Canadian Organizational Behaviour 8th Edition by McShane Test Bank

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Canadian Organizational Behaviour 8th Edition by McShane Test Bank

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ch05
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. The challenge facing organizational leaders today is that:
A employers have difficulty understanding the different needs and expectations that younger generation . employees bring to the workplace.
B.there are more layers of management today, which makes it more difficult to motivate everyone in
management positions.
C.corporate downsizing and reduced job security have damaged the levels of trust employees need to
work beyond minimum levels. D. employees arent very engaged. E. All of the answers are correct.
2. Commonly mentioned influences on employee engagement include: A. rate of pay.
B. appealing company mission statement. C. organizational justice.
D. work/life balance.
E. All of the above.
3. All of the following are reasons given for why some employees are disengaged EXCEPT: A. Companies have not strived for employee involvement.
B. Organizational injustices.
C. Communication about the business is lacking.
D. Employee development opportunities are lacking.
E. Basic needs of employees have not been provided or satisfied.
4. _________ produce emotions, whereas _________ represent the motivational force of those emotions which are channelled toward particular goals.
A. Drives; needs
B. Needs; drives
C. Thinking; doing
D. Planning; projecting
E. None of the above is correct.
5. Which of the following statements about drives is FALSE?
A. They are also called primary needs.
B. They activate emotions, which put us in a state of readiness to act.
C. They include only basic physiological essentials, such as hunger and thirst. D. Drives and emotions represent the primary sources of motivation.
E. All of the above are correct.
6. Self-concept, social norms, and past experiences help us: A. adjust our level of drive-based emotions.
B. regulate our decisions and behaviours.
C. adjust our drive-based emotions, but not our behaviours. D. make unemotional decisions based on reason and logic.
E. direct us into goal-directed behaviour.
7. Which of these is the most widely known theory of human motivation? A. Maslows needs hierarchy theory
B. Expectancy theory
C. Goal setting theory
D. Equity theory
E. Learned needs theory
8. Maslows needs hierarchy explicitly names the following needs EXCEPT: A. power.
B. self-actualization. C. safety.
D. esteem.
E. belongingness.
9. The highest level need in Maslows hierarchy of needs is: A. esteem.
B. safety.
C. power.
D. belongingness. E. self-actualization.
10. In Maslows needs hierarchy, the bottom four levels are collectively known as ___________ needs, whereas self-actualization is called a ______________ need.
A. belongingness; infinite
B. fictitious; factual
C. primary; secondary
D. subordinate; superordinate E. None of the above.
11. Maslows needs hierarchy theory discusses all of the following concepts EXCEPT: A. physiological needs.
B. belongingness/love.
C. drive to acquire.
D. self-actualization. E. safety needs.
12. Which of the following needs is NOT explicitly stated in Maslows needs hierarchy theory? A. Physiological needs
B. Growth needs
C. Need for safety
D. Self-actualization E. Esteem
13. Which of these theories states that we are motivated by several needs, but the strongest source is the lowest unsatisfied need?
A. Four-drive theory
B. Needs hierarchy theory
C. Equity theory
D. Distributive justice theory E. Learned needs theory
14. According to Maslows needs hierarchy, after people have satisfied their physiological and safety needs, they are mainly motivated to fulfill their ______________ needs.
A. belongingness
B. growth
C. self-esteem D. social esteem E. existence
15. One feature of Maslows needs hierarchy theory that continues to have support is that: A. everyone has the same needs hierarchy.
B. no one ever experiences self-actualization.
C. motivation is caused by the environment, not by internal thoughts or emotions.
Dwe should build positive qualities and perspectives within individuals and institutions as opposed to . focussingontryingtofixwhatmightbewrongwiththem.
E. everyone compares themselves to other people when determining what is fair.
16. Maslows view of employee motivation:
A. became the foundation of positive organizational behaviour.
B. helped employers standardize reward systems.
C. was that we should focus mostly on need deprivation.
D. encouraged others to narrowly define needs or drives.
E. introduced a mechanistic perspective of the workplace in organizational behaviour.
17. If individuals are unable to satisfy a particular need, Maslows needs hierarchy theory states that they: A. keep trying to fulfill this need until it is satisfied.
B. redirect their efforts towards fulfilling a higher need in the hierarchy.
C. permanently remove the blocked need from their list of needs to satisfy.
D. become fixated on that particular need and are thus unable to progress. E. None of the above is correct.
18. Needs hierarchy theory fails to explain the dynamics of employee motivation mainly because: A. some people never experiences growth or self-actualization.
B. people do not have a needs hierarchy.
C. people do not fit into a single needs hierarchy.
D. people have drives, not needs.
E. both theories wrongly assume that everyone has hard-wired needs.
19. Unlike needs hierarchy models, recent studies suggest that:
A. values, self-concept, and social identity influence a persons unique needs hierarchy. B. people do not have a needs hierarchy.
C. everyone has the same needs hierarchy.
D. physiological and safety needs are always the lowest level needs.
E. all needs are learned rather than formed from innate drives.
20. Current evidence indicates that a persons needs hierarchy: A. is hardwired.
B. is common to everyone.
C. remains the same over a persons lifetime. D. All of the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers apply.
21. Which of the following basic needs is explicitly stated in needs hierarchy theory and theory of learned needs?
A. Physiological needs B. Safety needs
C. Power needs
D. Financial needs
E. None of the answers apply.
22. Through hard work, Gan lives comfortably without much financial debt. Now he wants to improve relations with colleagues and form stronger friendships. Which needs-based theory of motivation best explains Gans recent focus on his social needs?
A. Four-drive theory
B. Learned needs theory C. Needs hierarchy theory D. Expectancy theory
E. Equity theory
23. Which of these motivation theories arranges employee needs in a hierarchy of importance? A. Maslows needs theory
B. Four-drive theory
C. Expectancy theory
D. McClellands learned needs theory
E. ERG theory and McClellands learned needs theory
24. Jane holds a well-paying job with good job security. She also gets along well with colleagues, but has been frustrated in her attempts to find new friends. Due to this frustration, Jane has recently started spending more time trying to get challenging work from her employer. She now spends less time enjoying social relations with colleagues. Which needs-based theory of motivation would best explain Janes recent focus on seeking challenging work?
A. Four-drive theory
B. Learned needs theory
C. Needs hierarchy theory
D. ERG theory
E. None of these theories explains why people change their dominant needs
25. Which of the following employee motivation theories does NOT arrange needs in a hierarchy of importance?
A. Maslows theory
B. Four-drive theory.
C. McClellands learned needs theory D. All of the above are correct.
E. C and D only.
26. McClellands learned needs theory does NOT include which of these needs? A. Safety need
B. Achievement need
C. Socialized power need D. Personalized power need E. Affiliation need
27. According to McClelland, achievement, affiliation, and power needs are: A. instinctive.
B. genetic.
C. non-existent.
D. learned.
E. None of the answers apply.
28. The desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontations is called:
A. Need for affiliation
B. Need for power
C. Need for achievement D. Need for safety
E. Need for existence
29. Compared to people with low need for affiliation, people with a high need for affiliation tend to: A. have higher absenteeism.
B. be less effective in jobs requiring social interaction.
C. be better at mediating conflicts.
D. All of the answers are correct.
E. be less effective in jobs requiring social interaction and be better at mediating conflicts.
30. People with __________ are more effective in many jobs requiring social interaction, but they tend to be less effective at allocating scarce resources.
A. High nAch
B. Low nPow
C. High nPow D. Low nAff E. High nAff
31. Research has found that entrepreneurs are more likely to succeed if they have: A. a low need for socialized power.
B. a high need for personalized power.
C. a high need for affiliation.
D. a low existence need.
E. a high need for achievement.
32. People with a high need for affiliation:
A. want to form positive relationships with others.
B. try to project a favourable image of themselves.
C. try to smooth out conflicts that occur in meetings and other social settings. D. tend to work well in coordinating roles.
E. All of the answers are correct.
33. The two types of need for power in learned needs theory are: A. personalized and socialized.
B. individual and team.
C. corporate and political.
D. high and low.
E. monetary and non-monetary.
34. Research has found that effective leaders possess: A. a high need for socialized power.
B. a high need for personalized power.
C. a high need for affiliation.
D. a high existence need.
E. a high need for personalized power and a high need for affiliation.
35. Alex demands loyalty from employees and gains satisfaction from controlling people. His actions dont seem to benefit the organization; rather, he does this to advance his own career and for the enjoyment of influencing others. Based on this information, it is most accurate to say that Alex has a:
A. high need for affiliation.
B. high need for socialized power. C. high need for personalized power. D. low need for achievement.
E. low need for personalized power.
36. Which of the following theories emphasizes the idea that some needs can be strengthened or weakened through training programs?
A. Maslows needs hierarchy theory
B. ERG theory
C. Learned needs theory
D. Four-drive theory
E. All of the answers are correct.
37. According to the four-drive theory, which of the following is insatiable (i.e., can never be fulfilled, we always want more of it)?
A. Drive to acquire
B. Physiological needs
C. Drive to defend
D. Belongingness needs
E. Drive to acquire and drive to defend
38. In four-drive theory, the drive __________ is most closely associated with the need for relative status and recognition.
A. to bond
B. for fairness
C. to achieve goals D. to acquire
E. for feedback
39. In four-drive theory, the drive __________ is most closely associated with social identity theory. A. to bond
B. for fairness
C. to defend
D. to acquire
E. to achieve goals
40. Which theory explicitly includes the following concepts: acquire, bond, learn? A. Goal setting theory
B. Four-drive theory
C. Maslows needs hierarchy
D. McClellands learned needs theory E. Expectancy theory
41. According to four-drive theory, the drive ___________ is a fundamental ingredient in the success of
organizations and development of societies. A. to defend
B. for fairness
C. to bond
D. to acquire
E. to achieve goals

42. Four-drive theory is based on the idea that:
A. needs can be learned.
B. needs form a permanent hierarchy.
C. employee motivation is based on expectations. D. the sources of employee needs are hard-wired. E. people do not really have any needs.
43. Which drive in four-drive theory is reactive rather than proactive? A. Drive to acquire
B. Drive to learn
C. Drive to defend
D. Drive to bond E. Drive for power
44. According to four-drive theory, ___________ are the conscious sources of human motivation. A. co-workers
B. food and drink
C. emotional markers D. drives
E. justice and equity
45. Which theory most explicitly relies on emotions to explain employee motivation? A. Four-drive theory
B. Maslows needs hierarchy
C. Goal setting theory
D. McClellands learned needs theory E. Expectancy theory

46. The main practical implication of four-drive theory is that:
A. companies should ensure everyone fulfills their social needs before status needs.
B. companies should avoid offering rewards with a high valence.
C. people experience a sense of fairness in the process, not just the outcomes.
D. companies should provide a balanced opportunity for employees to acquire, bond, learn, and defend. E. employees should receive 360-degree feedback rather than just from their supervisor.
47. Four-drive theory recommends:
A. that companies should encourage employees to fulfill one drive at a time.
B. that companies should provide sufficient rewards, learning opportunities, and social interaction at the
same time.
C. that companies should only hire people with a strong drive to defend.
D. that companies should create a work environment that routinely triggers the employees drive to
defend.
E. None of the answers apply.
48. Four-drive theory states that the four drives: A. counterbalance each other.
B. are arranged in a hierarchy.
C. are learned, not innate.
D. are equivalent to the top four needs in Maslows needs hierarchy. E. should not be fulfilled in organizational settings.
49. Expectancy theory mainly helps us to predict an individuals: A. effort.
B. need for achievement. C. distributive justice. D. job satisfaction.
E. rewards.
50. Which motivation theory is based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviours that people believe will lead to desired outcomes?
A. Equity theory
B. ERG theory
C. Goal setting theory D. Four-drive theory E. Expectancy theory
51. Expectancy theory mainly explains how employees:
A. have different needs at different times.
B. can use personal expectations to reduce work-related stress.
C. can motivate themselves through power.
D. have different levels of work effort based on their expectations of performance and reward outcomes. E. compare their inputs and outcomes to other people.
52. Which of these is found in the expectancy theory model? A. P-to-O expectancy
B. E-to-F expectancy
C. V-to-E expectancy
D. P-to-E expectancy E. O-to-P expectancy
53. An individuals perceived probability that a particular level of effort will result in a particular level of performance refers to the:
A. E-to-P need.
B. EP-to-PO outcome.
C. E-to-V expectancy. D. E-to-P expectancy. E. EV-to-PE outcome.
54. Which motivation theory considers the individuals perceived probability that his or her effort will result in a particular level of performance?
A. Learned needs theory
B. Expectancy theory
C. Needs hierarchy theory D. Equity theory
E. Four-drive theory
55. Which of the following statements about expectancy theory is FALSE?
A. Expectancy theory is a drive-based theory of motivation.
B. Expectancy theory has been applied to a wide variety of studies.
C. The process of employee motivation is explained reasonably well by expectancy theory.
D.One way to increase the P-to-O expectancy in the expectancy theory model is to accurately measure
job performance.
E. Expectancy theory has three main components relating to effort, performance and performance
outcomes.
56. Employees who believe that accomplishing a particular task will almost certainly result in a day off with pay would have:
A. an E-to-P expectancy above 100.
B. a P-to-O expectancy close to 1:0.
C. an outcome valence above 0:0.
D. an E-to-P expectancy close to minus 100. E. a P-to-O expectancy close to 100.
57. According to expectancy theory, a reward that is not wanted has: A. a high E-to-P expectancy.
B. an inappropriate comparison other.
C. a negative outcome valence.
D. a low P-to-O expectancy.
E. a low need for socialized power.
58. In expectancy theory, valence refers to the:
A. amount of effort a person puts towards a known goal.
B. individuals perceived probability of performing the task at a particular level.
C. anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels towards an outcome.
D. individuals perceived probability that his or her performance will lead to specific outcomes. E.feelings that result from a comparison of the individuals outcome/input ratio with the outcome/input
ratio of a comparison other.
59. According to expectancy theory, providing counselling and coaching to an employee who lacks self- confidence is most likely to increase the employees:
A. V-to-O expectancy.
B. E-to-P expectancy.
C. P-to-E expectancy. D. O-to-P expectancy. E. P-to-O expectancy.
60. Employee motivation tends to increase when people are assigned to jobs for which they are qualified and they receive coaching to improve their self-confidence. Both of these practices improve employee motivation by:
A. reducing feelings of inequity.
B. increasing outcome valences. C. satisfying existence needs.
D. increasing P-to-O expectancies. E. increasing E-to-P expectancies.
61. According to expectancy theory, a skill-development training program would: A. have no effect on employee motivation.
B. mainly increase the effort-to-performance expectancy.
C. mainly increase the performance-to-outcome expectancy.
D. mainly increase the valence of pay increases and other organizational outcomes. E. mainly alter the comparison other.
62. Which of the following actions would increase employee motivation mainly by enhancing their effort-to- performance expectancy?
A. Convince employees that poor performance will not be rewarded.
B. Reward employees with things that they value.
C. Measure performance more accurately.
D. Let employees know that their chances of performing successfully are good. E. All of the answers are correct.
63. One way to increase employee motivation by improving the P-to-O expectancies is to: A. measure employee performance accurately.
B. convince employees that they are able to accomplish the task.
C. select employees with the required skills and knowledge.
D. provide sufficient time and resources to perform the task. E. give everyone the same reward.
64. ABC Corp. introduced a training program that ensured everyone had the required knowledge and skills to perform the work. The company also brought in a performance-based reward system that accurately identified employees who performed better than others. According to expectancy theory, these practices improve employee motivation by:
A. increasing employee needs.
B. reducing feelings of inequity.
C. improving E-to-P expectancies.
D. improving P-to-O expectancies.
E. improving E-to-P expectancies and improving P-to-O expectancies.
65. According to expectancy theory, which of the following actions would NOT alter outcome valences? A. Show employees how their skills can accomplish the task.
B. Give employees a choice of rewards.
C. Minimize the presence of countervalent outcomes.
D. Distribute rewards that employees want.
E. Adapt the type of rewards offered to each employees dominant needs.
66. According to expectancy theory, linking valued rewards to higher job performance mainly increases motivation by:
A. strengthening the E-to-P expectancy.
B. increasing the valence of a $1,000 bonus.
C. weakening the E-to-P expectancy.
D. strengthening both the E-to-P and P-to-O expectancies. E. strengthening the P-to-O expectancy.
67. Which of these statements about expectancy theory is FALSE?
A. Expectancy theory details a persons thinking process when translating demands from competing
drives.
B. Expectancy theory doesnt explain motivation in different cultures.
C. Expectancy theory explains why coaching and pay-for-performance motivate employees.
D. Expectancy theory emphasizes rational thinking more than emotions.
E. Expectancy theory offers one of the best models available for predicting work effort and motivation.
68. Individualizing rewards enhances which expectancy theory component? A. performance expectancy
B. E-to-O expectancy
C. Valences of outcomes
D. E-to-P expectancy E. V-to-E outcomes
69. Behaviour modification does NOT consider:
A. the types of actions that reinforce behaviour.
B. the effect of feedback on behaviour.
C. employee behaviour before the behaviour modification strategy is applied. D. employee attitudes towards the person reinforcing the behaviour.
E. changes in employee behaviour when the reinforcer is removed.
70. According to the A-B-C model of behaviour modification, antecedents:
A. have no effect on behaviour.
B. cause people to act more randomly.
C. inform employees that certain behaviours will have particular consequences.
D. represent an older perspective of behaviour modification that is no longer relevant.
E. cause people to act more randomly and inform employees that certain behaviours will have particular
consequences.
71. The A-B-C model of behaviour modification helps us to:
A. teach language skills to employees more effectively.
B. determine which contingency of reinforcement is best in a particular situation. C. understand how experiential learning differs from social learning.
D. determine which schedule of reinforcement is best in a particular situation.
E. understand how environmental conditions influence learning and behaviour.
72. Which of these statements about behaviour modification is FALSE?
A. Behaviour modification programs are most effectively implemented where work behaviour is
observable.
B. Behaviour modification considers the contingencies and schedules of reinforcement.
C. The reinforcer used in some behaviour modification programs tends to lose its effectiveness over time. D. Behaviour modification theory argues that employee beliefs and attitudes cause behaviour.
E. A-B-C analysis considers what happens before and after the behaviour.
73. Which of the following is an example of punishment?
A. The organization takes away some of your pay cheque to cover the cost of a machine that you
carelessly broke.
B. Your boss doesnt say anything after you have the highest sales of the month.
C. Your boss stops complaining about your late arrival at work after you arrive early for several weeks. D. After signing a contract with an important client, the company announces its appreciation of your
work.
EThe organization takes away some of your pay cheque to cover the cost of a machine that you carelessly . broke and your boss stops complaining about your late arrival at work after you arrive early for several
weeks.
74. Which of the following increases the future probability of behaviour by removing a negative stimulus after the desired behaviour occurs?
A. Punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
C. Positive reinforcement
D. Extinction
E. None of the answers apply.
75. Which of these occurs when the introduction of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behaviour?
A. Positive reinforcement
B. Extinction
C. Job dissatisfaction
D. Punishment
E. Negative reinforcement
76. Which of these occurs when a consequence that is introduced decreases the frequency or future probability of a behaviour?
A. Negative reinforcement
B. Positive reinforcement
C. Punishment D. Extinction
E. None of these
77. Co-workers no longer praise you when you engage in dangerous pranks, so you stop engaging in these pranks. This is an example of:
A. negative reinforcement.
B. punishment.
C. positive reinforcement. D. action learning.
E. extinction.
78. In most situations, we should follow desired behaviour with __________ and follow undesirable behaviour with _________.
A. positive reinforcement; extinction
B. positive reinforcement; punishment
C. extinction; punishment
D. punishment; positive reinforcement
E. negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement
79. Receiving a commission only when a sale is made represents: A. a variable ratio schedule.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. non fixed interval schedule.
D. self-serving bias.
E. a fixed ratio schedule.
80. Promotions typically follow which of these schedules? A. Variable ratio
B. Fixed interval
C. Fixed ratio
D. Intermittent interval
E. None of the above is correct.
81. In behaviour modification, extinction occurs when:
A. employees are forced to leave the organization.
B. a behaviour decreases in frequency because it is punished more than reinforced. C. employees receive reinforcement less often now than in the past.
D. employees receive more reinforcement than they should receive.
E. a behaviour decreases in frequency because no consequence follows it.
82. A salesperson gets one sales order for every six clients called, on average. If a sales order is a form of positive reinforcement, what type of reinforcement schedule exists here?
A. Continuous
B. Fixed interval
C. Fixed ratio
D. Variable ratio E. Variable interval
83. Which reinforcement schedule is best for helping employees to learn new behaviours? A. Continuous
B. Fixed interval C. Fixed ratio
D. Variable ratio E. Variable interval
84. In behaviour modification, the variable ratio schedule:
A. rewards behaviour continuously rather than infrequently.
B. occurs when employees receive their biweekly pay cheque.
C. reinforces behaviour after it occurs a varying length of time. D. reinforces behaviour after it occurs a varying number of times. E. All of the answers are correct.
85. ABC Corp. pays its employees a fixed salary in a paycheque received every Friday afternoon. This is an example of which reinforcement schedule?
A. Continuous
B. Fixed interval
C. Fixed ratio
D. Variable ratio
E. None; pay cheques do not reinforce any behaviour
86. A British food company reduced absenteeism by giving employees with perfect attendance two chances (through a lottery) to win $500. This is an example of:
A. tacit knowledge.
B. behaviour modelling.
C. social learning.
D. a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement.
E. behaviour modification and a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement.
87. Which of these statements about behaviour modification is FALSE?
A. Behaviour modifications behaviourist approach has lost favour among academics and practitioners. B. Behaviour modification programs are sometimes viewed as a form of gambling.
C. Behaviour modification reinforcers tend to become too strong over time.
D. Behaviour modification focuses on behaviour rather than human thoughts.
E. Behaviour modification programs must run infrequently and only for short durations.
88. Social cognitive theory states that:
A. we learn the consequences of behaviour by observing the experiences of other people. B. we learn through self-reinforcement.
C. we learn by modelling the behaviour of other people.
D. All of the answers are correct.
E. employees cannot learn in social settings.
89. Behavioural modelling and self-reinforcement are components of: A. behaviour modification.
B. tacit knowledge.
C. social cognitive theory.
D. the MARS model of individual behaviour and performance. E. organizational citizenship.
90. Which of the following is an advantage of behavioural modelling?
A. Behavioural modelling helps employees to acquire tacit knowledge and skills from others.
B. Behavioural modelling often transmits information more efficiently than through documentation. C. People learn by imitating and practicing those behaviours.
D. All of the answers are correct.
E. Behavioural modelling has none of these advantages.
91. Self-reinforcement is a component of: A. social cognitive theory.
B. behaviour modification.
C. Johari Window.
D. attribution theory.
E. None of the answers apply.
92. After completing a difficult assignment, you reward your accomplishment by playing a game on your computer. This reward is part of which of the following organizational behaviour concepts?
A. MARS model
B. Behaviour modification
C. Four-needs theory
D. Social cognitive theory
E. Organizational citizenship
93. After discovering the cause of a computer network problem, Jessie rewards herself by taking a coffee break. Jessies action of taking a break is an example of:
A. poor performance.
B. learning through experience.
C. self-reinforcement.
D. behaviour modelling.
E. learning through feedback.
94. Goal setting influences employee behaviour and performance mainly by improving: A. situational contingencies and learned abilities.
B. aptitudes and learned abilities.
C. motivation and role perceptions.
D. role perceptions and learned abilities. E. motivation and aptitudes.
95. Goal setting is most effective when:
A. the supervisor sets the goals before discussing them with the employee.
B. the goals stretch the employees abilities and motivation.
C. the goal statements are general rather than specific.
D. All of the answers are correct.
E.the supervisor sets the goals before discussing them with the employee and the goals stretch the
employees abilities and motivation.
96. The optimal level of goal:
A. occurs where the goal is challenging but not impossible.
B. is the most challenging goal that the company can possibly imagine.
C. occurs only when employees set their own goal.
D. is the point at which the employee does not yet think the goal will stretch them at all.
E. occurs where the goal is challenging but not impossible and when employees set their own goal
97. To increase goal performance, employees should participate in the goal-setting process: A. when employees would otherwise lack commitment to those goals.
B. whenever supervisors have any control over setting goals.
C. when employees possess knowledge that would improve goal quality.
D. Never; participation weakens the effectiveness of goal setting.
E when employees would otherwise lack commitment to those goals and when employees possess . knowledgethatwouldimprovegoalquality.
98. Feedback affects behaviour and job performance by improving which of the following? A. Motivation
B. Role perceptions
C. Learned ability
D. All of the answers are correct
E. Role perceptions and learned ability
99. Effective feedback is all of the following EXCEPT: A. sufficiently frequent.
B. timely.
C. general.
D. credible. E. relevant.
100.Effective feedback:
A. is general enough that it applies to any employee.
B. is provided only through social sources.
C. is provided no more frequently than once every three months. D. All of the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers apply.
101.Which of the following statements about performance feedback is FALSE?
A. The optimal frequency of feedback depends on the type of job.
B. Feedback is more valuable when it comes from a credible source.
C.Feedback is more useful when it consists of general phrases, such as Your sales are going well!, rather
than specific phrases.
D. Feedback should be available to employees as soon as possible. E. Feedback is relevant when it is linked to goals.
102.How is effective feedback related to an employees task cycle (the time required to complete a typical task in the job)?
A. Feedback should be received an average of three times within each task cycle.
B. Employees with short task cycles usually need to receive feedback less often than employees with long
task cycles.
C. Employees with short task cycles should receive feedback more frequently than employees with long
task cycles.
D. Employees with short task cycles should never receive feedback. E. Task cycles have no effect on effective feedback.
103.One problem with balanced scorecards is that they:
A. apply to executives rather than to non-management employees.
B. rely on the companys share price to measure organizational performance. C. operate as an individual incentive.
D. companies chose goals that easily measured rather than valuable.
E. All of the answers are correct.
104.Which of the following translates the organizations vision and mission into specific, measurable performance goals related to financial, customer, internal, and learning/growth processes? A. Profit sharing plans.
B. Strategic report cards.
C. Point-factor reports
D. Balanced scorecard
E. All of the answers are correct.
105.Strengths-based feedback is consistent with the process of: A. self-reinforcement.
B. self-enhancement.
C. self-deprecation.
D. All of the answers are correct. E. None of the answers apply.
106.Compared with supervisor-only feedback, 360-degree feedback tends to be: A. less accurate.
B. less relevant to the employees actual performance. C. less ambiguous.
D. All of the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers apply.
107.Which of the following provides feedback from a full circle of people around the employee? A. Hierarchical feedback
B. Executive coaching feedback
C. Behavioural feedback
D. 360-degree feedback E. Nonsocial feedback
108.If supervisors are able to observe only a small portion of an employees behaviour and performance, then they should:
A. evaluate several employees and average their performance results.
B. evaluate the employees performance based on their personal observations.
C. consider using 360-degree feedback for that employee.
D. infer job performance on unobserved tasks from the persons performance on observed tasks. E. None of the answers apply.
109.360-degree feedback tends to:
A. be perceived as less accurate than feedback only from the supervisor.
B.be more effective when the results are used to determine pay increases and promotions, not just
employee development.
C. be more complete and accurate information than feedback from a supervisor alone.
D. All of the answers are correct.
E be perceived as less accurate than feedback only from the supervisor and be more ambiguous and . conflicting than when feedback comes only from the supervisor.
110.Feedback from social sources is generally better than from non-social sources when: A. the feedback is negative.
B. employees want accurate information about their job performance.
C. employees perform poorly and are easily offended by negative feedback.
D. All of the answers are correct. E. None of the answers apply.
111.Which of the following typically provides feedback from more than one source? A. Supervisors quarterly performance review.
B. 360-degree feedback report.
C. Executive coaching session
D. Electronic display showing number of people waiting for call centre staff to answer their call. E. None of the answers apply.
112.To correct performance problems, employees would most likely prefer to receive feedback from: A. the employees supervisor once or twice each year.
B. co-workers.
C. customers.
D. a frequent computer printout or other document.
E. the employees supervisor once or twice each year and co-workers.
113.Goal setting is rated by experts as:
A. one of the top OB theories in terms of validity and usefulness.
B. a theory that motivates executives but has little or no effect on the motivation of non-management
staff.
C. a theory which has the opposite effect on employee motivation than was originally intended.
D. None of the answers apply.
E one of the top OB theories in terms of validity and usefulness, but has the opposite effect on employee . motivationthanwasoriginallyintended.
114.Organizational justice has two distinct facets called _________ and __________ justice. A. fair; illegal
B. distributive; procedural C. active; passive
D. structural; social
E. innate; learned
115.The distributive justice rule applies the concept of: A. motivation.
B. individual needs.
C. equity.
D. goal setting.
E. None of the answers apply.
116.Which of the following theories suggests that employee motivation is influenced by what other people contribute to and receive from the organization?
A. Expectancy theory
B. Equity theory
C. Needs-based theory D. Need theory
E. Goal setting
117.Inputs, outcomes, and comparison other are elements of: A. four-drive theory.
B. Maslows needs hierarchy.
C. equity theory.
D. expectancy theory. E. goal setting theory.
118.To determine the fairness of pay or other outcomes, people usually apply: A. the equity principle.
B. the equality principle.
C. the need principle.
D. a combination of the above principles in different situations.
E. a combination of the equity principle and the need principle but never the equality principle.
119.Which of the following concepts is explicitly considered by equity theory? A. Comparison other
B. Effort-to-performance expectancy
C. Outcome/input ratio
D. All of the answers are correct.
E. Comparison other and outcome/input ratio
120.According to equity theory:
A. everyone has the same needs over their working life.
B. money should never be used to motivate employees.
C. employees must set their own goals.
D. the importance of inputs and outcomes varies from one person to the next.
E.improving job security and working conditions will improve job satisfaction and, consequently,
employee motivation.
121.According to equity theory:
A. we compare ourselves with a comparison other only when we are certain that inequity exists.
B. our comparison other never exists in real life.
C. our comparison other is always someone in another organization.
D. we choose people as comparison others only when we know that they receive fewer outcomes than we
do.
E. none of these statements are true.
122.Susan and Courtney have been in the same job for about the same length of time and perform very similar tasks. Susans bonus for her performance over the past year was higher than Courtneys bonus. Susan believes that Courtneys job performance was lower than her job performance. Based on this information:
A. Susan would definitely have feelings of underreward inequity. B. Susan would definitely have feelings of overreward inequity. C. Susan would definitely feel that she is rewarded equitably.
D. Susan would never have Courtney as a comparison other.
E. we cannot determine Susans feelings of equity or inequity.
123.According to equity theory, feelings of inequity can be reduced by all of the following EXCEPT: A. disassociating inputs from outcomes
B. changing the comparison other
C. leaving the field
D. cognitively distorting inputs and outcomes E. actually altering inputs or outcomes
124.Employees who receive a fixed amount of pay each week and who feel underrewarded are likely to: A. reduce their work effort.
B. increase their work effort.
C. change their perceptions, thinking that they work harder than they really do.
D. encourage the comparison other to reduce his or her work effort. E. None of the answers apply.
125.Employees change their comparison other:
A. never; people do not change their comparison other. B. every three or four months.
C. only when they feel overpaid.
D. as the main way to alter their inputs.
E. as a means of reducing feelings of inequity.
126.People who are equity sensitive tend to:
A. avoid having a comparison other.
B. be tolerant of situations where they are underrewarded.
C. have a low E-to-P expectancy.
D. feel more comfortable in situations where they receive proportionately more than others.
E. want their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the outcome/input ratio of the comparison other.
127.It is often difficult to maintain feelings of equity among employees because:
A. most employees feel inequitably treated no matter how much they receive for their work effort.
B. the equity theory model does not apply to non-management employees.
C. most employees dont know about feelings of equity.
D each employee has different opinions regarding which inputs should be rewarded and which outcomes . are more valuable than others.
E. All of the answers are correct.
128.Voice and the right to appeal are two important practices that influence: A. the size of outcome valences.
B. a persons innate drives.
C. a persons location in Maslows needs hierarchy.
D. perceptions of procedural justice.
E. whether companies should use 360-degree feedback or just supervisor feedback.
129.With respect to procedural justice, the value-expressive function which voice provides refers to: A. the feeling employees get when they feel valued at work.
B. the way employees feel after voicing their opinions.
C. the cathartic benefits of shouting at each other.
D. the sense of pride employees derive when they are eloquent during presentations. E. None of the answers are correct.
130.When people experience procedural injustice, they are more likely to: A. engage in more organizational citizenship behaviours.
B. engage in counterproductive work behaviours.
C. more likely to comply with higher authorities in the future.
D. All of the answers are correct.
E.engage in more organizational citizenship behaviours and are more likely to comply with higher
authorities in the future.
131.Motivation is closely related to the concept of employee engagement. True False
132.Motivation is one of the four essential drives of individual behaviour and performance. True False
133.Research indicates that employee engagement is associated with higher organizational citizenship. True False
134.The definition of employee engagement is still in debate. True False
135.The concept of employee engagement is related to motivation, but not role perception. True False
136.About 20 percent of Canadian employees have low engagement or are actively disengaged in their jobs.
True False
137.Young employees aged 25 to 34 are more likely to feel disengaged at work. True False
138.The lowest levels of employee engagement are usually found in Brazil. True False
139.The stronger your needs the less motivated you are to fulfill them, because you feel they are out of reach.
True False
140.Drives are needs, and are essential parts of human psychology. True False
141.In the context of motivation, drives are also called, primary needs, fundamental needs, or innate needs.
True False
142.Experts agree that drives are limited to physiological essentials, such as hunger and thirst. True False

143.Needs are defined as goal-oriented forces that people experience. True False
144.Needs hierarchy theory explains how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources.
True False
145.Maslows needs hierarchy theory incorporates only five basic categories. True False
146.Maslows needs hierarchy theory states that people are motivated by only one need at a time. True False
147.According to needs hierarchy theory, the need for self-actualization continues to develop even when it is fulfilled.
True False
148.Abraham Maslow was the first to recognize that human thoughts play a role in motivation. True False
149.Maslow is credited for bringing a mechanistic perspective to the study of motivation. True False
150.The positive organizations behaviour perspective focuses on teaching students the correct behaviours expected of them in modern work organizations.
True False
151.Maslows theory fails to account for the fact that people have different hierarchies. True False
152.Maslows needs hierarchy theory failed to explain the dynamics of employee needs because they falsely assume that everyone fits into a single needs hierarchy.
True False
153.A persons hierarchy of needs is influenced by his or her values. True False
154.David McClellands research on need for achievement concluded that all needs are instinctive and fixed for life.
True False
155.People with a high need for achievement tend to avoid risks and prefer working in teams. True False
156.Successful entrepreneurs tend to have a high need for achievement. True False
157.People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that allocate scarce resources among employees.
True False
158.People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that require them to mediate conflicts.
True False
159.According to learned needs theory, people with a high personalized need for power enjoy power for its own sake and use it to advance their career rather than to benefit others.
True False
160.According to learned needs theory, companies should hire leaders with a strong need for personalized power.
True False
161.Four-drive theory states that people have a hierarchy of needs that they progress through as lower level needs are fulfilled.
True False
162.Two drives identified in four-drive theory are the drive to acquire and the drive to bond. True False
163.According to four-drive theory, three drives are proactive (i.e. we actively seek to fulfill them) whereas the drive to defend is reactive (activated only in reaction to threat).
True False
164.In four-drive theory, the drive to bond does not produce any emotional markers. True False
165.According to four-drive theory, social norms, past experience, and personal values translate emotional signals into goal-directed effort.
True False
166.According to four-drive theory, organizations maximize motivation by focusing employees on opportunities to fulfill only one of the four drives.
True False
167.Four-drive theory recommends keeping all four drives in balance; that is, organizations should avoid too much or too little opportunity to fulfill each drive.
True False
168.Four-drives theory recommends that organizations rely on financial rewards rather than non-financial rewards to motivate employees.
True False
169.Expectancy theory of motivation states that people naturally direct their effort towards behaviours they believe are most likely to lead to desired outcomes.
True False
170.According to expectancy theory, employee motivation will remain high even when the P-to-O expectancy falls to zero.
True False
171.In expectancy theory, the performance-to-outcome expectancy represents the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual places on an outcome.
True False
172.One way to increase an employees E-to-P expectancy regarding a specific task is to increase the persons self-confidence through counselling and coaching.
True False
173.According to expectancy theory, communicating the existence of a performance-based reward system motivates employees by increasing their outcome valences.
True False
174.One of the main problems with expectancy theory of motivation is that it does not identify the comparison other in the motivation process.
True False
175.One way to increase a persons P-to-O expectancy is to measure his or her job performance more accurately.
True False
176.Expectancy theory is a useful model that explains motivation. True False
177.Expectancy theory identifies emotions as a key component of employee motivation. True False
178.Organizational behaviour modification emphasizes human thoughts rather than the environment as the source of all learning.
True False
179.In behaviour modification, antecedents refer to environmental cues, informing employees that certain behaviours will have particular consequences.
True False
180.Negative reinforcement occurs when the introduction of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behaviour.
True False
181.Punishment decreases the frequency of future behaviour whereas negative reinforcement increases or maintains the frequency of future behaviour.
True False
182.Research has concluded that punishment and negative reinforcement should never be used in organizational settings.
True False
183.Punishment is the same negative reinforcement. True False
184.If you praise an employee every time after he or she has performed the job well, then extinction of the desired behaviours is less likely to occur after you stop giving any more praise.
True False
185.Continuous reinforcement provides the most rapid learning of the targeted behaviour. True False
186.The variable ratio schedule of reinforcement makes behaviour highly resistant to extinction. True False
187.Behaviour modification is an effective strategy for helping employees to improve their decision making and other conceptual activities.
True False
188.One problem with behaviour modification programs is that some employees view the variable ratio schedule of reinforcement as a form of gambling, like a lottery.
True False
189.According to social cognitive theory, people can reinforce their own behaviour. True False
190.The main problem with behavioural modelling is that it transfers explicit knowledge, but not tacit knowledge.
True False
191.According to social cognitive theory, people learn to anticipate consequences mainly by observing the experiences of other people.
True False
192.Behavioural modelling can increase an observers self-confidence. True False
193.People self regulate by engaging in self-reinforcement. True False
194.Goal setting potentially improves employee performance by increasing motivation and clarifying role perceptions.
True False
195.Goal setting tends to be more effective when the goals are specific rather than general. True False
196.Goal setting is more effective when employees can easily complete the goals assigned to them. True False
197.The optimal level of goal difficulty occurs where the goal has more than a low level but less than a moderate level of goal difficulty.
True False
198.Participation in goal formation tends to increase performance when employees lack commitment to assigned goals.
True False
199.Feedback is a source of motivation as well as learning. True False
200.The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement system that rewards people on several factors. True False
201.Balanced scorecards are used mainly to measure performance of production employees. True False
202.Feedback to employees is most effective when it is frequent, credible, and general. True False
203.Feedback can be more frequent when employees perform short rather than long job cycles. True False
204.Strength-based coaching is also known as appreciative coaching. True False
205.Strength-based coaching is inconsistent with self-enhancement. True False
206.The idea behind 360-degree feedback is that employees should receive feedback for 360 continuous days.
True False
207.Research suggests that feedback originating only from the supervisor provides more complete and accurate information than feedback received through a 360-degree process.
True False
208.Compared to supervisor-only feedback, 360-degree feedback tends to produce more ambiguous and conflicting feedback.
True False
209.To learn about their progress towards goal accomplishment, employees usually prefer feedback from supervisors and other people.
True False
210.Employees consider feedback from non-social sources to be more accurate than feedback from social sources.
True False
211.When employees want to improve their self-image, they seek out positive feedback from social sources.
True False
212.Combining goal setting with monetary incentives motivates many employees to set up difficult goals. True False
213.To determine the fairness of pay or other outcomes, people almost always rely on the equity principle.
True False
214.The distributive justice principle states that everyone should receive the same rewards in life. True False
215.According to equity theory, employees feel inequity only when other people receive higher salaries than they do.
True False
216.In the equity theory model, a comparison other is an individual or group of people against whom the person compares his or her outcome/input ratio.
True False
217.One of the most significant discoveries in equity theory research is that people tend to keep the same comparison other throughout their working lives.
True False
218.Feelings of inequity occur when employees receive less than others, but not when they receive more than others.
True False
219.Overreward inequity occurs whenever other people receive less money than you do. True False
220.Underreward inequity occurs when your outcome/input ratio is lower than the outcome/input ratio of a comparison other.
True False
221.Equity theory research has found that employees who feel overrewarded tend to alter their perceptions of inputs and outcomes rather than attempt to actually change them.
True False
222.One of the most common consequences of overreward inequity is that overpaid employees try to increase their inputs by working harder.
True False
223.Equity sensitivity refers to how strongly people feel about outcome/input rations with others. True False
224.One problem with equity theory is that it incorrectly assumes people are individualistic, rational, and selfish.
True False
225.Procedural justice is influenced by the policies and practices that decision makers follow as well as their standards of interpersonal conduct.
True False
226.Distributive justice increases directly with the extent that the decision allows voice, can be appealed, and has an unbiased decision maker.
True False
227.Giving employees an explanation for a negative decision has no effect on procedural justice. True False
228.Feelings of procedural injustice produce anger, which, in turn, generates either withdrawal or aggression.
True False
229.Having a formalized way of appealing the decision of managers to a higher authority is a form of procedural justice.
True False
230.Maslows needs hierarchy theory was dismissed by experts more than three decades ago, yet Maslows writing has had a lasting and valuable effect by advocating a more holistic and humanistic approach to human motivation. Discuss these two elements and point out how they were applied in Maslows needs hierarchy theory.

231.Your organization wants to hire and develop a group of people for executive positions in a fast-growing high-technology firm. The companys selection tests are able to identify each applicants current level of need for achievement, power (both types) and affiliation. Moreover, the company has special training programs to further develop these fast-track executives on these learned needs. Identify which learned needs the company should use to select these applicants and should further develop in the training programs.

232.Briefly describe the various drives within the Four-drive Theory and explain how drives influence employee motivation.

233.A large manufacturer of Internet hardware wants to hire an executive who will help develop the
firms marketing division. This executive must be a team player by working with other executives.
The successful candidate will also delegate more responsibility to the marketing professionals, but is responsible for making tough decisions regarding allocation of limited budgets. Describe the level of need for achievement, affiliation, and socialized and personalized power that the ideal candidate would have for this position. Your answer should also briefly define these terms.

234.Four-drive theory offers a contemporary view of how individual drives influence behaviour. The first part of the theory explains how drives generate emotions. Explain how these emotions are translated into employee behaviour. Your answer should identify the three factors that people consider in this translation process.

235.Four-drive theory is one of the few theories of motivation that recognizes the central role of human emotions in the motivation process. Explain how four-drive theory applies emotions to employee motivation.

236.Your organization wants to improve employee motivation. Employees already have strong P-to-O expectancies and the outcome valences are quite favourable for strong performance, but they seem to have a low E-to-P expectancy. Identify three distinct types of strategies that would potentially increase employee motivation by improving the E-to-P expectancy.

237.You want production employees at your company to be more motivated to complete their assignments more efficiently. They are confident that they can perform their jobs more efficiently and the rewards you give employees (pay cheques, paid time off, etc.) are valued by these people. Identify the one element
of expectancy theory that requires improvement and identify three possible actions that would increase employee motivation through this element.

238.What are the A-B-Cs of behaviour modification?

239.Big Box Construction Company has received warnings from government safety inspectors that employees at some of its construction sites are not wearing the required safety helmets and noise- protection equipment. The company could lose these contracts if safety practices are not maintained. The company has warned employees that they could be fired if they dont wear the safety gear, but this has had little effect. Describe an A-B-C analysis for this situation and provide two types of behaviour modification interventions that might change employee behaviour in this situation.

240.Behaviour modification has been very effective in some settings, but also has several limitations. Describe two limitations of behaviour modification and give an example of each.

241.Explain why behaviour modelling is often more effective than direct reinforcement for helping employees to learn new behaviours.

242.Friendly Cafe is a chain of coffee shops located throughout Canada. The company president wants your management-consulting firm to use behavioural modelling to improve customer service skills among servers. Give two explanations why behavioural modelling may be an effective learning strategy in this situation and identify two important characteristics of this approach.

243.Total Chemical Corp. (TCC) developed a goal-setting program aimed at teams that operate the petrochemical process in TCCs plants. The goal-setting program encouraged team leaders to frequently remind team members to do their best. TCCs executives also rewarded team leaders who pushed employees to complete impossible deadlines. One year after the goal-setting program was introduced, TCCs executives couldnt see much improvement in job performance. Explain why goal setting might not have worked effectively here.

244.Comment on the accuracy of the following statement: According to goal-setting theory, performance increases with the level of goal difficulty.

245.Suppose that you supervise two-dozen sales representatives, covering every region of the country, from your office at company headquarters. Describe a feedback strategy that might improve the performance of these employees with respect to increasing sales to new clients.

246.A large project engineering company assigns engineering, purchasing, marketing and support staff to client-based projects, which last anywhere from four months to one year. These project staff report to both the project leader and the manager of their functional specialization. For example, a marketing employee in Project Z would receive day-to-day instructions from the Project Z manager, but would receive career development guidance from the companys director of marketing. The functional manager also places employees in future projects. In the past, project staff were evaluated by the employees project leader at the time of the annual performance evaluation. However, some employees complained that they had just started the project, so the project leader didnt know their performance. The company wants to introduce a 360-degree feedback process to overcome this and other problems with the performance evaluation system. Describe the specific characteristics of a 360-degree feedback process for project staff at this company and identify two problems that the company should know about 360-degree feedback systems.

247.Jack Smith and Sam Clemens are neighbours who work as purchasing managers in different companies in the petrochemical industry. During one neighbourly discussion, Jack learned that Sams salary was nearly 15 per cent higher than his even though their job duties were similar. Other than this difference, both received similar benefits and seemed to enjoy their jobs and colleagues. Jack was upset about Sams higher salary, although he hid his emotions from Sam. (After all, it wasnt Sams fault that they received different salary levels.) Jack was frustrated not only because Sam received a significantly higher salary, but also because Jack was certain that he worked longer hours and was more productive than Sam. Use the equity theory model to explain Jacks frustration.

248.Jane and Connie are neighbours who both work as purchasing managers in different companies in the petrochemical industry. During one neighbourly discussion, Jane learned that Connies salary was nearly 15 per cent higher than hers even though their job duties were similar. Other than this difference, both received similar benefits and seemed to enjoy their jobs and colleagues. Jane was upset about Connies higher salary, although she did her best to hide her emotions from Connie. After all, it wasnt Connies fault that they received different salary levels. Jane was frustrated not only because Connie received a significantly higher salary, but also because she was certain that she worked longer hours and was more productive than Connie. According to equity theory research, what will Jane probably do to reduce her upset feelings?

249.Why is it such a challenge for employers to maintain feelings of equity among employees?

250.You have been asked to design a training program that will help managers create a better sense of procedural justice in their day-to-day decisions. Describe what this training program would emphasize to improve perceptions of procedural justice.

1. (p. 123) D
2. (p. 124) C
3. (p. 124) E
4. (p. 125) A
5. (p. 125) C
6. (p. 126) E
7. (p. 126) A
8. (p. 126) A
9. (p. 126-127) E 10. (p. 127) E
11. (p. 127) C
12. (p. 127) B
13. (p. 127) B
14. (p. 126-127) A 15. (p. 127) D
16. (p. 127) A
17. (p. 127) E
18. (p. 127) C
19. (p. 127) A
2

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