Chemistry Atoms First 1st Edition Burdge Overby Test bank

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Chemistry Atoms First 1st Edition Burdge Overby Test bank

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Chapter 2: Atoms and the Periodic Table

1. The scientist who determined the magnitude of the electric charge of the electron was
A) John Dalton D) Henry Moseley
B) Robert Millikan E) J. Burdge
C) J. J. Thomson
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

2. When J. J. Thomson discovered the electron, what physical property of the electron did he measure?
A) its charge, e D) its mass, m
B) its charge-to-mass ratio, e/m E) its atomic number, Z
C) its temperature, T
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

3. Which field of study made a big contribution toward understanding the composition of the atom?
A) Electricity D) Electrochemistry
B) Radiation E) Quantum Mechanics
C) Solution Chemistry
Ans: B Difficulty: Medium

4. Which of the following is a type of radioactive radiation which has no charge and are unaffected by external electric or magnetic fields?
A) rays B) rays C) rays D) rays E) rays
Ans: C Difficulty: Easy

5. Which of the following is a type of radioactive radiation that consists of positively charged particles and is deflected away from the positively charged plate?
A) rays B) rays C) rays D) rays E) rays
Ans: A Difficulty: Medium

6. Which of the following is a type of radioactive radiation that consists of electrons and is deflected away from the negatively charged plate?
A) rays B) rays C) rays D) rays E) rays
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

7. Which of these scientists developed the nuclear model of the atom?
A) John Dalton D) Henry Moseley
B) Robert Millikan E) Ernest Rutherford
C) J. J. Thomson
Ans: E Difficulty: Easy

8. Rutherfords experiment with alpha particle scattering by gold foil established that
A) protons are not evenly distributed throughout an atom.
B) electrons have a negative charge.
C) electrons have a positive charge.
D) atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
E) protons are 1840 times heavier than electrons.
Ans: A Difficulty: Easy

9. J. J. Thomson studied cathode ray particles (electrons) and was able to measure the mass/charge ratio. His results showed that
A) the mass/charge ratio varied as the cathode material was changed.
B) the charge was always a whole-number multiple of some minimum charge.
C) matter included particles much smaller than the atom.
D) atoms contained dense areas of positive charge.
E) atoms are largely empty space.
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

10. Who is credited with measuring the mass/charge ratio of the electron?
A) Dalton B) Chadwick C) Thomson D) Millikan E) Rutherford
Ans: C Difficulty: Easy

11. Who is credited with first measuring the charge of the electron?
A) Dalton B) Gay-Lussac C) Thomson D) Millikan E) Rutherford
Ans: D Difficulty: Easy

12. Millikans oil-drop experiment
A) established the charge on an electron.
B) showed that all oil drops carried the same charge.
C) provided support for the nuclear model of the atom.
D) suggested that some oil drops carried fractional numbers of electrons.
E) suggested the presence of a neutral particle in the atom.
Ans: A Difficulty: Easy

13. Who is credited with discovering the atomic nucleus?
A) Dalton B) Gay-Lussac C) Thomson D) Chadwick E) Rutherford
Ans: E Difficulty: Easy

14. Rutherford bombarded gold foil with alpha () particles and found that a small percentage of the particles were deflected. Which of the following was not accounted for by the model he proposed for the structure of atoms?
A) the small size of the nucleus
B) the charge on the nucleus
C) the total mass of the atom
D) the existence of protons
E) the presence of electrons outside the nucleus
Ans: C Difficulty: Easy

15. Which one of the following statements about atoms and subatomic particles is correct?
A) Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus by bombarding gold foil with electrons
B) The proton and the neutron have identical masses.
C) The neutrons mass is equal to that of a proton plus an electron.
D) A neutral atom contains equal numbers of protons and electrons.
E) An atomic nucleus contains equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
Ans: D Difficulty: Medium

16. Who discovered the subatomic particle having a neutral charge the neutron?
A) Millikan B) Dalton C) Chadwick D) Rutherford E) Thomson
Ans: C Difficulty: Easy

17. What is the name used to represent the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element and is equal to the number of electrons outside the nucleus?
A) Isotope number D) Atomic number
B) Mass number E) Atomic mass units
C) Mass-to-charge ratio
Ans: D Difficulty: Easy

18. What is the name used to represent the total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element?
A) Isotope number D) Atomic number
B) Mass number E) Atomic mass units
C) Mass-to-charge ratio
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

19. Bromine is the only nonmetal that is a liquid at room temperature. Consider the isotope bromine-81, . Select the combination which lists the correct atomic number, neutron number, and mass number, respectively.
A) 35, 46, 81 B) 35, 81, 46 C) 81, 46, 35 D) 46, 81, 35 E) 35, 81, 116
Ans: A Difficulty: Medium

20. Atoms X, Y, Z, and R have the following nuclear compositions:

Which two are isotopes?
A) X & Y B) X & R C) Y & R D) Z & R E) X & Z
Ans: E Difficulty: Medium

21. Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers are called
A) ions. D) chemical families.
B) neutrons. E) isotopes.
C) chemical groups.
Ans: E Difficulty: Easy

22. How many neutrons are there in an atom of lead whose mass number is 208?
A) 82 B) 126 C) 208 D) 290 E) none of them
Ans: B Difficulty: Medium

23. An atom of the isotope sulfur-31 consists of how many protons, neutrons, and electrons? (p = proton, n = neutron, e = electron)
A) 15 p, 16 n, 15 e D) 32 p, 31 n, 32 e
B) 16 p, 15 n, 16 e E) 16 p, 16 n, 15 e
C) 16 p, 31 n, 16 e
Ans: B Difficulty: Medium

24. Give the number of protons (p), electrons (e), and neutrons (n) in one atom of chlorine-37.
A) 37 p, 37 e, 17 n D) 37 p, 17 e, 20 n
B) 17 p, 17 e, 37 n E) 17 p, 37 e, 17 n
C) 17 p, 17 e, 20 n
Ans: C Difficulty: Medium

25. Two isotopes of an element differ only in their
A) symbol. D) number of protons.
B) atomic number. E) number of electrons.
C) atomic mass.
Ans: C Difficulty: Easy

26. The elements in a column of the periodic table are known as
A) metalloids. B) a period. C) noble gases. D) a group. E) nonmetals.
Ans: D Difficulty: Easy

27. Which of these materials are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity?
A) metals D) alkaline earth metals
B) metalloids E) alkali metals
C) nonmetals
Ans: C Difficulty: Easy

28. Which of these elements is most likely to be a good conductor of electricity?
A) N B) S C) He D) Cl E) Fe
Ans: E Difficulty: Medium

29. Which of the following elements are the least reactive?
A) alkali metals D) alkaline earth metals
B) noble gases E) metalloids
C) halogens
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

30. Which of the following is a non-metal?
A) lithium, Li, Z = 3 D) bismuth, Bi, Z = 83
B) bromine, Br, Z = 35 E) sodium, Na, Z = 11
C) mercury, Hg, Z = 80
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

31. Which of the following is a metal?
A) nitrogen, N, Z = 7 D) thallium, Tl, Z = 81
B) phosphorus, P, Z = 15 E) silicon, Si, Z = 14
C) arsenic, Z = 33
Ans: D Difficulty: Easy

32. Which of the following is a metalloid?
A) carbon, C, Z = 6 D) iridium, Z = 77
B) sulfur, S, Z = 16 E) bromine, Br, Z = 35
C) germanium, Ge, Z = 32
Ans: C Difficulty: Medium

33. A row of the periodic table is called a
A) group B) period C) isotopic mixture D) family E) subshell
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

34. Silicon, which makes up about 25% of Earths crust by mass, is used widely in the modern electronics industry. It has three naturally occurring isotopes, 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si. Calculate the atomic mass of silicon.
Isotope Isotopic Mass (amu) Abundance %
28Si 27.976927 92.23
29Si 28.976495 4.67
30Si 29.973770 3.10

A) 29.2252 amu D) 28.0855 amu
B) 28.9757 amu E) 27.9801 amu
C) 28.7260 amu
Ans: D Difficulty: Medium

35. Lithium forms compounds which are used in dry cells and storage batteries and in high-temperature lubricants. It has two naturally occurring isotopes, 6Li (isotopic mass = 6.015121 amu) and 7Li (isotopic mass = 7.016003 amu). Lithium has an atomic mass of 6.9409 amu. What is the percent abundance of lithium-6?
A) 92.50% B) 86.66% C) 46.16% D) 7.503% E) 6.080%
Ans: D Difficulty: Difficult

36. In the Periodic Table atoms are arranged in order of
A) Atomic mass D) Periodicity
B) Atomic numbers E) Chemical reactivities
C) Physical properties
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

37. The elements in Group 7A are known by what name?
A) transition metals D) alkaline earth metals
B) halogens E) noble gases
C) alkali metals
Ans: B Difficulty: Easy

38. The elements in Group 2A are known by what name?
A) transition metals D) alkaline earth metals
B) halogens E) noble gases
C) alkali metals
Ans: D Difficulty: Medium

39. The alkali metal elements are found in _______ of the periodic table.
A) Group 1A B) Group 2A C) Group 3A D) Period 7 E) Period 1
Ans: A Difficulty: Medium

40. ___________ is the name of the elements in Group VIIIA.
Ans: Noble Gases
Difficulty: Medium

41. ___________ is the name of the elements in Group IIA.
Ans: Alkaline earth metals
Difficulty: Medium

42. ___________ is the name of the elements in Group VIIA.
Ans: Halogen
Difficulty: Medium

43. ___________ is the name of the elements in Group IA.
Ans: Alkali metals
Difficulty: Medium

44. What is the name used to define a mass which is exactly equal to 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom?
A) Isotope number D) Atomic number
B) Mass number E) Atomic mass units
C) Mass-to-charge ratio
Ans: E Difficulty: Easy

45. Which of these elements is chemically similar to magnesium?
A) sulfur B) calcium C) iron D) nickel E) potassium
Ans: B Difficulty: Medium

46. Which of these elements is chemically similar to oxygen?
A) sulfur B) calcium C) iron D) nickel E) potassium
Ans: A Difficulty: Medium

47. Which of these elements is chemically similar to potassium?
A) calcium B) arsenic C) phosphorus D) cerium E) cesium
Ans: E Difficulty: Medium

48. How many atoms are in 0.534 mol of nickel, Ni?
A) 1.13 1024 atoms D) 3.22 1023 atoms
B) 1.48 1025 atoms E) 6.98 1021 atoms
C) 2.44 1022 atoms
Ans: D Difficulty: Medium

49. How many atoms are in 7.12 mol of gold, Au?
A) 1.18 10-23 atoms D) 4.70 1024 atoms
B) 4.29 1024 atoms E) 3.34 1026 atoms
C) 8.46 1022 atoms
Ans: B Difficulty: Medium

50. How many moles are in 8.73 1025 atoms of boron, B?
A) 145 moles D) 3.84 1027 moles
B) 1.45 moles E) 5.04 10-25 moles
C) 6.90 10-3 moles
Ans: A Difficulty: Medium

51. How many moles are present in 17.4 g of lead?
A) 0.0994 moles D) 10.06 moles
B) 1.05 1025 moles E) 11.9 moles
C) 0.0840 moles
Ans: C Difficulty: Medium

52. How many grams are present in 0.885 moles of manganese?
A) 62.1 g B) 48.6 g C) 21.5 g D) 27.5 g E) 0.016 g
Ans: B Difficulty: Medium

53. The mass of a neutron is equal to the mass of a proton plus the mass of an electron.
Ans: False Difficulty: Easy

54. All neutral atoms of tin have 50 protons and 50 electrons.
Ans: True Difficulty: Easy

55. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal.
Ans: True Difficulty: Easy

56. Lead (Pb) is a main-group element.
Ans: True Difficulty: Easy

57. Almost all the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
Ans: True Difficulty: Easy

58. When a beam of alpha particles passes between two electrically charged plates, the beam is deflected toward the positive plate.
Ans: False Difficulty: Medium

59. J. J. Thomson suggested the name radioactivity to describe the spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation.
Ans: False Difficulty: Easy

60. What is the name given for the elements in Group 1A in the periodic table?
Ans: Alkali metals
Difficulty: Easy

61. What is the name given for the elements in Group 7A in the periodic table?
Ans: Halogens
Difficulty: Easy

62. Which group is given the name chalcogens?
Ans: Group 6A
Difficulty: Easy

63. What are the three types of radiation produced by the decay of substances like uranium?
Ans: Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation
Difficulty: Medium

64. Fill in the blank spaces and write out all the symbols in the left hand column in full, in the form (i.e., include the appropriate values of Z and A as well as the correct symbol X).
Symbol # protons # neutrons # electrons
17 18
Au 118
20 20

Ans: Cl 17 18 17
Au 79 118 79
Ca 20 20 20

Difficulty: Medium

65. ________________ is the emission and transmission of energy through space in the form of waves.
Ans: radiation
Difficulty: Easy

66. _____________ is the negatively charged plate connected to a high-voltage source.
Ans: cathode
Difficulty: Easy

67. ______________ coined the term radioactivity to describe the spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation.
Ans: Marie Curie
Difficulty: Easy

68. ______________ are electrons that are deflected away from negatively charged plates.
Ans: particles
Difficulty: Medium

69. ______________ are atoms that have the same atomic number (Z) but different mass numbers (A).
Ans: isotopes
Difficulty: Easy

70. _____________ have properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals.
Ans: metalloids
Difficulty: Easy

71. ____________ are the name given for the elements in Group VIIIA.
Ans: noble gases
Difficulty: Easy

72. _________________ is defined as a mass exactly equal to one-twelfth the mass of one carbon-12 atom.
Ans: one atomic mass unit
Difficulty: Easy

73. A mole is the amount of a substance that contains _____________ of elementary particles (atoms, molecules, etc.).
Ans: Avogadros number or 6.022 1023 items
Difficulty: Easy

74. The table below describes four atoms.
Atom A Atom B Atom C Atom D
Number of protons 79 80 80 79

Number of neutrons 118 120 118 120

Number of electrons 79 80 80 79

Which atoms represent the same element?
Ans: Atoms A and D represent the same element, Atoms B and C represent the same element.
Difficulty: Medium

75. In the early 1900s, Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment with gold foil, targets and alpha particles to probe the structure of the atoms. He observed that most of these alpha particles penetrated the foil undeflected. Realizing that atoms are electrically neutral (that is, they have equal numbers of protons and electrons) and that the mass of a proton is significantly greater than the mass of an electron, use Rutherfords data to propose a structural model of an atom.
Ans: (Answers will vary.) Atoms are mostly empty space. The mass is concentrated mostly at the center of the atom.
Difficulty: Easy

76. Describe the contributions of Marie Curie.
Ans: (note that answers will vary) Marie Curie discovered two new elements, and is one of three people to win two Nobel Prizes. She also suggested the term radioactivity to describe the spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation.
Difficulty: Easy

77. State the two important experimental results (and the names of the responsible scientists) which enabled the mass of the electron to be determined.
Ans: Thomson measured m/e, the mass-to-charge ratio. Millikan measured e, the charge. Thus, the mass m could be calculated.
Difficulty: Medium

78. Determine the average atomic mass of boron. The natural abundance of 10B weighing exactly 10.0129 amu is 19.9% and the natural abundance of 11B weighing exactly 11.0093 amu is 80.1%? Show all your work
Ans: (10.0129)(0.199) + (11.0093)(0.801) = 10.81 amu
Difficulty: Medium

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