Chemistry The Central Science 10th Edition By Brown Test Bank

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Chemistry The Central Science 10th Edition By Brown Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Chemistry The Central Science 10th Edition By Brown Test Bank

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Which one of the following elements has an allotrope that is produced in the upper atmosphere by
lightning?
1)
A) He B) N C) S D) Cl E) O
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
2) Which element would be expected to have chemical and physical properties closest to those of
fluorine?
2)
A) Cl B) S C) Fe D) O E) Ne
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
3) Which of the following correctly lists the five atoms in order of increasing size (smallest to largest)? 3)
A) F < Br < Ge < Rb < K
B) F < K < Ge < Br < Rb
C) F < Ge < Br < K < Rb
D) F < K < Br < Ge < Rb
E) F < Br < Ge < K < Rb
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
4) Alkali metals tend to be more reactive than alkaline earth metals because __________. 4)
A) alkali metals have lower densities
B) alkali metals have lower melting points
C) alkali metals have lower ionization energies
D) alkali metals have greater electron affinities
E) alkali metals are not more reactive than alkaline earth metals
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
1
5) Of the following elements, which has the largest first ionization energy? 5)
A) Sr B) Ca C) Rb D) Ba E) K
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
6) This element is more reactive than lithium and magnesium but less reactive than potassium. This
element is __________.
6)
A) Na B) Fr C) Rb D) Be E) Ca
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
7) Hydrogen is unique among the elements because __________.
1. It has only one valence electron.
2. It is the only element that can emit an atomic spectrum.
3. Its electron is not at all shielded from its nucleus.
4. It is the lightest element.
5. It is the only element to exist at room temperature as a diatomic gas.
7)
A) 1, 2, 3, 4 B) 1, 3, 4 C) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 D) 3, 4 E) 2, 3, 4
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
8) Alkaline earth metals __________. 8)
A) exist as triatomic molecules
B) form halides with the formula MX
C) form basic oxides
D) form monoanions
E) have the smallest atomic radius in a given period
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
2
9) Screening by the valence electrons in atoms is __________. 9)
A) more efficient than that by core electrons
B) less efficient than that by core electrons
C) responsible for a general increase in atomic radius going across a period
D) essentially identical to that by core electrons
E) both more efficient than that by core electrons and responsible for a general increase in atomic
radius going across a period
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
10) Which of the following correctly represents the electron affinity of bromine? 10)
A) Br (g) + e- Br- (g)
B) Br+ (g) + e- Br (g)
C) Br2 (g) + 2 e- 2 Br- (g)
D) Br (g) Br+ (g) + e-
E) Br2 (g) + e- Br- (g)
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
11) Which one of the following is not true about the alkali metals? 11)
A) They all readily form ions with a +1 charge.
B) They are very reactive elements.
C) They have the lowest first ionization energies of the elements.
D) They are low density solids at room temperature.
E) They all have 2 electrons in their valence shells.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
12) Which one of the following is a metalloid? 12)
A) Ge B) S C) C D) Br E) Pb
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
3
13) Of the following elements, which has the largest first ionization energy? 13)
A) C B) Si C) N D) B E) P
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
14) Screening by core electrons in atoms is __________. 14)
A) essentially identical to that by valence electrons
B) less efficient than that by valence electrons
C) more efficient than that by valence electrons
D) responsible for a general decrease in atomic radius going down a group
E) both essentially identical to that by valence electrons and responsible for a general decrease in
atomic radius going down a group
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
15) This element reacts with hydrogen to produce a gas with the formula HX. When dissolved in
water, HX forms an acidic solution. X is __________,
15)
A) Br B) H C) C D) Na E) O
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
16) Of the compounds below, __________ has the smallest ionic separation. 16)
A) SrBr2 B) RbF C) K2S D) RbCl E) KF
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
4
17) Nonmetals can be __________ at room temperature. 17)
A) solid only
B) liquid only
C) solid, liquid, or gas
D) liquid or gas
E) solid or liquid
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
18) Which of these oxides is most basic? 18)
A) CO2 B) K2O C) Al2O3 D) MgO E) Na2O
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
19) Element M reacts with oxygen to form an oxide with the formula MO. When MO is dissolved in
water, the resulting solution is basic. Element M could be __________.
19)
A) Na B) S C) N D) Ba E) C
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
20) Of the following elements, which have been shown to form compounds?
helium neon argon krypton xenon
20)
A) xenon, krypton, and argon
B) xenon and krypton
C) xenon and argon
D) xenon only
E) None of the above can form compounds.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
5
21) Which of the following traits characterizes the alkali metals? 21)
A) very high melting point
B) formation of dianions
C) existence as diatomic molecules
D) the lowest first ionization energies in a period
E) the smallest atomic radius in a period
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
22) Which one of the following atoms has the largest radius? 22)
A) I B) Ca C) Co D) Ba E) Sr
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
23) Electrons in the 1s subshell are much closer to the nucleus in Ar than in He due to the larger
__________ in Ar.
23)
A) Hunds rule
B) paramagnetism
C) nuclear charge
D) azimuthal quantum number
E) diamagnetism
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
24) Of the elements below, __________ has the highest melting point. 24)
A) Ca B) Ba C) K D) Na E) Fe
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
6
25) In which of the following atoms is the 2s orbital closest to the nucleus? 25)
A) Si
B) S
C) P
D) Cl
E) The 2s orbitals are the same distance from the nucleus in all of these atoms.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
26) __________ is a unique element and does not truly belong to any family. 26)
A) Uranium B) Helium C) Nitrogen D) Hydrogen E) Radium
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
27) Of the elements below, __________ has the largest first ionization energy. 27)
A) Na B) H C) Rb D) K E) Li
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
28) Of the following atoms, which has the largest first ionization energy? 28)
A) P B) Br C) O D) I E) C
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
7
29) All of the halogens __________. 29)
A) exhibit metallic character
B) tend to form positive ions of several different charges
C) tend to form negative ions of several different charges
D) form salts with alkali metals with the formula MX
E) exist under ambient conditions as diatomic gases
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Consider the following electron configurations to answer the questions that follow:
(i) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
(ii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(iii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(iv) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
(v) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
30) The electron configuration of the atom with the most negative electron affinity is __________. 30)
A) (i) B) (ii) C) (iii) D) (iv) E) (v)
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
31) Of the following statements, __________ is not true for oxygen. 31)
A) Dry air is about 79% oxygen.
B) The chemical formula of ozone is O3.
C) The most stable allotrope of oxygen is O2.
D) Oxygen forms peroxide and superoxide anions.
E) Oxygen is a colorless gas at room temperature.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
8
32) Which equation correctly represents the first ionization of calcium? 32)
A) Ca- (g) Ca (g) + e-
B) Ca (g) + e- Ca- (g)
C) Ca+ (g) + e- Ca (g)
D) Ca (g) Ca+ (g) + e-
E) Ca (g) Ca- (g) + e-
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
33) Of the following elements, which has the largest first ionization energy? 33)
A) Cl B) Br C) Na D) Al E) Se
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
34) Of the following elements, which has the largest first ionization energy? 34)
A) S B) Ge C) Sb D) Se E) As
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
35) Chlorine is much more apt to exist as an anion than is sodium. This is because __________. 35)
A) chlorine is more metallic than sodium
B) chlorine is a gas and sodium is a solid
C) chlorine is bigger than sodium
D) chlorine has a greater ionization energy than sodium does
E) chlorine has a greater electron affinity than sodium does
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
9
36) Which one of the following compounds would produce an acidic solution when dissolved in
water?
36)
A) CO2 B) Na2O C) MgO D) SrO E) CaO
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
37) Of the following elements, __________ has the most negative electron affinity. 37)
A) S B) Na C) K D) O E) B
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
38) Which equation correctly represents the electron affinity of calcium? 38)
A) Ca (g) Ca+ (g) + e-
B) Ca (g) Ca- (g) + e-
C) Ca+ (g) + e- Ca (g)
D) Ca- (g) Ca (g) + e-
E) Ca (g) + e- Ca- (g)
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
39) Which of the following correctly represents the second ionization of phosphorus? 39)
A) P+ (g) + e- P (g)
B) P (g) P+ (g) + e-
C) P+ (g) + e- P2+ (g)
D) P- (g) + e- P2- (g)
E) P+ (g) P2+ (g) + e-
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
10
40) Which one of the following compounds produces a basic solution when dissolved in water? 40)
A) CO2 B) Na2O C) OF2 D) SO2 E) O2
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Consider the following electron configurations to answer the questions that follow:
(i) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
(ii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(iii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(iv) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
(v) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
41) The electron configuration of the atom that is expected to have a positive electron affinity is
__________.
41)
A) (i) B) (ii) C) (iii) D) (iv) E) (v)
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
42) Which of the following correctly represents the second ionization of aluminum? 42)
A) Al- (g) + e- Al2- (g)
B) Al+ (g) + e- Al2+ (g)
C) Al+ (g) + e- Al (g)
D) Al (g) Al+ (g) + e-
E) Al+ (g) Al2+ (g) + e-
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
43) Which one of the following atoms has the largest radius? 43)
A) Cl B) O C) Ne D) F E) S
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
11
44) Of the following elements, __________ has the most negative electron affinity. 44)
A) Cl B) P C) B D) Al E) Si
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
45) Which of the following is an isoelectronic series? 45)
A) B5-, Si4-, As3-, Te2-
B) S, Cl, Ar, K
C) O2-, P-, Ne, Na+
D) F-, Cl-, Br-, IE)
Si2-, P2-, S2-, Cl2-
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
46) Of the following metals, __________ exhibits multiple oxidation states. 46)
A) Al B) Cs C) Ca D) Na E) V
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
47) Which equation correctly represents the first ionization of aluminum? 47)
A) Al (g) Al- (g) + e-
B) Al+ (g) + e- Al (g)
C) Al (g) + e- Al- (g)
D) Al- (g) Al (g) + e-
E) Al (g) Al+ (g) + e-
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
12
48) Of the following oxides, __________ is the most acidic. 48)
A) CO2 B) Al2O3 C) Na2O D) Li2O E) CaO
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
49) __________ have the lowest first ionization energies of the groups listed. 49)
A) Halogens
B) Alkali metals
C) Transition elements
D) Noble gases
E) Alkaline earth metals
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
50) When two elements combine to form a compound, the greater the difference in metallic character
between the two elements, the greater the likelihood that the compound will be __________.
50)
A) metallic
B) a liquid at room temperature
C) a gas at room temperature
D) a solid at room temperature
E) nonmetallic
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
51) In which of the following atoms is the 3s orbital closest to the nucleus? 51)
A) At
B) I
C) Br
D) Cl
E) The 3s orbitals are the same distance from the nucleus in all of these atoms.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
13
52) Of the elements below, __________ is the most metallic. 52)
A) Na B) Mg C) K D) Ar E) Al
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
53) Of the following species, __________ has the largest radius. 53)
A) Kr B) Br- C) Sr2+ D) Rb+ E) Ar
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
54) Sodium is much more apt to exist as a cation than is chlorine. This is because __________. 54)
A) chlorine has a greater ionization energy than sodium does
B) chlorine has a greater electron affinity than sodium does
C) chlorine is bigger than sodium
D) chlorine is more metallic than sodium
E) chlorine is a gas and sodium is a solid
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
55) Hydrogen is unique among the elements because __________.
1. It is not really a member of any particular group.
2. Its electron is not at all shielded from its nucleus.
3. It is the lightest element.
4. It is the only element to exist at room temperature as a diatomic gas.
5. It exhibits some chemical properties similar to those of groups 1A and 7A.
55)
A) 1, 4, 5 B) 1, 2, 3, 5 C) 2, 3, 4, 5 D) 3, 4 E) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
14
56) Which of the following is not a characteristic of metals? 56)
A) low ionization energies
B) ductility
C) acidic oxides
D) malleability
E) These are all characteristics of metals.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
57) Which isoelectronic series is correctly arranged in order of increasing radius? 57)
A) Cl- < Ar < K+ < Ca2+
B) Ca2+ < Ar < K+ < Cl-
C) K+ < Ca2+ < Ar < Cl-
D) Ca2+ < K+ < Cl- < Ar
E) Ca2+ < K+ < Ar < Cl-
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
58) The list that correctly indicates the order of metallic character is __________. 58)
A) Na > K > Rb
B) P > S > Se
C) Si > P > S
D) F > Cl > S
E) B > N > C
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
59) Which of the following has the largest second ionization energy? 59)
A) Ca B) K C) Ge D) Se E) Ga
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
15
60) Atomic radius generally increases as we move __________. 60)
A) down a group; the period position has no effect
B) up a group and from right to left across a period
C) up a group and from left to right across a period
D) down a group and from right to left across a period
E) down a group and from left to right across a period
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
61) Which of the following has the largest second ionization energy? 61)
A) Al B) Na C) Mg D) Si E) P
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
62) Which of the following correctly represents the second ionization of calcium? 62)
A) Ca+ (g) + e- Ca (g)
B) Ca+ (g) + e- Ca2+ (g)
C) Ca- (g) + e- Ca2- (g)
D) Ca (g) Ca+ (g) + e-
E) Ca+ (g) Ca2+ (g) + e-
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
16
Consider the following electron configurations to answer the questions that follow:
(i) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
(ii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(iii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(iv) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
(v) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
63) The electron configuration that belongs to the atom with the lowest second ionization energy is
__________.
63)
A) (i) B) (ii) C) (iii) D) (iv) E) (v)
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
64) In nature, the noble gases exist as 64)
A) alkali metal salts
B) solids in rocks and in minerals
C) monatomic gaseous atoms
D) the sulfides
E) the gaseous fluorides
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
65) Of the elements below, __________ is the most metallic. 65)
A) magnesium
B) cesium
C) calcium
D) sodium
E) barium
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
17
66) __________ is isoelectronic with argon and __________ is isoelectronic with neon. 66)
A) Ne-, Ar+ B) F+, F- C) Ne-, Kr+ D) Cl-, F- E) Cl-, Cl+
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
67) Of the following elements, __________ has the most negative electron affinity. 67)
A) Li B) F C) N D) Na E) Be
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
68) Which one of the following atoms has the largest radius? 68)
A) Y B) Ca C) Sr D) K E) Rb
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
69) Between which two elements is the difference in metallic character the greatest? 69)
A) Rb and O B) Li and Rb C) O and I D) Rb and I E) Li and O
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
70) Of the following elements, __________ has the most negative electron affinity. 70)
A) Se B) Cl C) Br D) S E) I
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
18
71) The ion with the smallest diameter is __________. 71)
A) I- B) O2- C) Cl- D) F- E) Br-
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
72) Which one of the following elements has the largest atomic radius? 72)
A) P B) B C) F D) Al E) O
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
73) Which element is solid at room temperature? 73)
A) I2 B) Br2 C) H2 D) F2 E) Cl2
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
74) In nature, sulfur is most commonly found in __________. 74)
A) sulfuric acid
B) metal sulfides
C) sulfur oxides
D) pure elemental sulfur
E) H2S
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
19
75) Which equation correctly represents the first ionization of phosphorus? 75)
A) P- (g) P (g) + e-
B) P (g) + e- P- (g)
C) P (g) P+ (g) + e-
D) P+ (g) + e- P (g)
E) P (g) P- (g) + e-
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
76) In which set of elements would all members be expected to have very similar chemical properties? 76)
A) S, Se, Si
B) Na, Mg, K
C) Ne, Na, Mg
D) O, S, Se
E) N, O, F
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
77) All of the following are ionic compounds except __________. 77)
A) NaCl B) Li3N C) Na2SO4 D) SiO2 E) K2O
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
78) Of the following, which gives the correct order for atomic radius for Mg, Na, P, Si and Ar? 78)
A) Ar > Si > P > Na > Mg
B) Ar > P > Si > Mg > Na
C) Na > Mg > Si > P > Ar
D) Si > P > Ar > Na > Mg
E) Mg > Na > P > Si > Ar
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
20
79) Consider the general valence electron configuration of ns2np5 and the following statements:
(i) Elements with this electron configuration are expected to form -1 anions.
(ii) Elements with this electron configuration are expected to have large
positive electron affinities.
(iii) Elements with this electron configuration are nonmetals.
(iv) Elements with this electron configuration form acidic oxides.
Which statements are true?
79)
A) (i), (ii), and (iii)
B) (i) and (ii)
C) (i), (iii,) and (iv)
D) (ii) and (iii)
E) All statements are true.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
80) Which ion below has the largest radius? 80)
A) K+ B) F- C) Cl- D) Br- E) Na+
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
81) The atomic radius of main-group elements generally increases down a group because __________. 81)
A) the principal quantum number of the valence orbitals increases
B) effective nuclear charge decreases down a group
C) effective nuclear charge increases down a group
D) effective nuclear charge zigzags down a group
E) both effective nuclear charge increases down a group and the principal quantum number of
the valence orbitals increases
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
21
82) Which of the following generalizations cannot be made with regard to reactions of alkali metals?
(The symbol M represents any one of the alkali metals.)
82)
A) M (s) + O2 (g) MO2 (s)
B) 2M (s) + S (s) M2S (s)
C) 2M (s) + Cl2 (g) 2MCl (s)
D) 2M (s) + 2H2O (l) 2MOH (aq) + H2 (g)
E) 2M (s) + H2 (g) 2MH (s)
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
83) Of the choices below, which gives the order for first ionization energies? 83)
A) Ar > Cl > S > Si > Al
B) Al > Si > S > Cl > Ar
C) S > Si > Cl > Al > Ar
D) Cl > S > Al > Ar > Si
E) Cl > S > Al > Si > Ar
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
84) Which of the following correctly lists the five atoms in order of increasing size (smallest to largest)? 84)
A)O < F < S < Mg < Ba
B)O < F < S < Ba < Mg
C) F < S < O < Mg < Ba
D) F < O < S < Ba < Mg
E) F < O < S < Mg < Ba
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
85) Which one of the following has the smallest radius? 85)
A) Cl B) Br C) Fe D) P E) Na
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
22
86) Which one of the following elements has the largest atomic radius? 86)
A) Sb B) As C) Se D) S E) Te
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
87) Xenon has been shown to form compounds only when it is combined with __________. 87)
A) something with a tremendous ability to remove electrons from other substances
B) an alkali metal
C) an alkaline earth metal
D) something with a tremendous ability to donate electrons to other substances
E) another noble gas
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
88) Which one of the following beverages originally contained lithium salts? 88)
A) Koolaid
B) Seven-Up
C) Pepsi-Cola
D) Coca-Cola
E) Gatorade
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
89) Consider the following properties of an element:
(i) It is solid at room temperature.
(ii) It easily forms an oxide when exposed to air.
(iii) When it reacts with water, hydrogen gas evolves.
(iv) It must be stored submerged in oil.
Which element fits the above description the best?
89)
A) magnesium
B) sodium
C) sulfur
D) mercury
E) copper
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
23
Consider the following electron configurations to answer the questions that follow:
(i) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
(ii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(iii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(iv) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
(v) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
90) The electron configuration belonging to the atom with the highest second ionization energy is
__________.
90)
A) (i) B) (ii) C) (iii) D) (iv) E) (v)
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
91) The noble gases were, until relatively recently, thought to be entirely unreactive. Experiments in
the early 1960s showed that Xe could, in fact, form compounds with fluorine. The formation of
compounds consisting of Xe is made possible by __________.
91)
A) the stability of xenon atoms
B) the availability of xenon atoms
C) xenons relatively low ionization energy
D) xenons noble gas electron configuration
E) xenons relatively low electron affinity
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
92) In their compounds, the charges on the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals are
__________ and __________, respectively.
92)
Answer: +1, +2
Explanation:
93) As successive electrons are removed from an element , the ionization energy __________. 93)
Answer: increases
Explanation:
94) What are the elements called that are located between the metals and non-metalsa ? 94)
Answer: Metalloids
Explanation:
24
95) Complete the following : P4O6 + 6H2O 95)
Answer: 4H3PO4
Explanation:
96) Write the balanced equation for the reaction of elemental chlorine with liquid water. 96)
Answer: Cl2 (g) + H2O (l) HCl (aq) + HOCl (aq)
Explanation:
97) Which alkali metals can react with oxygen to form either the peroxide or the superoxide? 97)
Answer: K, Rb, and Cs
Explanation:
98) Write the balanced reaction between zinc oxide and sulfuric acid. 98)
Answer: ZnO + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2O
Explanation:
99) Which metal is a liquid at room temperature ? 99)
Answer: Mercury (Hg)
Explanation:
100) An added electron to the element bromine goes into which orbital __________ ? 100)
Answer: 4p
Explanation:
101) [Xe]6s2 is the electron configuration for __________ ? 101)
Answer: barium
Explanation:
102) All of the group VIA elements are solids except __________ ? 102)
Answer: oxygen
Explanation:
103) Write the balanced equation for the reaction of elemental fluorine with liquid water. 103)
Answer: 2H2O (l) + 2F2 (g) 4HF (aq) + O2 (g)
Explanation:
104) Of the alkaline earth metals, which two elements are the least reactive? 104)
Answer: Be and Mg
Explanation:
105) When electrons are removed from a lithium atom they are removed first from which
orbital __________?
105)
Answer: 2s1
Explanation:
106) List seven nonmetals that exist as diatomic molecules in their elemental forms. 106)
Answer: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
Explanation:
25
107) Which noble gas has the highest first ionization energy ? 107)
Answer: helium
Explanation:
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
108) Metals can be __________ at room temperature. 108)
A) liquid only
B) solid or liquid
C) solid only
D) solid, liquid, or gas
E) liquid or gas
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
109) The __________ have the most negative electron affinities. 109)
A) chalcogens
B) transition metals
C) alkali metals
D) halogens
E) alkaline earth metals
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
110) The most common sulfur ion has a charge of __________. 110)
A) +6
B) +4
C) -1
D) -2
E) Sulfur does not form ions.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
26
111) Which alkaline earth metal will not react with liquid water or with steam __________? 111)
A) Mg
B) Ba
C) Be
D) Ca
E) They all react with liquid water and with steam.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
112) What is the coefficient of M when the following equation is completed and balanced if M is an
alkali metal?
M (s) + H2O (l)
112)
A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 0
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
113) The first noble gas to be incorporated into a compound was __________. 113)
A) Xe B) He C) Kr D) Ar E) Ne
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
114) The only noble gas that does not have the ns2np6 valence electron configuration is __________. 114)
A) krypton
B) helium
C) neon
D) radon
E) All noble gases have the ns2np6 valence electron configuration.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
27
115) The oxide of which element below can react with hydrochloric acid? 115)
A) selenium B) nitrogen C) sodium D) sulfur E) carbon
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
116) The element phosphorus exists in two forms in nature called white phosphorus and red
phosphorus. These two forms are examples of __________.
116)
A) oxidation
B) noble gases
C) allotropes
D) isotopes
E) metalloids
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
117) An alkali metal forms a compound with chlorine with the formula __________.
(The symbol M represents any one of the alkali metals.)
117)
A) M2Cl2 B) MCl C) M2Cl D) MCl2 E) MCl3
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
118) Na reacts with element X to form an ionic compound with the formula Na3X. Ca will react with X
to form __________.
118)
A) Ca3X B) CaX2 C) Ca2X3 D) Ca3X2 E) CaX
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
28
119) __________ is credited with developing the concept of atomic numbers. 119)
A) Dmitri Mendeleev
B) Henry Moseley
C) Michael Faraday
D) Ernest Rutherford
E) Lothar Meyer
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
120) The reaction of potassium metal with elemental hydrogen produces __________. 120)
A) KH2
B) K2H
C) KH
D) None of the above; potassium will not react directly with hydrogen.
E) KOH
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
121) Of the hydrogen halides, only __________ is a weak acid. 121)
A) HI (aq)
B) HCl (aq)
C) HF (aq)
D) HBr (aq)
E) They are all weak acids.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
122) Element X reacts with chlorine to form a compound with the formula XCl2. The oxide of element X
is basic. Element X is __________.
122)
A) Rb B) Ca C) H D) Al E) P
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
29
123) Of the halogens, which are gases at room temperature and atmospheric pressure? 123)
A) fluorine, chlorine, and iodine
B) fluorine and chlorine
C) fluorine, chlorine, and bromine
D) fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine
E) fluorine, bromine, and iodine
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
124) Most of the elements on the periodic table are __________. 124)
A) metalloids B) nonmetals C) liquids D) gases E) metals
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
125) The reaction of a metal with a nonmetal produces a(n) __________. 125)
A) salt B) oxide C) acid D) base E) hydroxide
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
126) What is the coefficient of H2O when the following equation is completed and balanced?
Ba (s) + H2O (l)
126)
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 5
E) Ba(s) does not react with H2O (l).
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
30
127) 2 F2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) __________. 127)
A) 4 HF (aq) + O2 (g)
B) 2 HF2 (aq) + 2 OH- (aq)
C) 2 HF (aq) + 2 HFO (aq)
D) 2 F- (aq) + 2 H+ (aq) + H2O2 (aq)
E) 4 HF (aq) + 2 O2- (aq)
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
128) In general, as you go across a period in the periodic table from left to right:
(1) the atomic radius __________;
(2) the electron affinity becomes __________ negative; and
(3) the first ionization energy __________.
128)
A) decreases, increasingly, increases
B) decreases, decreasingly, increases
C) increases, increasingly, decreases
D) decreases, increasingly, decreases
E) increases, increasingly, increases
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
129) The substance, __________ is always produced when an active metal reacts with water. 129)
A) O2 B) H2 C) CO2 D) H2O E) NaOH
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
31
130) Elements in the modern version of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing
__________.
130)
A) atomic number
B) oxidation number
C) average atomic mass
D) atomic mass
E) number of isotopes
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
131) Oxides of most nonmetals combine with water to form __________. 131)
A) a base
B) water
C) water and a salt
D) hydrogen gas
E) an acid
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
132) Element M reacts with chlorine to form a compound with the formula MCl2. Element M is more
reactive than magnesium and has a smaller radius than barium. This element is __________.
132)
A) Sr B) Be C) K D) Ra E) Na
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
133) The most common and stable allotrope of sulfur is __________. 133)
A) S2
B) S4
C) S8
D) S
E) Sulfur does not form allotropes.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
32
134) The first ionization energies of the elements __________ as you go from left to right across a period
of the periodic table, and __________ as you go from the bottom to the top of a group in the table.
134)
A) increase, increase
B) increase, decrease
C) decrease, increase
D) decrease, decrease
E) are completely unpredictable
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
135) All the elements in group 8A are gases at room temperature. Of all the groups in the periodic table,
only group __________ contains examples of elements that are gas, liquid, and solid at room
temperature.
135)
A) 5A B) 6A C) 7A D) 1A E) 2A
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
136) Cl2 (g) + H2O (l) __________ 136)
A) Cl2 (aq) + H2O (l)
B) 2 HCl (aq) + O2 (g)
C) 2 HCl (aq) + O2- (g)
D) HCl (aq) + HOCl (aq)
E) 2 Cl- (aq) + H2O (l)
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
137) Oxides of most nonmetals combine with base to form __________. 137)
A) water
B) a base
C) an acid
D) hydrogen gas
E) water and a salt
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
33
138) Which group 6A element is a metal? 138)
A) tellurium
B) selenium
C) polonium
D) tellurium and polonium
E) sulfur
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
139) An alkaline earth metal forms a compound with oxygen with the formula __________.
(The symbol M represents any one of the alkaline earth metals.)
139)
A) MO3 B) MO2 C) MO D) M2O2 E) M2O
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
140) Oxides of the active metals combine with acid to form __________. 140)
A) oxygen gas
B) hydrogen gas
C) water and a salt
D) metal hydroxides
E) metal hydrides
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
141) Oxides of the active metals combine with water to form __________. 141)
A) metal hydroxides
B) water and a salt
C) oxygen gas
D) hydrogen gas
E) metal hydrides
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
34
142) Which periodic table group contains only nonmetals __________? 142)
A) 7A B) 2A C) 8A D) 6A E) 5A
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
143) Which nonmetal exists as a diatomic solid? 143)
A) phosphorus
B) bromine
C) iodine
D) boron
E) antimony
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
144) The element(s) __________ could be used to produce a red or crimson color in fireworks. 144)
A) Mg or Ba
B) Ba
C) Ca, Sr, or Li
D) Sr
E) Na or K
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
TRUE/FALSE. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.
145) Cadmium preferentially binds to carbonic anhydrase, displacing zinc. 145)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
146) Electron affinity measures how easy an atom gains an electron. 146)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
147) The atomic radius of iodine is one-half the distance separating the iodine nuclei. 147)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
35
148) The effective nuclear charge acting on an electron is larger than the actual nuclear charge. 148)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
149) A group of ions all containing the same number of electrons constitute an isoelectronic series. 149)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
36
Answer Key
Testname: C7
1) E
2) A
3) E
4) C
5) B
6) A
7) D
8) C
9) B
10) A
11) E
12) A
13) C
14) C
15) A
16) E
17) C
18) B
19) D
20) A
21) D
22) D
23) C
24) E
25) D
26) D
27) B
28) C
29) D
30) E
31) A
32) D
33) A
34) A
35) E
36) A
37) A
38) E
39) E
40) B
41) B
42) E
43) E
44) A
45) C
46) E
47) E
48) A
49) B
50) D
37
Answer Key
Testname: C7
51) A
52) C
53) B
54) A
55) B
56) C
57) E
58) C
59) B
60) D
61) B
62) E
63) B
64) C
65) B
66) D
67) B
68) E
69) A
70) B
71) D
72) D
73) A
74) B
75) C
76) D
77) D
78) C
79) C
80) D
81) A
82) A
83) A
84) E
85) A
86) A
87) A
88) B
89) B
90) A
91) C
92) +1, +2
93) increases
94) Metalloids
95) 4H3PO4
96) Cl2 (g) + H2O (l) HCl (aq) + HOCl (aq)
97) K, Rb, and Cs
98) ZnO + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2O
99) Mercury (Hg)
38
Answer Key
Testname: C7
100) 4p
101) barium
102) oxygen
103) 2H2O (l) + 2F2 (g) 4HF (aq) + O2 (g)
104) Be and Mg
105) 2s1
106) hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
107) helium
108) B
109) D
110) D
111) C
112) B
113) A
114) B
115) C
116) C
117) B
118) D
119) B
120) C
121) C
122) B
123) B
124) E
125) A
126) B
127) A
128) A
129) B
130) A
131) E
132) A
133) C
134) A
135) C
136) D
137) E
138) C
139) C
140) C
141) A
142) C
143) C
144) D
145) TRUE
146) TRUE
147) TRUE
148) FALSE
39
Answer Key
Testname: C7
149) TRUE
40

 

 

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) The lanthanide contraction is responsible for the fact that 1)
A) Zr and Zn have similar oxidation states.
B) Zr and Hf have the same oxidation states.
C) Zr and Y have about the same radius.
D) Zr and Hf have about the same radius.
E) Zr and Nb have similar oxidation states.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
2) The product in the Hall electrometallurgical process is 2)
A) iron.
B) copper.
C) gold.
D) silver.
E) aluminum.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
3) What is the typical effect of the addition of an interstitial element on the properties of a metal? 3)
A) increased surface luster
B) increase in malleability and corrosion resistance
C) decrease in conductivity and increase in brittleness
D) decrease in melting point and increase in ductility
E) increase in hardness and strength, decrease in ductility
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
1
4) A basic slag is needed in steelmaking to 4)
A) remove SiO2 as silicates.
B) reduce any nitrogen-containing compounds to N2.
C) oxidize any carbon-containing compounds to CO2.
D) react with any Brnsted-Lowry acids present.
E) provide CaO to remove phosphorus oxides as Ca3(PO4)2.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
5) The purpose of a converter in steel production is 5)
A) to remove impurity elements by oxidation
B) to allow the addition of nitrogen for increased strength
C) to reduce the iron in the ore to elemental
D) to allow the formation of phosphides within the metal for added corrosion resistance
E) to allow slow solidification of the molten metal so it will purify as it crystallizes
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
6) The purpose of burning coke in a blast furnace is 6)
A) to produce hydrogen gas.
B) to produce carbon monoxide gas.
C) to produce reducing gases.
D) to produce heat.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
2
7) Silicon, doped with a group 5A element forms a(n) __________-type semiconductor. Silicon doped
with a group 3A element forms a(n) __________-type semiconductor.
7)
A) n, n
B) n, p
C) p, n
D) p, p
E) None of the above is correct.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
8) A deposit that contains a metal in economically exploitable quantities is called a(n) __________. 8)
A) vein B) metal C) ore D) mineral E) comstock
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
9) In the Bayer process, what is the product of calcination of the aluminum hydroxide recovered from
the digestion in base?
9)
A) Al(OH)4- (aq)
B) Al xH2O (s)
C) Al (s)
D) Al(OH)3 (s)
E) Al2O3 (s)
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
10) The undesirable material that is separated from an ore during the concentration process is called
__________.
10)
A) flocculent B) silicate C) gangue D) slag E) leachate
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
3
11) A mixture of oxygen and argon are blown through molten iron that is produced in a blast furnace
for the purpose of
11)
A) removing carbon, sulfur, and other impurities.
B) oxidizing the iron before it cools.
C) cooling the molten iron.
D) completing the reduction of iron.
E) removing other metals.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
12) Calcium chloride is added to sodium chloride prior to melting it for electrolysis in a Downs cell
__________.
12)
A) to provide calcium ions which serve as the cathode
B) to lower the melting point
C) to increase the concentration of chloride ions
D) to make the chloride ions easier to oxidize
E) to make the sodium ions easier to reduce
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
13) Part of the Bayer process involves the digestion of crushed ore in concentrated aqueous sodium
hydroxide. This process carried out at high pressure __________.
13)
A) to prevent formation of aluminum hydroxide
B) to prevent boiling
C) to accelerate formation of iron hydroxide
D) to lower the boiling temperature of the mixture
E) to prevent formation of iron hydroxide
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
4
14) Why do aqueous solutions of Cr2+ usually appear violet instead of blue? 14)
A) The intensity of the color is so low it appears violet instead of blue.
B) Chromium(II) rapidly forms a complex ion with water and that ion is violet-colored.
C) Chromium(II) reacts with water to form a hydroxide-containing complex ion that is
violet-colored.
D) Chromium(II) is rapidly oxidized to chromium(III) by atmospheric oxygen.
E) Water usually contains enough chloride ion to form a complex ion containing chloride and
that substance is violet-colored.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
15) The lithosphere is the 15)
A) deepest part of the ocean.
B) portion of the atmosphere closest to the Earth.
C) portion of the atmosphere furthest from the Earth.
D) solid surface of the Earth.
E) molten core of the Earth.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
16) Of the following, which is a bulk property? 16)
A) melting point
B) atomic number
C) ionization energy
D) atomic radius
E) electron configuration
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
5
17) What are the products of the following (unbalanced) leaching process?
Au (s) + CN- (aq) + O2 (g) + H2O (l)
17)
A) Au(CN)4- (aq) and OH- (aq)
B) Au(CN)2- (aq) and OH- (aq)
C) AuCN (s) and OH- (aq)
D) AuCN (s) and H2O2 (aq)
E) Au(CN)3 (s) and OH- (aq)
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
18) A small amount of barium chloride solution is added to a blue solution. A white precipitate forms.
The blue solution contains
18)
A) CoCl2 B) CuSO4 C) NiSO4 D) Co(NO3)3 E) CuCl2
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
19) Which one of the following compounds is yellow? 19)
A) CCl2
B) K2CrO4
C) (NH4)2Cr2O7
D) Cr(NO3)3
E) CrCl3
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
20) Which element is typically not added to steel to modify its properties? 20)
A) vanadium B) carbon C) nickel D) chromium E) nitrogen
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
6
21) An advantage to leaching gold with aqueous solutions of cyanide ion is that 21)
A) the gold recovered in this way has higher purity than gold recovered in other ways.
B) the process requires only one step.
C) the method can be used to locate underground gold deposits.
D) gold can be recovered from very low-grade ores by this method.
E) the process is environmentally safe.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
22) For a substitutional alloy to form, the two metals combined must have similar 22)
A) ionization potential and electron affinity.
B) atomic radii and chemical bonding properties.
C) reduction potential and size.
D) number of valance electrons and electronegativity.
E) band gap and reactivity.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
23) In the Bayer process, the purpose of lowering the pH after the digested ore has been filtered is
__________.
23)
A) the dissolve the remaining ore
B) to precipitate the iron oxide
C) to precipitate the aluminum hydroxide
D) to precipitate the iron hydroxide
E) to dissolve the remaining impurities
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
24) A substance with unpaired electrons will be 24)
A) slightly attracted to a magnet.
B) slightly repelled by a magnet.
C) brightly colored.
D) permanently magnetic.
E) nonmetallic.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
7
25) The respective standard oxidation potentials for Cu Cu2+, Ni Ni2+, and Ag Ag+ are (in V)
-0.34, +0.28, and -0.80. Impure copper slabs at the anode are refined electrochemically, affording
much purer metallic copper at the cathode. Which statement below is true?
25)
A) Ni is oxidized preferentially over Cu, and Ni2+ is reduced much less readily than Cu2+, so Ni
is separated as Ni2+ in the electrolyte solution.
B) Cu is oxidized preferentially over both Ni and Ag, so both Ni and Ag metals are separated as
sludges below the anode.
C) Ag is oxidized preferentially over Cu, and Ag+ is reduced much less readily than Cu2+, so Ag
is separated as Ag+ in the electrolyte solution.
D) Ag is oxidized preferentially over Cu, and Ag+ is reduced much more readily than Cu2+, so
Ag plates out with Cu at the cathode and cannot readily be removed from impure copper.
E) Both Ni and Ag are oxidized preferentially over Cu and Ni2+, and Ag+ is reduced much less
readily than Cu2+, so Ni and Ag are separated as Ni2+ and Ag+ in the electrolyte solution.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
26) Which one of the following copper compounds is black in color? 26)
A) Cu(H2O)42+
B) CuO
C) CuI
D) CuSO4
E) CuCl2
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
27) The anode sludges from copper refining are important sources of what metal(s)? 27)
A) all of the above
B) gold
C) both a and b
D) silver
E) aluminum
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
8
28) Alloys generally differ from compounds in that 28)
A) the former always contain some iron.
B) the atomic ratios of the constituent elements in the former are not fixed and may vary over a
wide range.
C) the former never contain a transition element.
D) the former always have semiconductor properties.
E) the former always contain some carbon.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
29) What happens to the silicon that is a contaminant in crude iron in a converter? 29)
A) it is converted to the tetrafluoride that bubbles out as a gas.
B) It is precipitated as the carbide.
C) It is precipitated as sodium silicate.
D) It is precipitated as iron silicate.
E) It is converted to silicon dioxide and becomes part of the slag.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
30) A mineral is 30)
A) metal in its elemental form.
B) a vitamin.
C) a transition metal ion.
D) a solid inorganic compound that contains one or more metals.
E) source of carbon.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
31) Gold and the platinum group metals are found in nature in metallic form because 31)
A) they are relatively abundant.
B) they are soluble in water.
C) they are relatively inert.
D) they are solids at room temperature.
E) they are highly reactive.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
9
32) Intermetallic compounds are examples of 32)
A) homogeneous alloys.
B) solution alloys.
C) ionic compounds.
D) heterogeneous alloys.
E) interstitial alloys.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
33) Reaction of iron with which one of the following acids will result in the direct production of Fe3+? 33)
A) HI
B) dilute H2SO4
C) HCl
D) HNO3
E) CH3COOH
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
34) Heterogeneous alloys 34)
A) have properties that depend on the manner in which the solid is formed.
B) have properties that depend on composition.
C) have properties that depend on the manner in which the melt is solidified.
D) do not have uniform composition throughout.
E) All of the above are true.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
35) The hydrated nickel(II) ion is 35)
A) green. B) yellow. C) orange. D) colorless. E) blue.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
10
36) Which statement below is true? 36)
A) Most metallic elements are found in the lithosphere in oxidation state zero.
B) There exists little correlation between the abundance of an element in the lithosphere and its
commercial extraction and use.
C) The United States has plentiful ore fields of all strategic metals.
D) New mining techniques and relatively untapped ore fields mean that the environmental
impacts of mineral extraction will decrease significantly in the future.
E) The most important commercial class of minerals is the silicates.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
37) Which of the following is not an alloy? 37)
A) steel
B) dental amalgam
C) ceramic
D) brass
E) sterling silver
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
38) Roasting of the disulfide of molybdenum in O2 produces which products? 38)
A) MoO3 (s) + SO3 (g)
B) MoO4 (s) + SO2 (g)
C) Mo (s) + SO2 ( g)
D) MoO3 (s) + SO2 (g)
E) Mo (s) + MoS (s) + SO2 (g)
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
11
39) When copper(II) hydroxide is heated, __________ and __________ are formed. 39)
A) CuH2 (s) + O2 (g)
B) CuOH (s) + H2O (g)
C) Cu (s), OH- (g)
D) Cu (s), H2O (l)
E) CuO (s), H2O (l)
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
40) What two oxidation states are more frequently observed in the first transition series than in the
third?
40)
A) +5 and +6 B) +3 and +5 C) +3 and +7 D) +2 and +7 E) +2 and +3
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
41) Which of the following are not commonly used as sources of metals? 41)
A) silicates
B) oxides
C) sulfides
D) carbonates
E) All of the above are commonly used sources of metals.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
12
42) The molecular-orbital model for Ge shows it to be 42)
A) an insulator, because all the lower energy band orbitals are filled and the gap between the
lower and higher bands is large.
B) a conductor, because its lower energy band orbitals are only partially filled.
C) a conductor, because all the lower energy band orbitals are filled and the gap between the
lower and higher bands is large.
D) a semiconductor, because the gap between the filled lower and empty higher energy bands is
relatively small.
E) a semiconductor, because the gap between the filled lower and empty higher energy bands is
large.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
43) The Hall process is 43)
A) the pyrometallurgic process used to produce aluminum.
B) the pyrometallurgic process used to produce iron.
C) the electrolytic process used to produce iron.
D) the hydrometallurgic process to produce aluminum.
E) the electrolytic process used to produce aluminum.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
44) Which of the following equations represents the roasting of an ore? 44)
A) All of these represent roasting processes.
B) PbO (s) + CO (g)

Pb (l) + CO2 (g)
C) HgS (s) + O2 (g)

Hg (g) + SO2 (g)
D) 2ZnS (s) + 3O2 (g)

2ZnO (s) + 2SO2 (g)
E) 2MoS2 (s) + 7O2 (g)

2MoO3 (s) + 4SO2 (g)
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
13
45) Which one of the following metallic elements is most likely to be found as the free metal in nature? 45)
A) Au B) Al C) Li D) Ca E) Fe
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
46) Which mineral contains aluminum? 46)
A) malachite B) bauxite C) cinnabar D) magnetite E) galena
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
47) Shape memory alloys __________. 47)
A) in their lower temperature phase have a flexible arrangement between atoms
B) in their higher temperature phase have strong and fixed bonds between atoms
C) change their structure as the temperature changes
D) are more pliable when cold than when warm
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
48) The major impurities found in bauxite are __________. 48)
A) Fe and H2O
B) SiO2 and Fe2O3
C) Al2O3 and H2O
D) carbon and salicylic acid
E) Al2O3 and OHAnswer:
B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
14
49) An alloy is a 49)
A) a mineral containing two or more metals.
B) pure metal.
C) heterogeneous mixture of two metals.
D) metallic material that is composed of two or more elements.
E) nonmetal with some properties of a metal.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
50) Which statement about steel is false? 50)
A) It can have different percentage of carbon.
B) It is a polymer.
C) It is an alloy of iron.
D) In can be made so it resists rust.
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
51) If the electronic structure of a solid substance consists of a valence band that is completely filled
with electrons and there is a large energy gap to the next set of orbitals, then this substance will be
a(n) __________.
51)
A) semiconductor
B) conductor
C) alloy
D) nonmetal
E) insulator
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
15
52) Which one of the following is false concerning the Bayer Process? 52)
A) It is a hydrometallurgical process.
B) It results in the separation of aluminum from iron and silicon.
C) It involves treatment of bauxite with cold, dilute sodium hydroxide solution.
D) It is used to purify bauxite.
E) In the process, aluminum is converted to a soluble aluminate ion.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
53) Which property of metals cannot be explained with the electron-sea model? 53)
A) shine
B) trends in melting points
C) high thermal connectivity
D) high electric connectivity
E) malleability and ductility
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
54) The hydrated manganese(II) ion is 54)
A) blue. B) violet. C) orange. D) colorless. E) yellow.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
55) A disadvantage to leaching gold with aqueous solutions of cyanide ion is that 55)
A) it is a complicated process requiring more than two dozen separate steps.
B) it requires the use of ores with a very high concentration of gold.
C) sodium cyanide is very expensive.
D) the method is a potential environmental hazard.
E) the method does not produce gold of high enough purity.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
16
56) Hydrometallurgy is 56)
A) the use of aqueous solutions to extract metals from their ores.
B) the use of water to cool molten metals.
C) the use of high temperature processes to concentrate and refine metals.
D) the use of high temperature processes to make alloys.
E) the use of water to locate underground ore deposits.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
57) During roasting, the metal reacts with 57)
A) oxygen.
B) iron.
C) sulfur.
D) the furnace atmosphere.
E) carbon monoxide.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
58) Smelting is 58)
A) thermal decomposition of an ore with elimination of a gaseous product.
B) cooling a molten metal to make it solidify.
C) heating an ore to make it react with a gas in a furnace.
D) addition of calcium to a molten ore.
E) melting and subsequent reaction of molten ores resulting in the formation of layers.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
59) Sodium metal cannot be produced by electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride
because __________
59)
A) the iron cathode would be corroded by the salt water.
B) water is more easily reduced than sodium ions.
C) the carbon anode is more easily reduced than sodium ions.
D) the production of chlorine gas interferes with the reduction of sodium ions.
E) water is more easily oxidized than sodium metal.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
17
60) Why is either pure oxygen or oxygen diluted with argon used in a converter instead of air? 60)
A) The oxygen concentration is too low to function efficiently at removing impurities.
B) The carbon monoxide in air reacts with the iron to form a volatile, and toxic, iron carbonyl.
C) The nitrogen in air will react with iron to form iron nitride that will make the iron brittle.
D) Because its cheaper.
E) The carbon dioxide in air will cause the iron to oxidize and form rust.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
61) Which of the following equations represents a calcination? 61)
A) PbCO3 (s)

PbO (s) + CO2 (g)
B) CaO (l) + SiO2 (l)

CaSiO3 (l)
C) HgS (s) + O2 (g)

Hg (g) + SO2 (g)
D) PbO (s) + CO (g)

Pb (l) + CO2 (g)
E) All of the above are calcination processes.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
62) Steel is 62)
A) pure iron.
B) a liquid at room temperature.
C) oxidized iron.
D) an alloy of iron.
E) a mixture of iron and silver.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
18
63) What is the purpose of adding zinc powder to a solution of Au(CN)2-? 63)
A) to precipitate the cyanide-gold complex
B) to form a gold-zinc alloy
C) to reduce the gold in the cyanide complex to gold metal
D) to precipitate the cyanide ion
E) to oxidize the gold in the cyanide complex to gold metal
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
64) An aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 will slowly form a red-brown precipitate due to the formation of
__________.
64)
A) Fe(OH)3 B) FeO C) Fe3O4 D) FeO2 E) Fe(OH)2
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
65) Metallurgical processes that utilize high temperatures are collectively called 65)
A) alloying.
B) pyrometallurgy.
C) roasting.
D) electrometallurgy.
E) hydrometallurgy.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
66) Which one of the following is a property of most metals? 66)
A) brittleness
B) high electronegativity
C) low melting point
D) thermal conductivity
E) acidic oxides
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
19
67) In the Bayer process, the purpose of filtration after the ore has been digested in concentrated
sodium hydroxide is __________.
67)
A) to remove the sodium ions from the sodium hydroxide solution
B) to separate the soluble aluminum complex from the insoluble iron impurities
C) to remove the anode sludge
D) to separate the insoluble aluminum oxide from the soluble iron impurity
E) to separate the aluminum metal from the hydroxide ions
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
68) Anhydrous aluminum oxide is dissolved in molten cryolite rather than simply melted because
__________
68)
A) the cryolite provides a source of sodium ions.
B) the melting point of pure, anhydrous aluminum oxide is too high.
C) the cryolite provides the necessary fluoride ions.
D) the cryolite actually provides the aluminum that is to be reduced.
E) in pure, molten Al2O3, the aluminum would be oxidized rather than reduced.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
69) Which one of the following is not true about transition metals? 69)
A) They frequently have more than

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