Chemistry 9th Edition by Steven S. Zumdah Solution Manual

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Chemistry 9th Edition by Steven S. Zumdah Solution Manual












Ninth Edition



Steven S. Zumdahl



Chapter 1 Chemical Foundations


  1. The difference between a law and a theory is the difference

between what and why. Explain.

  1. The scientific method is a dynamic process. What does this


  1. Explain the fundamental steps of the scientific method.
  2. What is the difference between random error and systematic


  1. A measurement is a quantitative observation involving both a

number and a unit. What is a qualitative observation? What are

the SI units for mass, length, and volume? What is the assumed

uncertainty in a number (unless stated otherwise)? The

uncertainty of a measurement depends on the precision of the

measuring device. Explain.

  1. To determine the volume of a cube, a student measured one of

the dimensions of the cube several times. If the true dimension

of the cube is 10.62 cm, give an example of four sets of measurements

that would illustrate the following.

  1. imprecise and inaccurate data
  2. precise but inaccurate data
  3. precise and accurate data

Give a possible explanation as to why data can be imprecise

or inaccurate. What is wrong with saying a set of measurements

is imprecise but accurate?

  1. What are significant figures? Show how to indicate the number

one thousand to 1 significant figure, 2 significant figures,

3 significant figures, and 4 significant figures. Why is the answer,

to the correct number of significant figures, not 1.0 for

the following calculation?

1.5 2 1.0



  1. A cold front moves through and the temperature drops by

20 degrees. In which temperature scale would this 20 degree

change represent the largest change in temperature?

  1. When the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (TF) is plotted vs.

the temperature in degrees Celsius (TC), a straight-line plot

results. A straight-line plot also results when TC is plotted vs.

TK (the temperature in kelvins). Reference Appendix A1.3 and

determine the slope and y-intercept of each of these two plots.

  1. Give four examples illustrating each of the following terms.
  2. homogeneous mixture d. element
  3. heterogeneous mixture e. physical change
  4. compound f. chemical change


In this section similar exercises are paired.

Significant Figures and Unit Conversions

  1. Which of the following are exact numbers?
  2. There are 100 cm in 1 m.
  3. One meter equals 1.094 yards.
  4. We can use the equation

F 5 95

C 1 32

to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit temperature. Are the

numbers 95

and 32 exact or inexact?

  1. p 5 3.1415927.
  2. Indicate the number of significant figures in each of the


  1. This book contains more than 1000 pages.
  2. A mile is about 5300 ft.
  3. A liter is equivalent to 1.059 qt.
  4. The population of the United States is approaching

3.1 3 102 million.

  1. A kilogram is 1000 g.
  2. The Boeing 747 cruises at around 600 mi/h.
  3. How many significant figures are there in each of the following


  1. 6.07 3 10215 e. 463.8052
  2. 0.003840 f. 300
  3. 17.00 g. 301
  4. 8 3 108 h. 300.
  5. How many significant figures are in each of the following?
  6. 100 e. 0.0048
  7. 1.0 3 102 f. 0.00480
  8. 1.00 3 103 g. 4.80 3 1023
  9. 100. h. 4.800 3 1023
  10. Round off each of the following numbers to the indicated

number of significant digits, and write the answer in standard

scientific notation.

  1. 0.00034159 to three digits
  2. 103.351 3 102 to four digits
  3. 17.9915 to five digits
  4. 3.365 3 105 to three digits
  5. Use exponential notation to express the number 385,500 to
  6. one significant figure.
  7. two significant figures.
  8. three significant figures.
  9. five significant figures.
  10. You have liquid in each graduated cylinder shown:

You then add both samples to a beaker. How would you write

the number describing the total volume? What limits the precision

of this number?

  1. The beakers shown below have different precisions.










  1. Label the amount of water in each of the three beakers to

the correct number of significant figures.

  1. Is it possible for each of the three beakers to contain the

exact same amount of water? If no, why not? If yes, did

you report the volumes as the same in part a? Explain.

  1. Suppose you pour the water from these three beakers into

one container. What should be the volume in the container

reported to the correct number of significant figures?

  1. Evaluate each of the following, and write the answer to the

appropriate number of significant figures.

  1. 212.2 1 26.7 1 402.09
  2. 1.0028 1 0.221 1 0.10337
  3. 52.331 1 26.01 2 0.9981
  4. 2.01 3 102 1 3.014 3 103
  5. 7.255 2 6.8350
  6. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express

each result to the correct number of significant figures.


0.102 3 0.0821 3 273


  1. 0.14 3 6.022 3 1023
  2. 4.0 3 104 3 5.021 3 1023 3 7.34993 3 102


2.00 3 106

3.00 3 1027

  1. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express

the result to the correct number of significant figures.










  1. (6.404 3 2.91)y(18.7 2 17.1)
  2. 6.071 3 1025 2 8.2 3 1026 2 0.521 3 1024
  3. (3.8 3 10212 1 4.0 3 10213)y(4 3 1012 1 6.3 3 1013)


9.5 1 4.1 1 2.8 1 3.175


(Assume that this operation is taking the average of four

numbers. Thus 4 in the denominator is exact.)


8.925 2 8.905


3 100

(This type of calculation is done many times in calculating a

percentage error. Assume that this example is such a calculation;

thus 100 can be considered to be an exact number.)

  1. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express

the result to the correct number of significant figures.

  1. 6.022 3 1023 3 1.05 3 102


6.6262 3 10234 3 2.998 3 108

2.54 3 1029

Unless otherwise noted, all art on this page is Cengage Learning 2014.

  1. 1.285 3 1022 1 1.24 3 1023 1 1.879 3 1021


11.00866 2 1.007282

6.02205 3 1023


9.875 3 102 2 9.795 3 102

9.875 3 102 3 100 1100 is exact2


9.42 3 102 1 8.234 3 102 1 1.625 3 103


13 is exact2

  1. Perform each of the following conversions.
  2. 8.43 cm to millimeters
  3. 2.41 3 102 cm to meters
  4. 294.5 nm to centimeters
  5. 1.445 3 104 m to kilometers
  6. 235.3 m to millimeters
  7. 903.3 nm to micrometers
  8. a. How many kilograms are in 1 teragram?
  9. How many nanometers are in 6.50 3 102 terameters?
  10. How many kilograms are in 25 femtograms?
  11. How many liters are in 8.0 cubic decimeters?
  12. How many microliters are in 1 milliliter?
  13. How many picograms are in 1 microgram?
  14. Perform the following unit conversions.
  15. Congratulations! You and your spouse are the proud

parents of a new baby, born while you are studying in a

country that uses the metric system. The nurse has

informed you that the baby weighs 3.91 kg and measures

51.4 cm. Convert your babys weight to pounds and

ounces and her length to inches (rounded to the nearest

quarter inch).

  1. The circumference of the earth is 25,000 mi at the

equator. What is the circumference in kilometers? in


  1. A rectangular solid measures 1.0 m by 5.6 cm by 2.1 dm.

Express its volume in cubic meters, liters, cubic inches,

and cubic feet.

  1. Perform the following unit conversions.
  2. 908 oz to kilograms
  3. 12.8 L to gallons
  4. 125 mL to quarts
  5. 2.89 gal to milliliters
  6. 4.48 lb to grams
  7. 550 mL to quarts
  8. Use the following exact conversion factors to perform the

stated calculations:


yd 5 1 rod

40 rods 5 1 furlong

8 furlongs 5 1 mile

  1. The Kentucky Derby race is 1.25 miles. How long is the

race in rods, furlongs, meters, and kilometers?

  1. A marathon race is 26 miles, 385 yards. What is this

distance in rods, furlongs, meters, and kilometers?

  1. Although the preferred SI unit of area is the square meter, land

is often measured in the metric system in hectares (ha). One

hectare is equal to 10,000 m2. In the English system, land is

often measured in acres (1 acre 5 160 rod2). Use the exact

conversions and those given in Exercise 43 to calculate the


  1. 1 ha 5 ________ km2
  2. The area of a 5.5-acre plot of land in hectares, square

meters, and square kilometers

  1. A lot with dimensions 120 ft by 75 ft is to be sold for

$6500. What is the price per acre? What is the price per


  1. Precious metals and gems are measured in troy weights in the

English system:

24 grains 5 1 pennyweight 1exact2

20 pennyweight 5 1 troy ounce 1exact2

12 troy ounces 5 1 troy pound 1exact2

1 grain 5 0.0648 g

1 carat 5 0.200 g

  1. The most common English unit of mass is the pound

avoirdupois. What is 1 troy pound in kilograms and in


  1. What is the mass of a troy ounce of gold in grams and in


  1. The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. What is the volume of a

troy pound of gold?

  1. Apothecaries (druggists) use the following set of measures in

the English system:

20 grains ap 5 1 scruple 1exact2

3 scruples 5 1 dram ap 1exact2

8 dram ap 5 1 oz ap 1exact2

1 dram ap 5 3.888 g

  1. Is an apothecary grain the same as a troy grain? (See

Exercise 45.)

  1. 1 oz ap 5 ________ oz troy.
  2. An aspirin tablet contains 5.00 3 102 mg of active

ingredient. What mass in grains ap of active ingredient

does it contain? What mass in scruples?

  1. What is the mass of 1 scruple in grams?
  2. For a pharmacist dispensing pills or capsules, it is often easier

to weigh the medication to be dispensed than to count the individual

pills. If a single antibiotic capsule weighs 0.65 g, and

a pharmacist weighs out 15.6 g of capsules, how many capsules

have been dispensed?

  1. A childrens pain relief elixir contains 80. mg acetaminophen

per 0.50 teaspoon. The dosage recommended for a child who

weighs between 24 and 35 lb is 1.5 teaspoons. What is the range

of acetaminophen

dosages, expressed in mg acetaminophen/kg

body weight, for children who weigh between 24 and 35 lb?

  1. Science fiction often uses nautical analogies to describe space

travel. If the starship U.S.S. Enterprise is traveling at warp


1.71, what is its speed in knots and in miles per hour?

(Warp 1.71 5 5.00 times the speed of light; speed of light 5

3.00 3 108 m/s; 1 knot 5 2030 yd/h.)

  1. The world record for the hundred meter dash is 9.58 s. What is

the corresponding average speed in units of m/s, km/h, ft/s,

and mi/h? At this speed, how long would it take to run 1.00 3

102 yards?

  1. Would a car traveling at a constant speed of 65 km/h violate a

40 mi/h speed limit?

  1. You pass a road sign saying New York 112 km. If you drive

at a constant speed of 65 mi/h, how long should it take you to

reach New York? If your car gets 28 miles to the gallon, how

many liters of gasoline are necessary to travel 112 km?

  1. You are in Paris, and you want to buy some peaches for lunch.

The sign in the fruit stand indicates that peaches cost 2.45 euros

per kilogram. Given that 1 euro is equivalent to approximately

$1.32, calculate what a pound of peaches will cost in


  1. In recent years, there has been a large push for an increase in

the use of renewable resources to produce the energy we need

to power our vehicles. One of the newer fuels that has become

more widely available is E85, a mixture of 85% ethanol and

15% gasoline. Despite being more environmentally friendly,

one of the potential drawbacks of E85 fuel is that it produces

less energy than conventional gasoline. Assume a car gets

28.0 mi/gal using gasoline at $3.50/gal and 22.5 mi/gal using

E85 at $2.85/gal. How much will it cost to drive 500. miles

using each fuel?

  1. Mercury poisoning is a debilitating disease that is often fatal.

In the human body, mercury reacts with essential enzymes

leading to irreversible inactivity of these enzymes. If the

amount of mercury in a polluted lake is 0.4 mg Hg/mL, what

is the total mass in kilograms of mercury in the lake? (The lake

has a surface area of 100 mi2 and an average depth of 20 ft.)

  1. Carbon monoxide (CO) detectors sound an alarm when peak

levels of carbon monoxide reach 100 parts per million (ppm).

This level roughly corresponds to a composition of air that

contains 400,000 mg carbon monoxide per cubic meter of air

(400,000 mg/m3). Assuming the dimensions of a room are

18 ft 3 12 ft 3 8 ft, estimate the mass of carbon monoxide in

the room that would register 100 ppm on a carbon monoxide



  1. Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius

and Kelvin scales.

  1. 24598F, an extremely low temperature
  2. 240.8F, the answer to a trivia question
  3. 688F, room temperature
  4. 7 3 107 8F, temperature required to initiate fusion

reactions in the sun

  1. A thermometer gives a reading of 96.18F 6 0.28F. What is the

temperature in 8C? What is the uncertainty?

  1. Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to

Fahrenheit degrees.

  1. the temperature of someone with a fever, 39.28C
  2. a cold wintery day, 2258C
  3. the lowest possible temperature, 22738C
  4. the melting-point temperature of sodium chloride, 8018C
  5. Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and

Fahrenheit degrees.

  1. the temperature that registers the same value on both the

Fahrenheit and Celsius scales, 233 K

  1. the boiling point of helium, 4 K
  2. the temperature at which many chemical quantities are

determined, 298 K

  1. the melting point of tungsten, 3680 K
  2. At what temperature is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit

equal to twice the temperature in degrees Celsius?

  1. The average daytime temperatures on the earth and Jupiter are

728F and 313 K, respectively. Calculate the difference in temperature,

in 8C, between these two planets.

  1. Use the figure below to answer the following questions.





  1. Derive the relationship between 8C and 8X.
  2. If the temperature outside is 22.08C, what is the temperature

in units of 8X?

  1. Convert 58.08X to units of 8C, K, and 8F.
  2. Ethylene glycol is the main component in automobile antifreeze.

To monitor the temperature of an auto cooling system,

you intend to use a meter that reads from 0 to 100. You devise

a new temperature scale based on the approximate melting and

boiling points of a typical antifreeze solution (2458C and

1158C). You wish these points to correspond to 08A and

1008A, respectively.

  1. Derive an expression for converting between 8A and 8C.
  2. Derive an expression for converting between 8F and 8A.
  3. At what temperature would your thermometer and a

Celsius thermometer give the same numerical reading?

  1. Your thermometer reads 868A. What is the temperature in

8C and in 8F?

  1. What is a temperature of 458C in 8A?


  1. A material will float on the surface of a liquid if the material

has a density less than that of the liquid. Given that the density

of water is approximately 1.0 g/mL, will a block of material

having a volume of 1.2 3 104 in3 and weighing 350 lb float or

sink when placed in a reservoir of water?

  1. For a material to float on the surface of water, the material must

have a density less than that of water (1.0 g/mL) and must not

react with the water or dissolve in it. A spherical ball has a radius

of 0.50 cm and weighs 2.0 g. Will this ball float or sink

when placed in water? (Note: Volume of a sphere 5 43


  1. A star is estimated to have a mass of 2 3 1036 kg. Assuming it

to be a sphere of average radius 7.0 3 105 km, calculate the

average density of the star in units of grams per cubic


  1. A rectangular block has dimensions 2.9 cm 3 3.5 cm 3

10.0 cm. The mass of the block is 615.0 g. What are the volume

and density of the block?

  1. Diamonds are measured in carats, and 1 carat 5 0.200 g. The

density of diamond is 3.51 g/cm3.

  1. What is the volume of a 5.0-carat diamond?
  2. What is the mass in carats of a diamond measuring 2.8 mL?
  3. Ethanol and benzene dissolve in each other. When 100. mL of

ethanol is dissolved in 1.00 L of benzene, what is the mass of

the mixture? (See Table 1.5.)

  1. A sample containing 33.42 g of metal pellets is poured into a

graduated cylinder initially containing 12.7 mL of water, causing

the water level in the cylinder to rise to 21.6 mL. Calculate

the density of the metal.

  1. The density of pure silver is 10.5 g/cm3 at 208C. If 5.25 g of

pure silver pellets is added to a graduated cylinder containing

11.2 mL of water, to what volume level will the water in the

cylinder rise?

  1. In each of the following pairs, which has the greater mass?

(See Table 1.5.)

  1. 1.0 kg of feathers or 1.0 kg of lead
  2. 1.0 mL of mercury or 1.0 mL of water
  3. 19.3 mL of water or 1.00 mL of gold
  4. 75 mL of copper or 1.0 L of benzene
  5. a. Calculate the mass of ethanol in 1.50 qt of ethanol. (See

Table 1.5.)

  1. Calculate the mass of mercury in 3.5 in3 of mercury. (See

Table 1.5.)

  1. In each of the following pairs, which has the greater volume?
  2. 1.0 kg of feathers or 1.0 kg of lead
  3. 100 g of gold or 100 g of water
  4. 1.0 L of copper or 1.0 L of mercury
  5. Using Table 1.5, calculate the volume of 25.0 g of each of the

following substances at 1 atm.

  1. hydrogen gas
  2. water
  3. iron

Chapter 5 discusses the properties of gases. One property

unique to gases is that they contain mostly empty space. Explain

using the results of your calculations.

  1. The density of osmium (the densest metal) is 22.57 g/cm3. If a

1.00-kg rectangular block of osmium has two dimensions of

4.00 cm 3 4.00 cm, calculate the third dimension of the block.

  1. A copper wire (density 5 8.96 g/cm3) has a diameter of

0.25 mm. If a sample of this copper wire has a mass of 22 g,

how long is the wire?

Classification and Separation of Matter

  1. Match each description below with the following microscopic

pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A

picture may be used more than once or not used at all.

i ii iii

iv v vi

  1. a gaseous compound
  2. a mixture of two gaseous elements
  3. a solid element
  4. a mixture of a gaseous element and a gaseous compound
  5. Define the following terms: solid, liquid, gas, pure substance,

element, compound, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous

mixture, solution, chemical change, physical change.

  1. What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous

matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous

or heterogeneous.

  1. a door d. the water you drink
  2. the air you breathe e. salsa
  3. a cup of coffee (black) f. your lab partner
  4. Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
  5. potting soil d. window glass
  6. white wine e. granite
  7. your sock drawer
  8. Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure


  1. water f. uranium
  2. blood g. wine
  3. the oceans h. leather
  4. iron i. table salt
  5. brass

Of the pure substances, which are elements and which are


  1. Suppose a teaspoon of magnesium filings and a teaspoon of

powdered sulfur are placed together in a metal beaker. Would

this constitute a mixture or a pure substance? Suppose the

magnesium filings and sulfur are heated so that they react with

each other, forming magnesium sulfide. Would this still be a

mixture? Why or why not?

  1. If a piece of hard, white blackboard chalk is heated strongly in

a flame, the mass of the piece of chalk will decrease, and eventually

the chalk will crumble into a fine white dust. Does this

change suggest that the chalk is composed of an element or a


  1. During a very cold winter, the temperature may remain below

freezing for extended periods. However, fallen snow can still

disappear, even though it cannot melt. This is possible because

a solid can vaporize directly, without passing through the liquid

state. Is this process (sublimation) a physical or a chemical


  1. Classify the following as physical or chemical changes.
  2. Moth balls gradually vaporize in a closet.
  3. Hydrofluoric acid attacks glass and is used to etch

calibration marks on glass laboratory utensils.

  1. A French chef making a sauce with brandy is able to boil

off the alcohol from the brandy, leaving just the brandy


  1. Chemistry majors sometimes get holes in the cotton jeans

they wear to lab because of acid spills.

  1. The properties of a mixture are typically averages of the properties

of its components. The properties of a compound may

differ dramatically from the properties of the elements that

combine to produce the compound. For each process described

below, state whether the material being discussed is

most likely a mixture or a compound, and state whether the

process is a chemical change or a physical change.

  1. An orange liquid is distilled, resulting in the collection of

a yellow liquid and a red solid.

  1. A colorless, crystalline solid is decomposed, yielding a

pale yellow-green gas and a soft, shiny metal.

  1. A cup of tea becomes sweeter as sugar is added to it.

Additional Exercises

  1. Lipitor, a pharmaceutical drug that has been shown to lower

bad cholesterol levels while raising good cholesterol levels

in patients taking the drug, had over $11 billion in sales in

  1. Assuming one 2.5-g pill contains 4.0% of the active ingredient

by mass, what mass in kg of active ingredient is present

in one bottle of 100 pills?

  1. In Shakespeares Richard III, the First Murderer says:

Take that, and that! [Stabs Clarence]

If that is not enough, Ill drown you in a malmsey butt within!

Given that 1 butt 5 126 gal, in how many liters of malmsey (a

foul brew similar to mead) was the unfortunate Clarence about

to be drowned?

  1. The contents of one 40. lb bag of topsoil will cover 10. square

feet of ground to a depth of 1.0 inch. What number of bags is

needed to cover a plot that measures 200. by 300. m to a depth

of 4.0 cm?

  1. In the opening scenes of the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark,


Jones tries to remove a gold idol from a booby-trapped

pedestal. He replaces the idol with a bag of sand of approximately

equal volume. (Density of gold 5 19.32 g/cm3; density

of sand < 2 g/cm3.)

  1. Did he have a reasonable chance of not activating the

mass-sensitive booby trap?

  1. In a later scene, he and an unscrupulous guide play catch

with the idol. Assume that the volume of the idol is about

1.0 L. If it were solid gold, what mass would the idol

have? Is playing catch with it plausible?

  1. A parsec is an astronomical unit of distance where 1 parsec 5

3.26 light years (1 light year equals the distance traveled by

light in one year). If the speed of light is 186,000 mi/s, calculate

the distance in meters of an object that travels 9.6 parsecs.

  1. You are driving 65 mi/h and take your eyes off the road for

just a second. What distance (in feet) do you travel in this


  1. This year, like many past years, you begin to feel very sleepy


eating a large helping of Thanksgiving turkey. Some

people attribute this sleepiness to the presence of the amino

acid tryptophan in turkey. Tryptophan can be used by the body

to produce serotonin, which can calm the brains activity and

help to bring on sleep.

  1. What mass in grams of tryptophan is in a 0.25-lb serving

of turkey? (Assume tryptophan accounts for 1.0% of the

turkey mass.)

  1. What mass in grams of tryptophan is in 0.25 quart of

milk? (Assume tryptophan accounts for 2.0% of milk by

mass and that the density of milk is 1.04 kg/L.)

  1. Which of the following are chemical changes? Which are

physical changes?

  1. the cutting of food
  2. interaction of food with saliva and digestive enzymes
  3. proteins being broken down into amino acids
  4. complex sugars being broken down into simple sugars
  5. making maple syrup by heating maple sap to remove

water through evaporation

  1. DNA unwinding
  2. A column of liquid is found to expand linearly on heating. Assume

the column rises 5.25 cm for a 10.08F rise in temperature.

If the initial temperature of the liquid is 98.68F, what will

the final temperature be in 8C if the liquid has expanded by

18.5 cm?

  1. A 25.00-g sample of a solid is placed in a graduated cylinder,

and then the cylinder is filled to the 50.0-mL mark with benzene.

The mass of benzene and solid together is 58.80 g. Assuming

that the solid is insoluble in benzene and that the density

of benzene is 0.880 g/cm3, calculate the density of the


  1. For each of the following, decide which block is more dense:

the orange block, the blue block, or it cannot be determined.

Explain your answers.

  1. According to the Official Rules of Baseball, a baseball must

have a circumference not more than 9.25 in or less than

9.00 in and a mass not more than 5.25 oz or less than 5.00 oz.

What range of densities can a baseball be expected to have?

Express this range as a single number with an accompanying

uncertainty limit.

  1. The density of an irregularly shaped object was determined as

follows. The mass of the object was found to be 28.90 g 6

0.03 g. A graduated cylinder was partially filled with water.

The reading of the level of the water was 6.4 cm3 6 0.1 cm3.

The object was dropped in the cylinder, and the level of the

water rose to 9.8 cm3 6 0.1 cm3. What is the density of the

object with appropriate error limits? (See Appendix 1.5.)

  1. The chemist in Example 1.14 did some further experiments.

She found that the pipet used to measure the volume of the

liquid is accurate to 60.03 cm3. The mass measurement is accurate

to 60.002 g. Are these measurements sufficiently precise

for the chemist to distinguish between isopropyl alcohol

and ethanol?

ChemWork Problems

These multiconcept problems (and additional ones) are found interactively

online with the same type of assistance a student would get

from an instructor.

  1. The longest river in the world is the Nile River with a length

of 4,145 mi. How long is the Nile in cable lengths, meters, and

nautical miles?

Use these exact conversions to help solve the problem:

6 ft 5 1 fathom

100 fathoms 5 1 cable length

10 cable lengths 5 1 nautical mile

3 nautical miles 5 1 league

  1. Secretariat is known as the horse with the fastest run in the

Kentucky Derby. If Secretariats record 1.25-mi run lasted

1 minute 59.2 seconds, what was his average speed in m/s?

  1. The hottest temperature recorded in the United States is 1348F

in Greenland Ranch, CA. The melting point of phosphorus

is 448C. At this temperature, would phosphorus be a liquid or

a solid?

  1. The radius of a neon atom is 69 pm, and its mass is 3.35 3

10223 g. What is the density of the atom in grams per cubic

centimeter (g/cm3)? Assume the nucleus is a sphere with volume

5 43


  1. Which of the following statements is(are) true?
  2. A spoonful of sugar is a mixture.
  3. Only elements are pure substances.
  4. On October 21, 1982, the Bureau of the Mint changed the

composition of pennies (see Exercise 112). Instead of an alloy

of 95% Cu and 5% Zn by mass, a core of 99.2% Zn and 0.8%

Cu with a thin shell of copper was adopted. The overall composition

of the new penny was 97.6% Zn and 2.4% Cu by

mass. Does this account for the difference in mass among the

pennies in Exercise 112? Assume the volume of the individual

metals that make up each penny can be added together to give

the overall volume of the penny, and assume each penny is

the same size. (Density of Cu 5 8.96 g/cm3; density of Zn 5

7.14 g/cm3.)

  1. As part of a science project, you study traffic patterns in your

city at an intersection in the middle of downtown. You set up a

device that counts the cars passing through this intersection

for a 24-hr period during a weekday. The graph of hourly traffic

looks like this.


Number of Cars








12 A.M. 6 A.M. noon 6 P.M.

  1. At what time(s) does the highest number of cars pass

through the intersection?

  1. At what time(s) does the lowest number of cars pass

through the intersection?

  1. Briefly describe the trend in numbers of cars over the

course of the day.

  1. Provide a hypothesis explaining the trend in numbers of

cars over the course of the day.

  1. Provide a possible experiment that could test your


  1. Sterling silver is a solid solution of silver and copper. If a

piece of a sterling silver necklace has a mass of 105.0 g and a

volume of 10.12 mL, calculate the mass percent of copper in

the piece of necklace. Assume that the volume of silver present

plus the volume of copper present equals the total volume.

Refer to Table 1.5.

Mass percent of copper 5

mass of copper

total mass

3 100

  1. Make molecular-level (microscopic) drawings for each of the


  1. Show the differences between a gaseous mixture that is a

homogeneous mixture of two different compounds, and a

gaseous mixture that is a homogeneous mixture of a

compound and an element.

  1. Show the differences among a gaseous element, a liquid

element, and a solid element.

  1. Confronted with the box shown in the diagram, you wish to

discover something about its internal workings. You have no

tools and cannot open the box. You pull on rope B, and it

moves rather freely. When you pull on rope A, rope C appears

  1. Air is a mixture of gases.
  2. Gasoline is a pure substance.
  3. Compounds can be broken down only by chemical means.
  4. Which of the following describes a chemical property?
  5. The density of iron is 7.87 g/cm3.
  6. A platinum wire glows red when heated.
  7. An iron bar rusts.
  8. Aluminum is a silver-colored metal.

Challenge Problems

  1. A rule of thumb in designing experiments is to avoid using a


that is the small difference between two large measured

quantities. In terms of uncertainties in measurement, why is

this good advice?

  1. Draw a picture showing the markings (graduations) on glassware

that would allow you to make each of the following volume

measurements of water, and explain your answers (the

numbers given are as precise as possible).

  1. 128.7 mL b. 18 mL c. 23.45 mL

If you made these measurements for three samples of water and

then poured all of the water together in one container, what total

volume of water should you report? Support your answer.

  1. Many times errors are expressed in terms of percentage. The

percent error is the absolute value of the difference of the true

value and the experimental value, divided by the true value,

and multiplied by 100.

Percent error 5

0 true value 2 experimental value 0

true value

3 100

Calculate the percent error for the following measurements.

  1. The density of an aluminum block determined in an

experiment was 2.64 g/cm3. (True value 2.70 g/cm3.)

  1. The experimental determination of iron in iron ore was

16.48%. (True value 16.12%.)

  1. A balance measured the mass of a 1.000-g standard as

0.9981 g.

  1. A person weighed 15 pennies on a balance and recorded the

following masses:

3.112 g 3.109 g 3.059 g

2.467 g 3.079 g 2.518 g

3.129 g 2.545 g 3.050 g

3.053 g 3.054 g 3.072 g

3.081 g 3.131 g 3.064 g

Curious about the results, he looked at the dates on each penny.

Two of the light pennies were minted in 1983 and one in 1982.

The dates on the 12 heavier pennies ranged from 1970 to 1982.

Two of the 12 heavier pennies were minted in 1982.

  1. Do you think the Bureau of the Mint changed the way it

made pennies? Explain.

  1. The person calculated the average mass of the 12 heavy

pennies. He expressed this average as 3.0828 g 6 0.0482 g.

What is wrong with the numbers in this result, and how

should the value be expressed?

Unless otherwise noted, all art on this page is Cengage Learning 2014.

Mass of cylinder plus wet sand 45.2613 g

Mass of cylinder plus dry sand 37.3488 g

Mass of empty cylinder 22.8317 g

Volume of dry sand 10.0 mL

Volume of sand plus methanol 17.6 mL

Volume of methanol 10.00 mL

Integrative Problems

These problems require the integration of multiple concepts to find

the solutions.

  1. The U.S. trade deficit at the beginning of 2005 was

$475,000,000. If the wealthiest 1.00% of the U.S. population

(297,000,000) contributed an equal amount of money to bring

the trade deficit to $0, how many dollars would each person

contribute? If one of these people were to pay his or her share

in nickels only, how many nickels are needed? Another person

living abroad at the time decides to pay in pounds sterling ().

How many pounds sterling does this person contribute (assume

a conversion rate of 1 5 $1.869)?

  1. The density of osmium is reported by one source to be 22610

kg/m3. What is this density in g/cm3? What is the mass of a

block of osmium measuring 10.0 cm 3 8.0 cm 3 9.0 cm?

  1. At the Amundsen-Scott South Pole base station in Antarctica,

when the temperature is 2100.08F, researchers who live there

can join the 300 Club by stepping into a sauna heated to

200.08F then quickly running outside and around the pole that

marks the South Pole. What are these temperatures in 8C?

What are these temperatures in K? If you measured the temperatures

only in 8C and K, can you become a member of the

300 Club (that is, is there a 300.-degree difference between

the temperature extremes when measured in 8C and K)?

to be pulled slightly into the box. When you pull on rope C,

rope A almost disappears into the box.*


  1. Based on these observations, construct a model for the

interior mechanism of the box.

  1. What further experiments could you do to refine your


  1. An experiment was performed in which an empty 100-mL

graduated cylinder was weighed. It was weighed once again

after it had been filled to the 10.0-mL mark with dry sand. A

10-mL pipet was used to transfer 10.00 mL of methanol to the

cylinder. The sandmethanol mixture was stirred until bubbles

no longer emerged from the mixture and the sand looked uniformly

wet. The cylinder was then weighed again. Use the

data obtained from this experiment (and displayed at the end

of this problem) to find the density of the dry sand, the density

of methanol, and the density of sand particles. Does the bubbling

that occurs when the methanol is added to the dry sand

indicate that the sand and methanol are reacting?

*From Yoder, Suydam, and Snavely, Chemistry (New York: Harcourt

Brace Jovanovich, 1975), pp. 911.

Unless otherwise noted, all art on this page is Cengage Learning 2014.

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Review questions Answers to the Review Questions can be found on the Student website (accessible from

A discussion of the Active Learning Questions

can be found online in the Instructors

Resource Guide and on PowerLecture. The questions

allow students to explore their understanding of concepts through discussion and peer teaching. The real value of these questions is the

learning that occurs while students talk to each other about chemical concepts.

Unless otherwise noted, all art on this page is Cengage Learning 2014.

72 Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

  1. Use Daltons atomic theory to account for each of the


  1. the law of conservation of mass
  2. the law of definite proportion
  3. the law of multiple proportions
  4. What evidence led to the conclusion that cathode rays

had a negative charge?

  1. What discoveries were made by J. J. Thomson, Henri

Becquerel, and Lord Rutherford? How did Daltons

model of the atom have to be modified to account for

these discoveries?

  1. Consider Ernest Rutherfords a-particle bombardment

experiment illustrated in Fig. 2.12. How did the

results of this experiment lead Rutherford away from

the plum pudding model of the atom to propose the

nuclear model of the atom?

  1. Do the proton and the neutron have exactly the same

mass? How do the masses of the proton and neutron

compare to the mass of the electron? Which particles

make the greatest contribution to the mass of an atom?

Which particles make the greatest contribution to the

chemical properties of an atom?

  1. What is the distinction between atomic number and

mass number? Between mass number and atomic mass?

  1. Distinguish between the terms family and period in

connection with the periodic table. For which of these

terms is the term group also used?

  1. The compounds AlCl3, CrCl3, and ICl3 have similar

formulas, yet each follows a different set of rules to

name it. Name these compounds, and then compare and

contrast the nomenclature rules used in each case.

  1. When metals react with nonmetals, an ionic compound

generally results. What is the predicted general formula

for the compound formed between an alkali metal and

sulfur? Between an alkaline earth metal and nitrogen?

Between aluminum and a halogen?

  1. How would you name HBrO4, KIO3, NaBrO2, and

HIO? Refer to Table 2.5 and the acid nomenclature

discussion in the text.

Active Learning Questions

These questions are designed to be used by groups of students in


  1. Which of the following is true about an individual atom?


  1. An individual atom should be considered to be a solid.
  2. An individual atom should be considered to be a liquid.
  3. An individual atom should be considered to be a gas.
  4. The state of the atom depends on which element it is.
  5. An individual atom cannot be considered to be a solid,

liquid, or gas.

Justify your choice, and for choices you did not pick, explain

what is wrong with them.

  1. How would you go about finding the number of chalk molecules

it takes to write your name on the board? Provide

an explanation of all you would need to do and a sample


  1. These questions concern the work of J. J. Thomson.
  2. From Thomsons work, which particles do you think he

would feel are most important for the formation of

compounds (chemical changes) and why?

  1. Of the remaining two subatomic particles, which do you

place second in importance for forming compounds and


  1. Propose three models that explain Thomsons findings

and evaluate them. To be complete you should include

Thomsons findings.

  1. Heat is applied to an ice cube in a closed container until only

steam is present. Draw a representation of this process, assuming

you can see it at an extremely high level of magnification.

What happens to the size of the molecules? What happens to

the total mass of the sample?

  1. You have a chemical in a sealed glass container filled with air.

The setup is sitting on a balance as shown below. The chemical

is ignited by means of a magnifying glass focusing sunlight

on the reactant. After the chemical has completely

burned, which of the following is true? Explain your answer.

250.0 g

  1. The balance will read less than 250.0 g.
  2. The balance will read 250.0 g.
  3. The balance will read greater than 250.0 g.
  4. Cannot be determined without knowing the identity of the


  1. The formula of water is H2O. Which of the following is indicated

by this formula? Explain your answer.

  1. The mass of hydrogen is twice that of oxygen in each


  1. There are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom per

water molecule.

  1. The mass of oxygen is twice that of hydrogen in each


  1. There are two oxygen atoms and one hydrogen atom per

water molecule.

  1. You may have noticed that when water boils, you can see bubbles

that rise to the surface of the water. Which of the following

is inside these bubbles? Explain.

  1. air
  2. hydrogen and oxygen gas
  3. oxygen gas
  4. water vapor
  5. carbon dioxide gas
  6. One of the best indications of a useful theory is that it raises

more questions for further experimentation than it originally

answered. Does this apply to Daltons atomic theory? Give


  1. Dalton assumed that all atoms of the same element were identical

in all their properties. Explain why this assumption is not


  1. Evaluate each of the following as an acceptable name for


  1. dihydrogen oxide c. hydrogen hydroxide
  2. hydroxide hydride d. oxygen dihydride
  3. Why do we call Ba(NO3)2 barium nitrate, but we call Fe(NO3)2

iron(II) nitrate?

  1. Why is calcium dichloride not the correct systematic name for


  1. The common name for NH3 is ammonia. What would be the

systematic name for NH3? Support your answer.

  1. Which (if any) of the following can be determined by knowing

the number of protons in a neutral element? Explain your


  1. the number of neutrons in the neutral element
  2. the number of electrons in the neutral element
  3. the name of the element
  4. Which of the following explain how an ion is formed? Explain

your answer.

  1. adding or subtracting protons to /from an atom
  2. adding or subtracting neutrons to/from an atom
  3. adding or subtracting electrons to /from an atom

A blue question or exercise number indicates that the answer to

that question or exercise appears at the back of this book and a

solution appears in the Solutions Guide, as found on PowerLecture.


  1. What refinements had to be made in Daltons atomic theory to

account for Gay-Lussacs results on the combining volumes of


  1. When hydrogen is burned in oxygen to form water, the composition

of water formed does not depend on the amount of oxygen

reacted. Interpret this in terms of the law of definite proportion.

  1. The two most reactive families of elements are the halogens

and the alkali metals. How do they differ in their reactivities?

  1. Explain the law of conservation of mass, the law of definite

proportion, and the law of multiple proportions.

  1. Section 2.3 describes the postulates of Daltons atomic theory.

With some modifications, these postulates hold up very well

regarding how we view elements, compounds, and chemical

reactions today. Answer the following questions concerning

Daltons atomic theory and the modifications made today.

  1. The atom can be broken down into smaller parts. What

are the smaller parts?

  1. How are atoms of hydrogen identical to each other, and

how can they be different from each other?

  1. How are atoms of hydrogen different from atoms of

helium? How can H atoms be similar to He atoms?

  1. How is water different from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)

even though both compounds are composed of only

hydrogen and oxygen?

  1. What happens in a chemical reaction, and why is mass

conserved in a chemical reaction?

  1. The contributions of J. J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford led

the way to todays understanding of the structure of the atom.

What were their contributions?

  1. What is the modern view of the structure of the atom?
  2. The number of protons in an atom determines the identity of

the atom. What does the number and arrangement of the electrons

in an atom determine? What does the number of neutrons

in an atom determine?

  1. If the volume of a proton were similar to the volume of an

electron, how will the densities of these two particles compare

to each other?

  1. For lighter, stable isotopes, the ratio of the mass number to the

atomic number is close to a certain value. What is the value?

What happens to the value of the mass number to atomic number

ratio as stable isotopes become heavier?

  1. List some characteristic properties that distinguish the metallic

elements from the nonmetallic elements.

  1. Consider the elements of Group 4A (the carbon family):

C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb. What is the trend in metallic character

as one goes down this group? What is the trend in metallic

character going from left to right across a period in the periodic


  1. Distinguish between the following terms.
  2. molecule versus ion
  3. covalent bonding versus ionic bonding
  4. molecule versus compound
  5. anion versus cation
  6. Label the type of bonding for each of the following.
  7. b.
  8. The vitamin niacin (nicotinic acid, C6H5NO2) can be isolated

from a variety of natural sources such as liver, yeast, milk, and

whole grain. It also can be synthesized from commercially

available materials. From a nutritional point of view, which

source of nicotinic acid is best for use in a multivitamin tablet?


  1. Which of the following statements is(are) true? For the false

statements, correct them.

  1. Most of the known elements are metals.
  2. Element 118 should be a nonmetal.
  3. Hydrogen has mostly metallic properties.
  4. A family of elements is also known as a period of


  1. When an alkaline earth metal, A, reacts with a halogen,

X, the formula of the covalent compound formed should

be A2X.

  1. Each of the following compounds has three possible names

listed for it. For each compound, what is the correct name and

why arent the other names used?

  1. N2O: nitrogen oxide, nitrogen(I) oxide, dinitrogen


  1. Cu2O: copper oxide, copper(I) oxide, dicopper monoxide
  2. Li2O: lithium oxide, lithium(I) oxide, dilithium monoxide


In this section similar exercises are paired.

Development of the Atomic Theory

  1. When mixtures of gaseous H2 and gaseous Cl2 react, a product

forms that has the same properties regardless of the relative

amounts of H2 and Cl2 used.

  1. How is this result interpreted in terms of the law of

definite proportion?

  1. When a volume of H2 reacts with an equal volume of Cl2

at the same temperature and pressure, what volume of

product having the formula HCl is formed?

  1. Observations of the reaction between nitrogen gas and hydrogen

gas show us that 1 volume of nitrogen reacts with 3 volumes

of hydrogen to make 2 volumes of gaseous product, as

shown below:


Determine the formula of the product and justify your answer.

  1. A sample of chloroform is found to contain 12.0 g of carbon,

106.4 g of chlorine, and 1.01 g of hydrogen. If a second sample

of chloroform is found to contain 30.0 g of carbon, what is

the total mass of chloroform in the second sample?

  1. A sample of H2SO4 contains 2.02 g of hydrogen, 32.07 g of

sulfur, and 64.00 g of oxygen. How many grams of sulfur and

grams of oxygen are present in a second sample of H2SO4 containing

7.27 g of hydrogen?

  1. Hydrazine, ammonia, and hydrogen azide all contain only nitrogen

and hydrogen. The mass of hydrogen that combines

with 1.00 g of nitrogen for each compound is 1.44 3 1021 g,

2.16 3 1021 g, and 2.40 3 1022 g, respectively. Show how

these data illustrate the law of multiple proportions.

  1. Consider 100.0-g samples of two different compounds consisting

only of carbon and oxygen. One compound contains

27.2 g of carbon and the other has 42.9 g of carbon. How can

these data support the law of multiple proportions if 42.9 is not

a multiple of 27.2? Show that these data support the law of

multiple proportions.

  1. The three most stable oxides of carbon are carbon monoxide

(CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon suboxide (C3O2). The

molecules can be represented as

Explain how these molecules illustrate the law of multiple


  1. Two elements, R and Q, combine to form two binary compounds.

In the first compound, 14.0 g of R combines with

3.00 g of Q. In the second compound, 7.00 g of R combines

with 4.50 g of Q. Show that these data are in accord with the

law of multiple proportions. If the formula of the second compound

is RQ, what is the formula of the first compound?

  1. In Section 1.1 of the text, the concept of a chemical reaction

was introduced with the example of the decomposition of water,

represented as follows:

Use ideas from Daltons atomic theory to explain how the above

representation illustrates the law of conservation of mass.

  1. In a combustion reaction, 46.0 g of ethanol reacts with 96.0 g

of oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide. If 54.0 g of

water is produced, what mass of carbon dioxide is produced?

  1. Early tables of atomic weights (masses) were generated by


the mass of a substance that reacts with 1.00 g of

oxygen. Given the following data and taking the atomic mass

of hydrogen as 1.00, generate a table of relative atomic masses

for oxygen, sodium, and magnesium.


Mass That Combines

with 1.00 g Oxygen Assumed Formula

Hydrogen 0.126 g HO

Sodium 2.875 g NaO

Magnesium 1.500 g MgO

How do your values compare with those in the periodic table?

How do you account for any differences?

  1. Indium oxide contains 4.784 g of indium for every 1.000 g of

oxygen. In 1869, when Mendeleev first presented his version

of the periodic table, he proposed the formula In2O3 for indium

oxide. Before that time it was thought that the formula

was InO. What values for the atomic mass of indium are obtained

using these two formulas? Assume that oxygen has an

atomic mass of 16.00.

The Nature of the Atom

  1. From the information in this chapter on the mass of the proton,

the mass of the electron, and the sizes of the nucleus and the

atom, calculate the densities of a hydrogen nucleus and a hydrogen


  1. If you wanted to make an accurate scale model of the hydrogen

atom and decided that the nucleus would have a diameter

of 1 mm, what would be the diameter of the entire model?

  1. In an experiment it was found that the total charge on an oil

drop was 5.93 3 10218 C. How many negative charges does

the drop contain?

  1. A chemist in a galaxy far, far away performed the Millikan oil

drop experiment and got the following results for the charges

on various drops. Use these data to calculate the charge of the

electron in zirkombs.

2.56 3 10212 zirkombs 7.68 3 10212 zirkombs

3.84 3 10212 zirkombs 6.40 3 10213 zirkombs

  1. What are the symbols of the following metals: sodium, radium,

iron, gold, manganese, lead?

  1. What are the symbols of the following nonmetals: fluorine,

chlorine, bromine, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorus?

  1. Give the names of the metals that correspond to the following

symbols: Sn, Pt, Hg, Mg, K, Ag.

  1. Give the names of the nonmetals that correspond to the following

symbols: As, I, Xe, He, C, Si.

  1. a. Classify the following elements as metals or nonmetals:

Mg Si Rn

Ti Ge Eu

Au B Am

Bi At Br

  1. The distinction between metals and nonmetals is really

not a clear one. Some elements, called metalloids, are

intermediate in their properties. Which of these elements

would you reclassify as metalloids? What other elements

in the periodic table would you expect to be metalloids?

  1. a. List the noble gas elements. Which of the noble gases has

only radioactive isotopes? (This situation is indicated on

most periodic tables by parentheses around the mass of the

element. See inside front cover.)

  1. Which lanthanide element has only radioactive isotopes?
  2. For each of the following sets of elements, label each as either

noble gases, halogens, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, or

transition metals.

  1. Ti, Fe, Ag
  2. Mg, Sr, Ba
  3. Li, K, Rb
  4. Ne, Kr, Xe
  5. F, Br, I
  6. Identify the elements that correspond to the following atomic

numbers. Label each as either a noble gas, a halogen, an alkali

metal, an alkaline earth metal, a transition metal, a lanthanide

metal, or an actinide metal.

  1. 17 e. 2
  2. 4 f. 92
  3. 63 g. 55
  4. 72
  5. Write the atomic symbol (AZ
  6. X) for each of the following


  1. Z 5 8, number of neutrons 5 9
  2. the isotope of chlorine in which A 5 37
  3. Z 5 27, A 5 60
  4. number of protons 5 26, number of neutrons 5 31
  5. the isotope of I with a mass number of 131
  6. Z 5 3, number of neutrons 5 4
  7. Write the atomic symbol (AZ
  8. X) for each of the isotopes described


  1. number of protons 5 27, number of neutrons 5 31
  2. the isotope of boron with mass number 10
  3. Z 5 12, A 5 23
  4. atomic number 53, number of neutrons 5 79
  5. Z 5 20, number of neutrons 5 27
  6. number of protons 5 29, mass number 65
  7. Write the symbol of each atom using the Z

AX format.


  1. 10 electrons

11 protons

12 neutrons


11 electrons

9 protons

10 neutrons



  1. 8 electrons

8 protons

8 neutrons

  1. For carbon-14 and carbon-12, how many protons and neutrons

are in each nucleus? Assuming neutral atoms, how many electrons

are present in an atom of carbon-14 and in an atom of


  1. How many protons and neutrons are in the nucleus of each of

the following atoms? In a neutral atom of each element, how

many electrons are present?

  1. 79Br d. 133Cs
  2. 81Br e. 3H
  3. 239Pu f. 56Fe
  4. What number of protons and neutrons are contained in the

nucleus of each of the following atoms? Assuming each atom

is uncharged, what number of electrons are present?

  1. 235

92U d. 208


  1. 21


Al e. 86


  1. 57

26Fe f. 41


  1. For each of the following ions, indicate the number of protons

and electrons the ion contains.

  1. Ba21 e. Co31
  2. Zn21 f. Te22
  3. N32 g. Br2
  4. Rb1
  5. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in each of the

following atoms or ions?

  1. 24

12Mg d. 59

27Co31 g. 79


  1. 24

12Mg21 e. 59

27Co h. 63


  1. 59

27Co21 f. 79

34Se i. 59


  1. What is the symbol for an ion with 63 protons, 60 electrons,

and 88 neutrons? If an ion contains 50 protons, 68 neutrons,

and 48 electrons, what is its symbol?

  1. What is the symbol of an ion with 16 protons, 18 neutrons, and

18 electrons? What is the symbol for an ion that has 16 protons,

16 neutrons, and 18 electrons?

  1. Complete the following table:


Number of

Protons in


Number of


in Nucleus

Number of








20 20 21

23 28 20





35 44 36


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