and wife come to different conclusions about the efficacy of punishment. These differences in perspective are most likely due to the fact that each of them has a different

a. consensual validation.
b. cultural construction of reality.
Incorrect: This refers to ways of thinking about the world that are shared by most members of a particular group of people.
c. personal construction of reality.
Correct: No two people interpret reality in the same way. We all interpret current situations based on general knowledge, memories of past experience, needs, values, beliefs, future goals, and the cultures and environments within cultures with which we are familiar.
d. restrictive function of consciousness.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 124
Topic: The Functions of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. personal construction of reality.
% correct 73 a= 9 b= 9 c= 73 d= 6 r = .54

5.1-16. When ones personal construction of reality remains relatively stable, one is also likely to experience

a. consensual validation.
b. extreme sociability.
c. heightened activity in the left hemisphere.
Incorrect: There is nothing in your textbook that supports this answer.
d. a stable sense of self.
Correct: We attend to certain stimuli in the environment more than to others because our personal constructions of reality are formed from a selection of unique inputs. This continues over time in a relatively stable way, giving us our sense of a personal and continuous sense of self.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 124
Topic: The Functions of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. a stable sense of self.

5.1-17. Conscious processes often affect or are affected by

a. reflexes.
b. exposure to light.
c. unconscious processes.
Correct: Peoples behavior is most often affected by both conscious and unconscious processes. Many functions of consciousness include implicit comparisons with what is unconscious. Just as unconscious processes affect conscious ones, conscious processes affect unconscious ones. Researchers study both conscious and unconscious processes to understand the functions of consciousness.
d. repression.
Incorrect: Those impulses or thoughts that are repressed exist in your unconscious, and so this is not the best answer.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 125
Topic: The Functions of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. unconscious processes

5.1-18. One way to study the functions of consciousness is to demonstrate

a. how peoples responses change when conscious processes are not allowed to function normally.
b. repression of ideas.
c. that no matter how much a person has to attend to, conscious processes are consistently easy to use.
d. that behavior is more strongly influenced by conscious than by unconscious processes.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 125
Topic: The Functions of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. how peoples responses change when conscious processes are not allowed to function normally.

5.1-19. You come across a friend who is reading a request for volunteers to participate in a study of circadian rhythms. Your friend seems puzzled and asks you what the study might involve. You should tell your friend that circadian rhythms are

a. bodily cycles that affect such things as arousal levels and metabolism.
b. patterns of rhyme and meter used in studies of language behavior.
c. birth control techniques.
d. likely to be found on tests of musical intelligence.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 126
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. bodily cycles that affect such things as arousal levels and metabolism.
% correct 96 a= 96 b= 4 c= 0 d= 0 r = .45

5.1-20. Suppose you are taking part in a study of circadian rhythms. You have been asked to live in a special room in which there are no windows, clocks, or watches, and no access to time cues of any sort. How will these conditions affect your biological clock?

a. Your biological clock will be totally disrupted, showing little consistency from day to day.
b. Your biological clock will be completely unaffected and you will establish a precise 24-hour cycle.
Incorrect: Strange though it may seem, it appears that our biological clock attunes to a day that is slightly greater than 24 hours.
c. It is likely that your biological clock will be just a few minutes longer than 24 hours.
Correct: Without external time cues that help us adjust to a 24-hour cycle, it is likely that our internal clock will establish a 24.18-hour cycle. Our exposure to sunlight helps us make the slight adjustment each day.
d. Females will show little change in their biological clocks, whereas males will show about a 23-hour rhythm.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 126
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. It is likely that your biological clock will be just a few minutes longer than 24 hours.

5.1-21. The small adjustment that is necessary to help people synchronize the human internal pacemaker with a 24-hour cycle is brought about by

a. the rods and cones of the eye.
b. exposure to sunlight.
c. the consumption of food.
d. the changes in temperature that are associated with night and day.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 126
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. exposure to sunlight.
% correct 43 a= 30 b= 43 c= 3 d= 24 r = .29

5.1-22. An executives company requires her to engage in a lot of long-distance travel. At first, after a long trip she would experience fatigue, uncontrollable sleepiness, and a disruption of her sleep-wake schedule that would continue for days. She probably was experiencing

a. narcolepsy.
Incorrect: This is a sleep disorder that is characterized by sudden, irresistible sleep attacks.
b. jet lag.
Correct: Jet lag is an indication that the internal circadian rhythm is not in phase with the environment. Two variables that affect development of jet lag are the direction of travel and the number of time zones through which you travel.
c. insomnia.
d. sleep apnea.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 126
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. jet lag.

5.1-23. A pilot flies regularly between Japan and California. He also flies the San Francisco to Los Angeles route in California. The pilot will experience the greatest symptoms of jet lag after flying

a. either portion of the Japan-California route.
b. northbound from Los Angeles to San Francisco.
Incorrect: Because a north-south or south-north trip is likely to remain in the same time zone, jet lag should not result.
c. eastward from Japan to California.
Correct: Traveling eastward creates greater jet lag than traveling westward because your biological clock is more easily extended than shortened (it is easier to stay awake longer than to fall asleep sooner). The longer trip also requires passing through more time zones, another variable that strongly affects jet lag.
d. westward from California to Japan.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 126
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. eastward from Japan to California.

5.1-24. The methodological breakthrough for the study of sleep came in 1937 when researchers began using

a. electroencephalograms.
b. experience-sampling.
c. hypnosis.
d. think-aloud protocols.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 126
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. electroencephalograms.

5.1-25. Your job is to monitor the EEG recordings of a patient in a sleep laboratory. You observe that the patients brain waves change from about 14 cycles per second (cps) to 8-12 cps and then to 3-7 cps. What changes, if any, have likely occurred in the patient?

a. First the patient was deeply asleep, then lightly asleep, then awake.
Incorrect: This patient is not in deep sleep at the start, because the brain activity is far too active.
b. The patient moved progressively from stage 1 to stage 3 sleep.
c. First the patient was awake, then relaxed, then in stage 1 sleep.
Correct: These are recordings of brain waves in the awake state of consciousness, the relaxed state, and the first stage of sleep.
d. The patient was awake through all the changes in brain wave patterns.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. First the patient was awake, then relaxed, then in stage 1 sleep.

5.1-26. The sleep spindles that occur during sleep are minute bursts of electrical activity of ________ cycles per second.

a. 1 to 2
b. 3 to 7
c. 8 to 12
d. 12 to 16

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. 12 to 16

5.1-27. The melodic tones of your teachers voice have put you to sleep. Though the other students in the class cant see them, sleep spindles have begun to appear in your brain waves. You are likely in stage

a. 1.
b. 2.
Correct: The EEG shows minute bursts of electrical activity (sleep spindles) in stage 2 sleep at a rate of 12-16 cycles per second (cps).
c. 3.
d. 4.
Incorrect: This stage is marked by a sleep rate of about 1-2 cps.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. 2.

5.1-28. The EEG tracing of the patient in the sleep laboratory shows that brain waves have slowed to about 1 to 2 cycles per second. In addition, breathing and heart rate have decreased. It is most likely that the patient is

a. in stage 1 non-REM sleep.
b. experiencing feelings of anxiety.
c. in stages 3 and 4 of sleep.
Correct: These are the deepest stages of sleep. You are relaxed, your breathing and heart rate are slower, and brain waves have slowed.
d. in paradoxical sleep.
Incorrect: This stage is marked by brain activity that is similar to being awake.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. in stages 3 and 4 of sleep.

5.1-29. Paradoxical sleep was so called because

a. this type of sleep is a mystery to scientists.
Incorrect: The ability to track the brain activity during various sleep stages reduces the mystery of sleep.
b. the EEG tracings during paradoxical sleep vary wildly from person to person.
c. the EEG tracings during paradoxical sleep can only be interpreted by the sleeper.
d. the EEG tracings during this type of sleep resemble those of a person who is awake.
Correct: During this final stage of sleep when we begin to dream, the EEG pattern resembles an awake pattern, and because we are truly asleep, not awake, it was considered a paradox.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. the EEG tracings during this type of sleep resemble those of a person who is awake.

5.1-30. People have about ________ periods of REM sleep each night, and these periods ________ in length with each sleep cycle.

a. four to six; decrease
b. four to six; increase
c. ten; decrease
d. ten; increase

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. four to six; increase

5.1-31. Most of a persons sleep time is spent

a. dreaming.
b. in REM sleep.
c. in paradoxical sleep.
d. in NREM sleep.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. in NREM sleep.

5.1-32. Researchers who have looked at changes with age in total amounts of daily REM sleep and NREM sleep have found that

a. the amount of REM sleep increases considerably over the years.
Incorrect: This is the opposite of the correct answer.
b. NREM diminishes more sharply than REM sleep over the years.
c. the amount of REM sleep decreases considerably over the years.
Correct: We start out as infants sleeping about sixteen hours a day with nearly half of that time spent in REM sleep. By age 50, we may only sleep six hours with 20% of that time spent in REM sleep.
d. REM sleep remains fairly constant over the years, but NREM increases slightly.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. the amount of REM sleep decreases considerably over the years.

5.1-33. When researchers studying healthy older adults looked to see whether there was a relationship between sleep efficiency and longevity, they found that

a. there was no relationship between sleep efficiency and longevity.
b. the most important factor was the time at which people went to bed, not sleep efficiency.
c. people who spent the highest percentage of bedtime asleep lived the longest.
d. those individuals who spent the highest percentage of bedtime asleep died at the earliest ages.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. people who spent the highest percentage of bedtime asleep lived the longest.

5.1-34. In research described by your authors, participants were asked to complete a specific task. In some cases, they were told that they would complete this task again after some sleep. In other cases they were not told, but allowed to sleep. In still a third group, they were not warned about taking the test again and were not given a chance to sleep. What was the task that these research participants completed?

a. the Stroop color test
b. learning word pairs
c. remembering lists of numbers
d. identifying pictures of movie stars and other famous persons

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 128
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. learning word pairs

5.1-35. A man has problems sleeping. He rarely falls asleep quickly, is frequently aroused during sleep, and wakens too early in the morning. It is most likely that the man is suffering from

a. insomnia.
Correct: When people are dissatisfied with the amount or the quality of the sleep they get, this is called insomnia. Insomnia has been shown to have a consistent negative impact on the well-being of the affected individual.
b. narcolepsy.
Incorrect: In cases of narcolepsy, people fall asleep without warning, going directly from wakefulness to REM sleep.
c. sleep apnea.
d. nightmares.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 129
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: a. insomnia.

5.1-36. All of following are symptoms of insomnia EXCEPT

a. delayed onset of sleep.
b. sleep during the daytime.
c. frequent arousals during sleep.
d. early morning awakening.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 129
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. sleep during the daytime.
% correct 88 a= 0 b= 88 c= 2 d= 10 r = .28

5.1-37. A student claims that he has severe insomnia and hardly sleeps at all. The fact that his roommate says that he appears to sleep deeply and is not even bothered by dorm noises when he is asleep suggests that the students condition is most probably

a. non-REM sleep.
b. paradoxical insomnia.
Correct: This is a condition in which there are completely normal patterns of sleep in people who complain of significant lack of sleep.
c. narcolepsy.
Incorrect: In cases of narcolepsy, people fall asleep without warning, going directly from wakefulness to REM sleep.
d. sleep apnea.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 145
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. paradoxical insomnia.
% correct 62 a= 24 b= 62 c= 10 d= 4 r = .52

5.1-38. Characterized by periodic sleep during the daytime, ________ is a sleep disorder that is quite often combined with ________, a complete loss of muscle control that causes sufferers to fall down suddenly.

a. insomnia; sleep apnea
b. sleep apnea; narcolepsy
c. cataplexy; narcolepsy
d. narcolepsy; cataplexy

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 129
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. narcolepsy; cataplexy

5.1-39. You would probably be most concerned if you were being driven somewhere by a person who has the sleep disorder called

a. insomnia.
b. narcolepsy.
Correct: This disorder causes sudden irresistible sleepiness and is often accompanied by cataplexy, the sudden loss of muscle control.
c. sleep apnea.
Incorrect: In cases of sleep apnea, people stop breathing for extended periods while they are asleep, and this can seriously interrupt their ability to get a good night of rest.
d. subjective insomnia.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 129
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. narcolepsy.

5.1-40. Scientists believe that narcolepsy

a. is related to multiple personality disorder.
b. is caused by oxygen deprivation.
c. has a genetic basis.
d. is caused by cataplexy.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 129
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. has a genetic basis.

5.1-41. You see a story on television about a woman who stops breathing hundreds of times during the course of the night. Without being told, you realize that this woman suffers from a condition that is technically known as

a. oxygen deprivation disorder.
b. cataplexy.
c. narcolepsy.
Incorrect: This disorder causes sudden irresistible sleepiness and is often accompanied by cataplexy, the sudden loss of muscle control.
d. sleep apnea.
Correct: This is a respiratory sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing while asleep.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 130
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: d. sleep apnea.
% correct 98 a= 0 b= 2 c= 0 d= 98 r = .21

5.1-42. At a sleep disorder clinic, a man learns that he has sleep apnea. When he asks for more information, he is likely to be told all of the following EXCEPT that

a. most individuals have a few such apnea episodes a night.
b. it is almost unheard of in infants.
c. when apnea occurs, the body secretes emergency hormones that cause the individual to awaken and resume breathing.
d. it affects roughly 2 percent of women and 4 percent of men.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 130
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. it is almost unheard of in infants.

5.1-43. A new roommate confides that she suffers from somnambulism. You should expect that she is likely to

a. talk in her sleep.
b. walk in her sleep.
Correct: Sleepwalkers leave their beds and wander while still asleep. This condition is more common among children than among adults. It is associated with NREM sleep.
c. have nightmares.
d. stop breathing in her sleep.
Incorrect: This would describe a roommate who suffered from sleep apnea, not somnambulism.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 130
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. walk in her sleep.

5.1-44. A six-year-old child suddenly awakens in a state of extreme arousal accompanied by panicky screams. He is experiencing

a. somnambulism.
b. sleep apnea.
c. narcolepsy.
Incorrect: This disorder causes sudden irresistible sleepiness and is often accompanied by cataplexy, the sudden loss of muscle control.
d. a sleep terror.
Correct: Sleep terrors, or night terrors, typically occur during NREM sleep in the first third of a nights sleep. Most episodes are not recalled in the morning. They are most common during childhood, with the greatest number occurring between the ages of 5 and 7.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 130
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: d. a sleep terror.
% correct 98 a= 0 b= 2 c= 0 d= 98 r = .35

5.1-45. Research on nightmares suggests that they

a. are more likely to be experienced by children than by adults.
b. are not related to real-life experiences.
c. occur on average about once per year in undergraduate students.
d. increase in likelihood as one gets older.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 130
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. are more likely to be experienced by children than by adults.

5.1-46. A girl has a dream in which she is terribly frightened when she is abducted by space aliens. But then she is taken to a fantastically beautiful solar system and is overjoyed when she is made queen of her new world. The presence of strong emotional and sensory content in this dream suggests that it

a. occurred during NREM sleep.
Incorrect: Remember that most dreams that have strong sensory and emotional components occur during REM sleep, not NREM sleep.
b. occurred during REM sleep.
Correct: Dreaming during NREM sleep is less likely to have story content that evokes strong emotions. It is more like daytime thought than is REM dreaming and it contains less sensory imagery.
c. occurred during either REM or NREM sleep.
d. did not occur in either REM or in NREM sleep.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 130
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. occurred during REM sleep.
% correct 94 a= 4 b= 94 c= 2 d= 0 r = .39

5.1-47. Sigmund Freud described dreams in all of the following ways EXCEPT as

a. transient psychoses.
b. everynight madness.
c. the royal road to the unconscious.
d. uncensored visions.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 130-131
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. uncensored visions.

5.1-48. The classic book, The Interpretation of Dreams, was written by

a. William Domhoff.
b. J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley.
c. Barbara Tedlock.
d. Sigmund Freud.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. Sigmund Freud.

5.1-49. In a classroom exercise, a student is recounting a dream in which she finds herself exploring a steamy tropical jungle when suddenly she comes upon a group of monkeys dressed in tuxedos talking to one another. In Freudian dream analysis, the student is describing

a. hostile yearnings.
b. the latent content of the dream.
Incorrect: The latent content refers to the underlying, hidden meaning of a dream. The student would be describing the actual content, or the manifest, of her dream.
c. the manifest content of the dream.
Correct: The censor transforms the hidden meaning, or latent content of the dream, into manifest content.
d. the wish in dreams.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. the manifest content of the dream.

5.1-50. In a seminar on dream analysis, a woman recounts a dream in which she went on a boat ride down the Nile River. It was so hot that she wanted to take off her shirt. After a while she became very hungry, but all the guides could offer her to eat were bananas. Dream researchers would agree that

a. the dream definitely has a hidden meaning.
b. her dream appears to be a lucid dream.
c. all she remembers is the latent content of the dream.
Incorrect: The latent content refers to the underlying, hidden meaning of a dream. It would not be something that a person would remember.
d. all she remembers is the manifest content of the dream.
Correct: The latent, unacceptable part of the dream is translated into the acceptable (manifest) content. In this way, she can express powerful unexpressed wishes in disguised symbolic form.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: d. all she remembers is the manifest content of the dream.

5.1- 51. The distortion process by which the hidden meaning of a dream is transformed into what is remembered by the dreamer was referred to by Freud as

a. manifest content.
b. latent content.
c. dream wish.
d. dream work.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. dream work.
% correct 50 a= 20 b= 24 c= 6 d= 50 r = .39

5.1-52. A therapist espouses a Freudian perspective of dream interpretation. When she interprets dreams she is likely to

a. not worry about the effects of dream work.
b. work backwards from the latent content to the manifest content.
Incorrect: On the contrary, she would probably work backward from the manifest to the latent content.
c. believe that the dreams reveal the patients unconscious wishes.
Correct: Freud suggested that all dreams are instances of wish-fulfillment, through which we can safely express powerful unconscious wishes in safe symbolic form.
d. believe that dreams include universal symbols, but not idiosyncratic symbols.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. believe that the dreams reveal the patients unconscious wishes.
% correct 70 a= 0 b= 12 c= 70 d= 18 r = .35

5.1-53. Among the Archur Indians of Ecuador, dream interpretation

a. is punished severely.
b. follows the Freudian emphasis on individual importance.
c. is part of the customs of the culture.
d. is practiced only by those on the margins of the society.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. is part of the customs of the culture.

5.1-54. One difference between the Freudian approach to dream interpretation and the interpretation made by non-Western groups such as the people of the Ingessana Hills, along the border of Ethiopia and the Sudan, and the Kalapalo Indians of central Brazil, is that the latter groups

a. view dreams as a vision of the future.
b. focus more on childhood experiences and repressed wishes.
c. do not rely on symbolism in their interpretations.
d. encourage religious leaders to keep the content of their dreams secret.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. view dreams as a vision of the future.

5.1-55. Which of the following statements most closely represents Hobson and McCarleys activation-synthesis model of dreaming?

a. Dreams originate with an unconscious wish or motive.
Incorrect: This would be consistent with Freudian dream theory, not the activation-synthesis model.
b. Dreams result from neural signals in the brain stem that stimulate areas of the brains cortex.
Correct: Signals emerge from the brain stem to stimulate the forebrain and association areas of the cortex to produce random memories and connections with the dreamers past experiences. There is no intrinsic meaning, and there are no logical connections or coherent patterns to random bursts of electrical signals in the brain.
c. A dream will occur only if a person has an unresolved conflict or problem.
d. Latent content is more important than manifest content in the interpretation of dreams.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. Dreams result from neural signals in the brain stem that stimulate areas of the brains cortex.
% correct 84 a= 6 b= 84 c= 4 d= 6 r = .16

5.1-56. Studies of dream content confirm the fact that content of dreams shows a good deal of

a. continuity with the dreamers fantasies.
b. discontinuity with the dreamers waking concerns.
c. continuity with dreamers waking concerns.
d. discontinuity with the dreamers desires.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. continuity with dreamers waking concerns.

5.1-57. Suppose you wanted to take control of your dreams and direct them in a way that would satisfy your own needs. According to some dream researchers, you should

a. drink warm milk before going to sleep.
b. sleep with eye shades to keep out light and movement.
c. learn techniques for lucid dreaming.
d. learn how to prevent your eyes from moving during dream states.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. learn techniques for lucid dreaming.

5.1-58. Researchers have suggested that people can be divided into chronotypes. A chronotype identifies an individual as a(n)

a. light sleeper or a deep sleeper.
b. morning type or an evening type.
c. thin body type or a heavy body type.
d. extraverted person or an introverted person.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 133
Topic: Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. morning type or an evening type.

5.1-59. There has been ample evidence gathered through research that circadian rhythms affect peak performance. Given this impact, individuals with different chronotypes will most often peak at different times of day. This rule applies to

a. physical and cognitive tasks.
b. physical tasks only.
c. tasks that require complex reasoning.
d. cognitive tasks only.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 133
Topic: Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. physical and cognitive tasks
% correct 52 a= 52 b= 12 c= 15 d= 21 r = .53

5.1-60. What is the relationship between sleep and hypnosis?

a. Sleep and hypnosis are controlled by the same brain structure.
b. Sleep and hypnosis are virtually identical in all ways.
c. People need to be asleep before they can respond to hypnotic commands.
d. Sleep plays no part in hypnosis.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. Sleep plays no part in hypnosis.

5.1-61. Hypnosis begins with a hypnotic induction. In part, this process

a. encourages participants to fall asleep.
Incorrect: It is a common misconception that being hypnotized is the same as being asleep. As your authors not, they are unrelated processes.
b. involves the use of anesthesia.
c. distracts participants so they do not realize that they are being hypnotized.
d. minimizes external distractions and encourages concentration.
Correct: It is a set of activities in the process of hypnosis that encourages people to believe they are entering a special state of consciousness. The induction procedure functions as a learned signal so that when it is practiced repeatedly, the participant can eventually enter the hypnotic state quickly.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. minimizes external distractions and encourages concentration.
% correct 94 a= 0 b= 0 c= 6 d= 94 r = .21

5.1-62. Research on hypnosis has generally supported the conclusion that

a. being hypnotized involves turning personal control over to another.
Incorrect: People who undergo hypnosis are always in control of themselves, even when they are under.
b. all individuals are equally hypnotizable by a skilled hypnotist.
c. hypnosis is not just a kind of placebo response.
Correct: There are effects of hypnosis that are demonstrated through research. For instance, people who are higher in hypnotizability are able to gain greater pain relief through hypnosis. The power of hypnosis resides in the person being hypnotized, not in any special abilities of the hypnotist.
d. hypnosis is generally ineffective in the control of pain.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 134-135
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. hypnosis is not just a kind of placebo response.

5.1-63. Recent studies have reported that variations in ________ are related to individual differences in hypnotizability.

a. norepinephrine.
b. serotonin
c. GABA
d. COMT

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. COMT

5.1-64. Hypnotic analgesia refers to

a. the use of hypnosis to reduce anxiety.
b. hypnotic techniques designed to reduce fear.
c. the use of hypnosis to reduce pain.
d. the tendency for hypnotized individuals to feel more pain.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 135
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. the use of hypnosis to reduce pain.
% correct 72 a= 22 b= 6 c= 72 d= 0 r = .49

5.1-65. The primary goal of meditation is to

a. focus consciousness on immediate worldly concerns.
Incorrect: On the contrary, reducing consciousness on worldly concerns would be a goal of meditation.
b. achieve a state of heightened bodily arousal but lowered awareness.
c. help individuals feel physically relaxed and provide a time-out from tension.
d. change consciousness to enhance self-knowledge and well-being.
Correct: The goal of meditation is to achieve a deep state of tranquility, which enhances well-being and self-knowledge. Practitioners suggest that some forms of meditation heighten consciousness and allow people to see familiar things in new ways. Recent research suggests that meditation might help slow the natural loss of cortical thickness as we age.

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 135
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. change consciousness to enhance self-knowledge and well-being.

5.1-66. In contrast to concentrative meditation, a person who practices mindfulness meditation learns to

a. focus on and regulate his or her breathing.
b. minimize external stimulation.
c. generate specific mental images.
Incorrect: This might be a goal of concentrative meditation.
d. let thoughts and memories pass freely through the mind.
Correct: During concentrative meditation, a person may focus on breathing, free the mind from all thought, assume certain yogic positions of the body, minimize external stimulation, or generate certain mental images.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 135
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. let thoughts and memories pass freely through the mind.

5.1-67. When she first started taking drugs, a person suffering from an addiction found that they markedly affected her perceptions. Now, however, she finds that greater dosages are required to achieve the same effects. The addict is experiencing

a. withdrawal symptoms.
Incorrect: Withdrawal refers to the negative, unpleasant physical symptoms that occur when a person who has a drug addiction stops using their drug of choice.
b. psychological dependence.
c. tolerance.
Correct: Repeated episodes of drug use condition the brain to produce responses that push back against the drugs effects. Because the body pushes back, greater doses are required for the drug to have the same effect.
d. intolerance.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Applied
Answer: c. tolerance.
% correct 73 a= 0 b= 18 c= 73 d= 9 r = .67

5.1-68. Someone who normally drinks a substantial amount of alcohol shows up at the local drug treatment center complaining of nausea, sweats, shakes, and other physical symptoms. He comments that he has not had a drink of alcohol for quite some time. From this description, it would appear that he

a. has developed tolerance for alcohol.
b. suffers from psychological dependence on alcohol.
c. has a craving for alcohol.
Incorrect: There is a bigger problem than a simple craving here, and it is called addiction.
d. has become addicted to alcohol.
Correct: A person who is addicted may have painful withdrawal symptoms if the drug is not in his body.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Applied
Answer: d. has become addicted to alcohol.
% correct 73 a= 0 b= 18 c= 73 d= 9 r = .67

5.1-69. A worker says to his friend that he craves alcohol and cant wait to get home to drink a few cans of beer. From this description, it appears that the worker has developed ________ alcohol.

a. tolerance for
b. physiological dependence on
Incorrect: The craving that is described in this question refers to psychological, not physiological, dependence.
c. an addiction to
d. psychological dependence on
Correct: In this case, a persons lifestyle revolves around the substance and his capacity to function is limited or impaired.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. psychological dependence on

5.1-70. Which type of drugs lead to the most dramatic changes in consciousness?

a. barbiturates
b. depressants
c. hallucinogens
d. opiates

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. hallucinogens
% correct 88 a= 2 b= 2 c= 88 d= 8 r = .27

5.1-71. Which of the following drugs does NOT belong in the same group as the others?

a. LSD
Incorrect: LSD is a hallucinogen. So are PCP and cannabis. Morphine is an opioid.
b. cannabis
c. PCP
d. morphine
Correct: All of these drugs can be put in the hallucinogen category except morphine. Morphine is an opiate and works through the action of suppressing reaction to stimuli and suppressing physical sensation.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. morphine

5.1-72. Hallucinogenic drugs typically act in the brain by affecting the use of

a. cannabinoids.
b. THC.
c. the neurotransmitter serotonin.
d. the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. the neurotransmitter serotonin.
% correct 77 a= 6 b= 6 c= 77 d= 11 r = .35

5.1-73. Imagine that you have received a book about plants for your birthday. As you thumb through it, you come across a plant that apparently produces euphoria, a sense of well-being, and depending on the context, fear, anxiety, and confusion. Its active ingredient is THC and it has psychoactive effects. Because of a course you took at school, you recognize this plant as

a. cannabis.
Correct: Cannabis is found in both hashish (the solidified resin of the plant) and marijuana (the dried leaves and flowers of the plant). Whatever the dose, the effects may be negative, including fear, anxiety, and confusion, and/or range from mild and pleasant to hallucinogenic.
b. cocoa.
c. toadstools.
d. coffee.
Incorrect: The active ingredient in coffee is caffeine, not THC.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Applied
Answer: a. cannabis.
% correct 94 a= 94 b= 3 c= 3 d= 0 r = .39

5.1-74. Researchers have determined that the active chemicals in marijuana, the cannabinoids, bind to specific receptors in the brain. Later research has shown that endogenous cannabinoids exist in the brain, and that they play an ongoing role in food consumption. Besides their role in regulating appetite, endocannabinoids also

a. play a role in reward systems in the brain.
Correct: Because they play a role in reward systems in the brain, endocannabinoids have the effect of making people seek foods that are tasty or sweet. The knowledge that endocannabinoids increase appetite has stimulated research regarding drugs that prevent endocannabinoids from having their usual effect, possibly leading to appetite suppression and weight loss.
b. cause cravings for sour tastes.
Incorrect: There is nothing in your textbook that supports this statement.
c. decrease pleasure when sweet foods are eaten.
d. play a role in inhibition of depressed mood.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 138
Topic: Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Can We Learn from the Munchies?
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. play a role in reward systems in the brain.

5.1-75. What does the research regarding the munchies demonstrate in addition to possible development of drugs that can assist in weight control?

a. Researchers should not depend on real-world observations.
b. Researchers can use the information they have now about endocannabinoids only for expanding research regarding weight control.
c. Research progresses from real-world observations to a productive research agenda.
Correct: With the goal of understanding why marijuana has an effect on appetite, researchers have generated insights that have led to promising treatments for people who eat too little and people who eat too much. With the knowledge that endocannabinoids have important impact on the brains reward circuits, researchers believe that drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system may also lead to successful treatments for pain and addiction.
d. Real-world observations always lead to hypotheses that cannot be tested.
Incorrect: The opposite is correct. Observations lead to hypotheses that can be tested.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 138
Topic: Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Can We Learn from the Munchies?
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. Research progresses from real-world observations to a productive research agenda.

5.1-76. This drug, classified as an opiate, produces a rush of pleasure when injected and is likely to lead to serious addiction. What is it?

a. LSD
b. benzodiazepine
c. cocaine
d. heroin

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 138
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. heroin

5.1-77. Drugs such as barbiturates and alcohol are classified as depressants because they

a. inhibit the transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.
Correct: By doing so, these drugs depress (slow down) the mental and physical activity of the body.
b. lead to tolerance.
Incorrect: Tolerance is not unique to the category of drugs called depressants.
c. bring about depression when they are not being used.
d. are likely to cause a variety of mood disorders, especially depression.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 138
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. inhibit the transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.

5.1-78. Depressants achieve their effects, in part, by facilitating neural communication at synapses that use the neurotransmitter

a. serotonin.
b. dopamine.
c. norepinephrine.
d. GABA.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 138-139
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. GABA.
% correct 57 a= 17 b= 13 c= 13 d= 57 r = .62

5.1-79. An elementary school student is putting together facts for a brochure on alcohol use. The student should check his facts, however, because it is NOT true that

a. driving accidents occur six times more often to individuals with 0.10% alcohol in their bloodstream than to those with half that amount.
b. at blood concentration levels as low as 0.05%, perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes can already begin to deteriorate.
c. the body can break down alcohol at a very fast rate.
d. at small dosages alcohol can slightly improve an adults speed of reaction.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 139
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. the body can break down alcohol at a very fast rate.

5.1-80. Along with other depressants, alcohol appears to affect ________ activity.

a. serotonin
Incorrect: As your textbook notes, these drugs most rapidly affect the GABA system in your brain.
b. endorphin
c. norepinephrine
d. GABA
Correct: GABA is an inhibitor, decreasing the rate of neural transmission in the central nervous system, thereby slowing down the activity of the body and mind. This activity occurs in addition to alcohol stimulating the release of dopamine, which enhances pleasure.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 139
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. GABA

5.1-81. The serious addiction that often accompanies stimulant use

a. is a urban myth.
b. is time-limited and will fade on its own over a short period of time.
c. is not related to the actions of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer.
d. may be related to long-term changes in the brains neurotransmitter systems.
Correct: Stimulants achieve their effects by increasing brain levels of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. For example, stimulants act to prevent the action of molecules that ordinarily remove dopamine from synapses. Addiction may arise because changes may become long-term with use of stimulants over time.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Conceptual
Answer d. may be related to long-term changes in the brains neurotransmitter systems.

5.1-82. Although they may seek increased self-confidence, greater energy, and euphoria, heavy users of this stimulant drug may experience hallucinations and paranoid delusions. What is it?

a. alcohol
b. cocaine
c. Valium
d. Xanax

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. cocaine

5.1-83. In the brain, nicotine

a. affects regions which are also targeted by depressants.
Incorrect: Nicotine is a stimulant, so it would not work on the same brain regions as depressants.
b. does not seem to mimic the natural chemicals released by the brain.
c. stimulates receptors that make you feel good when you have achieved a rewarding goal.
Correct: Nicotine mimics natural chemicals in the brain that make us feel good when we do something right, a mechanism that aids survival. When nicotine causes these receptors to respond, it feels to the smoker as if smoking is the right thing to do.
d. fools receptor sites into responding as if it were bad for you to be smoking, although the smoker continues to smoke due to nicotine addiction.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 157
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. stimulates receptors that make you feel good when you have achieved a rewarding goal.

True/False Questions

5.2-1. Psychologists have only recently become interested in the topic of consciousness. In fact, early researchers such as Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener, and William James argued against the inclusion of consciousness as appropriate subject matter for modern psychology.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 121
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. false

5.2-2. The textbook suggests that consciousness aids in our survival and provides a sense of where we fit in the world, but does not contribute to our sense of who we are (our sense of self).

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 121
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. false

5.2-3. There is a range of nonconscious processes that rarely, if ever, impinge upon consciousness.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 122
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. true

5.2-4. When someone asks Tony who won the World Series last year, he has to think a moment before giving the correct answer. Psychologists who study consciousness would say that the information was one of his preconscious memories.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 122
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: a. true

5.2-5. A think-aloud protocol could be used to document the mental strategies and representations of knowledge that participants employ while engaged in a task.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. true

5.2-6. It is likely that everyone within a culture shares the same personal construction of reality.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 124
Topic: The Functions of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. false

5.2-7. The change in seasons over course of a year is a good example of a circadian rhythm.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 126
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. false

5.2-8. Traveling eastbound creates greater jet lag than does westbound flight.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 126
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. true

5.2-9. The EEG pattern during REM sleep resembles that of a person who is awake.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. true

5.2-10. Individuals are most likely to be dreaming when in NREM sleep.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 127
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. false

5.2-11. Recent research has shown that nearly all individuals who report that they are suffering from insomnia actually have normal sleep.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 129
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. false

5.2-12. The technical term for sleep disorders involving nightmares is somnambulism.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 130
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. false

5.2-13. The activation-synthesis model proposed by Hobson and McCarley is most useful as an explanation of the processes underlying hypnosis.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Sleep and Dreams
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. false

5.2-14. Nearly everyone can be hypnotized.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. false

5.2-15. Research suggests that hypnosis may be a valuable aid to pain reduction.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 135
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: a. true

5.2-16. During mindfulness meditation, a person learns to let thoughts and memories pass freely through the mind without reacting to them.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 135
Topic: Altered States of Consciousness
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. true

5.2-17. Technically, a person can experience psychological dependence and craving for a drug without developing addiction.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. true

5.2-18. LSD and PCP are two common hallucinogens.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. true

5.2-19. Caffeine and alcohol are two widely used drugs that are classified as stimulants.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 140-141
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. false

5.2-20. Chemicals in nicotine stimulate receptors that make you feel good whenever you have done something rewarding.

a. true
b. false

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 141
Topic: Mind-Altering Drugs
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. true

Fill in the Blank Questions

5.3-1. __________ are memories that are accessible to consciousness only after something draws your attention to them.

Difficulty: 2
Page Ref: 122
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: Preconscious memories

5.3-2. In a research study, participants are wearing devices that signal them when they should provide reports about what they are feeling and thinking. The researcher is using the __________ method.

Difficulty: 3
Page Ref: 123
Topic: The Contents of Consciousness
Skill: Applied
Answer: experience-sampling

5.3-3. Daily changes in arousal levels, metabolism, body temperature, and hormonal activity are infl

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