Child Development 9th Edition by Laura E. Berk Test Bank

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Child Development 9th Edition by Laura E. Berk Test Bank

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CHAPTER 1
HISTORY, THEORY, AND APPLIED DIRECTIONS
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1) The field of child development
A) is devoted to understanding human constancy and change throughout the lifespan.
B) is part of a larger, interdisciplinary field known as developmental science.
C) focuses primarily on childrens physical and emotional development.
D) focuses primarily on infants and childrens social and cognitive development.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 4
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.1
2) The common goal of investigators who study child development is to
A) understand how physical growth and nutrition contribute to health and well-being throughout the lifespan.
B) understand more about personality and social development.
C) analyze child-rearing practices and experiences that promote childrens well-being.
D) describe and identify those factors that influence the consistencies and changes in young people during the first two decades of life.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 4
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.1
3) Which of the following factors contributed to the study of child development in the twentieth century?
A) The beginning of public education led to a demand for knowledge about what and how to teach children of different ages.
B) Parents were having more children and researchers became interested in the effects of family size on childrens well-being.
C) Pediatricians were pressured by insurance companies to improve childrens health, which inspired nutritional research.
D) High rates of childhood depression inspired new areas of research into childrens anxieties and behavior problems.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 4
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.1
4) Which of the following statements is true about the field of child development?
A) Scientific curiosity is the prevailing factor that led to the study of children, and current researchers primarily answer questions of scientific interest.
B) The field of child development is considered interdisciplinary because it has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields.
C) Child development is the area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan.
D) Most of what we know about child development comes from psychologists and medical professionals.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 4
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.1

5) Development is often divided into which of the following three broad domains?
A) infancy, childhood, and adolescence
B) social, cultural, and historical
C) physical, cognitive, and emotional and social
D) biological, social, and intellectual
Answer: C
Page Ref: 4
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.2
6) The domains of development
A) combine in an integrated, holistic fashion.
B) are not influenced by each other.
C) operate independently of one another.
D) are distinct and unrelated.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 4
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.2
7) What period of human development brings the most rapid time of change?
A) the prenatal period
B) infancy and toddlerhood
C) early childhood
D) adolescence
Answer: A
Page Ref: 5
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.2
8) During which period of development do children form their first intimate ties to others?
A) the prenatal period
B) infancy and toddlerhood
C) early childhood
D) middle childhood
Answer: B
Page Ref: 5
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.2
9) Charlotte is long and lean. She engages in make-believe play and has a blossoming sense of morality. Charlotte is probably in which period of human development?
A) the prenatal period
B) infancy and toddlerhood
C) early childhood
D) middle childhood
Answer: C
Page Ref: 56
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.2

10) Pete participates in soccer and is beginning to master fundamental reading and math skills. Pete is probably in which period of human development?
A) adolescence
B) middle childhood
C) early childhood
D) infancy and toddlerhood
Answer: B
Page Ref: 6
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.2
11) During adolescence,
A) thought and language expand at an astounding rate.
B) young people begin to master academic knowledge and skills.
C) young people fully assume adult roles.
D) thought becomes abstract and idealistic.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 6
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.2
12) Which of the following factors have contributed to the period of development called emerging adulthood?
A) Teenagers from large families assume adult roles upon entering adolescence.
B) The transition to adult roles has become increasingly prolonged.
C) Schooling is increasingly directed toward preparation for the world of work.
D) Young people make enduring commitments soon after high school graduation.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 6
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.2
13) A good theory
A) provides an ultimate truth.
B) cannot be scientifically verified.
C) describes, explains, and predicts behavior.
D) is not influenced by the cultural values or beliefs of its time.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 6
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.3
14) Which of the following statements is true about child development theories?
A) They guide and give meaning to our observations and help us understand development.
B) They are defined as mere opinions or beliefs.
C) They provide ultimate truths about children and adolescents.
D) They are difficult to verify, even with contemporary research methods.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 6
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.3

15) Theories differ from mere opinion and belief in that
A) they provide the ultimate truth.
B) they are usually too abstract to be used as a basis for practical action.
C) they cannot be tested in a research setting.
D) their continued existence depends on scientific verification.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 7
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.3
16) The continuous development view holds that
A) infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do.
B) childrens thoughts, emotions, and behavior differ considerably from those of adults.
C) development takes place in stages.
D) development is much like climbing a staircase.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 7
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.3
17) Eight-month-old Annabelle is not yet able to organize objects or remember and interpret experiences as an adult does because her development is
A) continuous.
B) discontinuous.
C) stable.
D) plastic.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 78
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.3
18) The concept of __________ is characteristic of __________ theories.
A) nurture; continuous
B) context; nature
C) change; heredity
D) stages; discontinuous
Answer: D
Page Ref: 8
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.3
19) The stage concept assumes that children
A) gradually add more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
B) undergo a slow transformation as they step up from one stage to the next.
C) make fairly sudden and distinct changes as they grow.
D) think just as logically as adults do.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 8
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.3

20) Dr. Zettler compares children growing up in non-Western village societies with those growing up in large Western cities. Dr. Zettler likely emphasizes __________ in her research.
A) the naturenurture controversy
B) the effects of distinct contexts on development
C) the concept of step-by-step learning
D) continuous development
Answer: B
Page Ref: 8
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.3
21) Dr. Hoo believes that children who are high in verbal ability, anxiety, or sociability will remain so at later ages. Dr. Hoo likely emphasizes the role of __________ in her research.
A) plasticity
B) stability
C) discontinuity
D) context
Answer: B
Page Ref: 9
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.3
22) Dr. Shepherd studies individual differences in intelligence, personality, and social skills of identical twins raised in different families. Dr. Shepherd likely emphasizes the role of __________ in his research.
A) heredity
B) plasticity
C) early experiences
D) stability
Answer: A
Page Ref: 9
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.3
23) Theorists who emphasize __________ in explaining individual differences typically stress the importance of __________.
A) early experiences; discontinuity
B) stability; nurture
C) the environment; early experiences
D) context; continuity
Answer: C
Page Ref: 9
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.3
24) Professor Cortez believes that development is largely due to nature. Professor Cortez would argue that
A) early intervention is of supreme importance for economically at-risk children.
B) environmental factors have a greater impact on development than genetic factors.
C) offering high-quality stimulation in infancy and toddlerhood is vital for favorable development.
D) providing experiences aimed at promoting change is of little value.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 9
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.3

25) Which of the following factors fosters resilience?
A) an inability to inhibit impulses
B) having more than two siblings
C) social support outside the immediate family
D) an emotionally reactive personality
Answer: C
Page Ref: 1011 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Resilient Children
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.3
26) The most consistent asset of resilient children is
A) a strong bond with a competent, caring adult.
B) high academic performance in elementary school.
C) musical ability.
D) athletic competence.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 11 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Resilient Children
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.3
27) During medieval times,
A) children were treated as adults once they were old enough to perform daily routines.
B) clear awareness existed of children as vulnerable beings.
C) children were viewed as blank slates.
D) harsh, restrictive child-rearing practices were recommended to tame depraved children.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 11
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
28) During the Reformation, the Puritans
A) characterized children as innocent and close to angels.
B) regarded children as fully mature by the time they were 7 or 8 years old.
C) suggested that parents reward children with praise and approval.
D) believed that children were born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 11
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
29) In the sixteenth century, __________ prevented most Puritan parents from using extremely repressive child-rearing measures.
A) the belief that children are vulnerable
B) religious prohibitions against harsh punishment
C) love and affection for their children
D) the belief that children are close to angels
Answer: C
Page Ref: 11
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.4

30) The Enlightenment period brought new philosophies that
A) emphasized ideals of human dignity and respect.
B) emphasized original sin.
C) regarded children as noble savages.
D) recognized the need to protect children from people who might mistreat them.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.4
31) British philosopher John Locke viewed the child as
A) tainted by original sin.
B) a tabula rasa.
C) a noble savage.
D) an active, purposeful being.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
32) Ms. Xavier opposes physical punishment in schools. She believes that such punishment makes children fear teachers. Ms. Xavier is most aligned with which historical prospective?
A) medieval times
B) the Reformation
C) the Enlightenment
D) the Puritans, after they emigrated to the New World
Answer: C
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.4
33) Locke regarded development as __________ and largely influenced by __________.
A) continuous; nature
B) continuous; nurture
C) discontinuous; nature
D) discontinuous; nurture
Answer: B
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.4
34) According to Jean-Jacques Rousseaus view, the child is
A) tainted by original sin.
B) a tabula rasa.
C) a noble savage.
D) an active, purposeful being.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4

35) In contrast to Locke, Rousseau
A) viewed development as a continuous process.
B) believed that childrens moral sense is learned through religious training.
C) regarded children as empty containers to be filled by adult instruction.
D) believed that childrens unique ways of thinking would only be harmed by adult training.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
36) Rousseaus philosophy included which of the following two influential concepts?
A) stage and maturation
B) evolution and stage
C) natural selection and survival of the fittest
D) maturation and natural selection
Answer: A
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.4
37) Rousseau regarded development as __________ and largely influenced by __________.
A) continuous; nature
B) continuous; nurture
C) discontinuous; nature
D) discontinuous; nurture
Answer: C
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.4
38) Charles Darwins theory of evolution emphasizes __________ and __________.
A) stage; maturation
B) natural selection; stage
C) maturation; survival of the fittest
D) natural selection; survival of the fittest
Answer: D
Page Ref: 13
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.4
39) __________ is generally regarded as the founder of the child-study movement.
A) Charles Darwin
B) John Locke
C) G. Stanley Hall
D) Benjamin Spock
Answer: C
Page Ref: 13
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4

40) G. Stanley Hall and his student, Arnold Gesell,
A) developed the first intelligence test.
B) regarded child development as a maturational process.
C) argued that children actively revise their ways of thinking, but also learn through habit.
D) were the first researchers to implement behavior modification techniques.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 13
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
41) Dr. Adolph takes measures of behavior on large numbers of individuals and computes age-related averages to represent typical development. Dr. Adolph uses
A) the normative approach.
B) behaviorism.
C) intelligence testing.
D) psychoanalysis.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 13
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.4
42) Gesells child-rearing advice to parents recommended
A) harsh, restrictive punishment.
B) the use of money or sweets for rewards.
C) home remedies for common childhood illnesses.
D) sensitivity to childrens cues.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 13
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
43) Alfred Binet and Theodore Simons intelligence test was originally constructed to
A) measure individual differences among children with the same IQ.
B) document developmental improvements in childrens intellectual functioning.
C) identify gifted and talented children who required educational enrichment.
D) identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 13
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
44) Binet defined intelligence as
A) recall, reflection, and communication.
B) reaction time and sensitivity to physical stimuli.
C) good judgment, planning, and critical reflection.
D) emotional, social, and cognitive awareness.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 14
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.4

45) James Mark Baldwin
A) created one of the earliest intelligence tests used in American schools.
B) argued that intelligence is best understood in terms of reaction time to physical and social stimuli.
C) believed that childrens unique ways of thinking and feeling could be harmed by adult interference.
D) believed that childrens understanding of their physical and social worlds develops through a sequence of stages.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 14
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
46) Although he was long overlooked in the history of child development, Baldwin
A) adapted Binets intelligence test for use with English-speaking children.
B) granted nature and nurture equal importance.
C) viewed development as a continuous process.
D) was among the first to make developmental research relevant to parents.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 14
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.4
47) According to __________, children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations.
A) ecological systems theory
B) the psychoanalytic perspective
C) the behaviorist perspective
D) social learning theory
Answer: B
Page Ref: 15
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
48) Sigmund Freud constructed his psychosexual theory
A) by examining the unconscious motivations of his patients.
B) by documenting the dreams of emotionally troubled adults.
C) by observing his own children.
D) on the basis of interviews with institutionalized children and adolescents.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 15
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
49) According to Freud, the __________ works to reconcile the demands of the __________ and the __________.
A) id; ego; superego
B) superego; id; ego
C) ego; id; superego
D) id; conscience; subconscious
Answer: C
Page Ref: 15
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5

50) Freuds psychosexual theory was the first to stress the influence of
A) the early parentchild relationship on development.
B) societys values and beliefs on parents disciplinary techniques.
C) older siblings on newborns.
D) the academic environment on young children.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 15
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
51) Which of the following is a major criticism of Freuds theory?
A) It was based on the problems of sexually repressed, well-to-do adults, not on direct study of children.
B) It does not acknowledge the individuals unique life history as worthy of study and understanding.
C) It ignores the value of the clinical, or case study, method.
D) It mostly ignores milestones of infant and toddler development.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 15
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
52) In his psychosocial theory, Erik Erikson emphasized that
A) conflicts about anal control may appear if parents toilet train before children are ready.
B) in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development.
C) children feel a sexual desire for the other-sex parent.
D) directly observable eventsstimuli and responsesare the appropriate focus of study.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 1516
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
53) During the oral psychosexual stage, if oral needs are not met appropriately, an individual may develop such habits as
A) extreme messiness and disorder.
B) hostility toward the same-sex parent.
C) sexual promiscuity.
D) fingernail biting and overeating.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 16
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
54) According to Freud, the superego strengthens during the __________ stage.
A) oral
B) anal
C) phallic
D) latency
Answer: D
Page Ref: 16
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5

55) According to Erikson, children gain insight into the person they can become through make-believe play during the __________ stage.
A) basic trust versus mistrust
B) autonomy versus shame and doubt
C) initiative versus guilt
D) industry versus inferiority
Answer: C
Page Ref: 16
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
56) Martin is striving to establish a personal identity by exploring his values and vocational goals. Martin is in Eriksons __________ stage.
A) initiative versus guilt
B) intimacy versus isolation
C) identity versus role confusion
D) integrity versus despair
Answer: C
Page Ref: 16
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.5
57) In contrast to Freud, Erikson
A) viewed children as taking a more active role in their own development.
B) focused on the impact of early experiences on later behavior.
C) minimized the role of culture in individual development.
D) recognized the lifespan nature of development.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 16
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
58) A special strength of the psychoanalytic perspective is its
A) global application to most cultures.
B) emphasis on the individuals unique life history as worthy of study and understanding.
C) emphasis on empirical research.
D) effectiveness in dealing with everyday difficulties.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 17
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
59) Which of the following is a contribution of psychoanalytic theory?
A) It inspired a wealth of research on many aspects of emotional and social development.
B) It emphasized a wide range of research methods to study child development.
C) It provided a rich source of testable hypotheses about personality development.
D) It remains in the mainstream of child development research.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 17
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5

60) Psychoanalytic theorists were strongly committed to
A) the experimental method.
B) correlational studies of preschool children.
C) systematic observation.
D) in-depth study of individual children.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 17
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
61) Traditional behaviorists like John Watson believed that __________ is the supreme force in development.
A) environment
B) heredity
C) sexuality
D) early experience
Answer: A
Page Ref: 17
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
62) According to B. F. Skinners operant conditioning theory,
A) modeling is the most powerful source of development.
B) the frequency of behavior can be increased by following it with reinforcers.
C) development is a discontinuous process.
D) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 17
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
63) Marcus, age 12, wears the same clothes and hairstyle as his best friends at school. According to Albert Bandura, Marcus is displaying
A) operant conditioning.
B) behavior modification.
C) classical conditioning.
D) observational learning.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 18
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.5
64) Today, Banduras theory stresses the importance of
A) cognition.
B) punishment.
C) heredity.
D) classical conditioning.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 18
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5

65) The most recent revision of Banduras theory places such strong emphasis on how children think about themselves and other people that he calls it a __________ approach.
A) social learning
B) social-cognitive
C) behavior modification
D) psychosocial
Answer: B
Page Ref: 18
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
66) Sydney views herself as hardworking and high-achieving. She believes that she will succeed if she relies on her abilities. Sydney has developed a sense of
A) generativity.
B) industry.
C) self-efficacy.
D) equilibrium.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 18
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.5
67) In her research, Dr. Esse uses procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses. Dr. Esse relies on
A) observational learning.
B) behavior modification.
C) classical conditioning.
D) psychosocial learning.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 18
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.5
68) __________ has been used to relieve a wide range of serious developmental problems, such as persistent aggression and extreme fears.
A) Modeling
B) Observational learning
C) Behavior modification
D) Social-cognitive theory
Answer: C
Page Ref: 18
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
69) Which of the following is an important criticism of behaviorism?
A) It overemphasizes genetic influences.
B) It underestimates childrens contributions to their own development.
C) It cannot be effectively applied to toddlers or preschool children.
D) It only works in controlled settings, not in childrens everyday lives.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 19
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5

70) If one individual has influenced the contemporary field of child development more than any other, it is
A) Sigmund Freud.
B) Erik Erikson.
C) B. F. Skinner.
D) Jean Piaget.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 19
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
71) Accordingly to Jean Piagets cognitive-developmental theory, children
A) actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world.
B) acquire new social values as sexual instincts die down.
C) gradually become more selective in what they imitate.
D) develop within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 19
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
72) Central to Piagets view of development is the concept of
A) modeling.
B) reinforcement.
C) adaptation.
D) cultural identity.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 19
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
73) According to Piagets cognitive-developmental theory,
A) childrens understanding is different from adults.
B) development must be understood in relation to each childs culture.
C) children gradually develop adaptive behaviors.
D) rapid development occurs during a sensitive period.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 19
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
74) According to Piagets theory, cognitive development begins in the __________ stage.
A) sensorimotor
B) preoperational
C) concrete operational
D) formal operational
Answer: A
Page Ref: 19
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5

75) In Piagets concrete operational stage, children
A) consider all possible outcomes in a scientific problem.
B) develop the capacity for abstract thinking.
C) reason with symbols that do not refer to real-world objects.
D) transform cognition into logical reasoning.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 1920
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
76) Five-year-old Stefan uses symbols to represent sensorimotor discoveries. However, his thinking lacks logic. Stefan is in Piagets __________ stage of development.
A) sensorimotor
B) preoperational
C) concrete operational
D) formal operational
Answer: B
Page Ref: 20
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.5
77) According to Piagets theory, thought becomes abstract in the __________ stage.
A) sensorimotor
B) preoperational
C) concrete operational
D) formal operational
Answer: D
Page Ref: 20
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
78) Early in his career, Piaget derived his ideas about cognitive changes during the first two years by
A) conducting clinical interviews.
B) engaging in rigorous experiments.
C) observing his own three children.
D) summarizing baby biographies.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 20
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5
79) To study childhood and adolescent thought, Piaget
A) used psychoanalysis.
B) conducted open-ended clinical interviews.
C) observed young people from diverse cultures.
D) relied on classical and operant conditioning.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 20
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.5

80) One important criticism of Piagets theory is that
A) he overestimated the competencies of infants and young children.
B) his stagewise account pays insufficient attention to social and cultural influences.
C) he overemphasized discovery learning and direct contact with the environment.
D) childrens performance on Piagetian tasks cannot be improved with training.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 21
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.5
81) The information-processing approach views the mind as
A) a system for manipulating symbols.
B) a socially constructed structure.
C) the result of stimulusresponse associations.
D) a mechanism of genetically programmed behaviors.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 21
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
82) Dr. Winsock often designs flowcharts to map the precise steps that her research participants use to solve problems and complete tasks, much like the plans devised by programmers to get computers to perform a series of mental operations. Dr. Winsock probably subscribes to which of the following theories of development?
A) psychoanalytic perspective
B) information-processing approach
C) social-cognitive approach
D) ecological systems theory
Answer: B
Page Ref: 21
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.6
83) Information-processing researchers
A) record stimulusresponse pathways in the brain.
B) build computers with humanlike circuitry.
C) focus on the evolutionary significance of human behavior.
D) seek to clarify how both task characteristics and cognitive limitations influence performance.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 2122
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
84) The information-processing approach is being used to
A) clarify the processing of social information.
B) identify differences between innate and learned behaviors.
C) facilitate bilingual speech recognition.
D) predict school achievement and career success.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 22
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6

85) The information-processing approach
A) regards children as tabula rasa.
B) does not divide development into stages.
C) views development as discontinuous.
D) regards thought processes as vastly different at all ages.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 22
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
86) A great strength of the information-processing approach is its commitment to
A) fieldwork.
B) structured observations.
C) rigorous research methods.
D) clinical interviews.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 22
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
87) A criticism of the information-processing approach is that it
A) focuses too heavily on creativity and imagination.
B) lacks scientific research.
C) has little to say about nonlinear cognition.
D) views children as blank slates.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 23
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
88) Dr. Cooper is a developmental cognitive neuroscientist. Which of the following questions would Dr. Cooper most likely investigate?
A) What is the best technique to measure intelligence?
B) Does actual brain size affect cognitive progress?
C) How does nutrition affect overall brain growth and memory patterns?
D) How do experiences at various ages influence the organization of the brain?
Answer: D
Page Ref: 23
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.6
89) The roots of ethology can be traced to the work of
A) Charles Darwin.
B) Sigmund Freud.
C) Jean Piaget.
D) Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 23
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6

90) Observations of __________ led to the concept of __________ in child development.
A) learned behaviors in dogs; the sensitive period
B) imprinting in baby birds; the critical period
C) modeling in young mammals; adaptation
D) human infantcaregiver attachment; resilience
Answer: B
Page Ref: 23
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
91) The term ____________ applies better to human development than the strict notion of a critical period.
A) resilience
B) discontinuity
C) sensitive period
D) equilibrium
Answer: C
Page Ref: 24
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
92) British psychoanalyst John Bowlby applied ___________ theory to understanding the human caregiverinfant relationship
A) social learning
B) cognitive-developmental
C) ethological
D) sociocultural
Answer: C
Page Ref: 24
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
93) Dr. ODonnell studies why children play in gender-segregated groups and how such play might lead to adult gender-typed behaviors. Dr. ODonnells research is in the realm of
A) cognitive psychology.
B) ecological systems theory.
C) sociocultural theory.
D) evolutionary developmental psychology.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 24
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.6
94) Evolutionary developmental psychologists seek to understand the entire __________ system.
A) ecological
B) socialcultural
C) organismenvironment
D) genetic
Answer: C
Page Ref: 24
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6

95) Lev Vygotskys sociocultural theory focuses on
A) how the values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group are transmitted to the next generation.
B) the child as a developing organism within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
C) the childs mind, body, and physical and social worlds, which form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills.
D) the ways in which evolution and heredity influence behavior and development.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 25
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
96) According to Vygotsky, __________ is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a communitys culture.
A) social interaction
B) reinforcement
C) discipline
D) independence
Answer: A
Page Ref: 25
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
97) Which of the following behaviors is consistent with Vygotskys sociocultural theory?
A) When working on a math assignment, Michelle tries several solutions before arriving at the correct answer.
B) When building a tower with blocks, Ted produces the same guiding comments that his father previously used when helping him build block towers.
C) When his mother takes him to the store, Tom is well-behaved because he knows that he will be rewarded with a lollipop.
D) When playing in her sandbox, Amy builds the same castle that she saw her friend build yesterday.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 25
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.6
98) Vygotskys theory differs from Piagets theory in that Vygotsky
A) believed that children are active, constructive beings.
B) believed that children undergo certain stagewise changes.
C) viewed cognitive development as taking place in universal stages.
D) viewed cognitive development as a socially mediated process.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 25
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
99) Cross-cultural research stimulated by Vygotskys theory reveals that
A) the developmental sequences observed in Western cultures are universal.
B) adults begin to encourage valued skills as soon as children start school.
C) cultures select different tasks for childrens learning.
D) sociocultural theory has little application outside industrialized nations.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 25
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6

100) Among the !Kung, a hunting-and-gathering society living in the desert regions of Botswana, a childs first words generally include words meaning __________ and __________.
A) mine; yours
B) No; Ill do it myself
C) I want it; That belongs to my family
D) Here, take this; Give it to me.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 26 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: !Kung Infancy: Acquiring Culture
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
101) In !Kung society, infants are
A) provided with a diverse range of learning toys.
B) provided with natural objects, such as twigs, grass, stones, and nutshells.
C) encouraged to explore objects independently.
D) discouraged from interacting with nonrelatives.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 26 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: !Kung Infancy: Acquiring Culture
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
102) Urie Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory views the child as
A) a blank slate upon which adults and more experienced peers can write.
B) developing with a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
C) resembling our primate relatives in social behavior and emotional expression.
D) a biological organism with a highly plastic brain, especially open to growth and reorganization as a result of experience.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 26
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
103) In Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory, interactions between a father and his child occur in the
A) mesosystem.
B) microsystem.
C) macrosystem.
D) exosystem.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 27
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
104) As a result of Ginnys dissatisfying interaction with her two defiant teenage sons, Ginny is less patient with her preschoolers attempts at dressing herself. This is an example of __________ influences.
A) third-party
B) bioecological
C) bidirectional
D) mesosystem
Answer: A
Page Ref: 27
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.6

105) In Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory, interactions between parents and teachers occur in the
A) mesosystem.
B) macrosystem.
C) microsystem.
D) exosystem.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 27
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
106) Monas flexible work schedule indirectly enhances her childrens development by allowing her time off for school activities and to care for sick children. This is an example of interactions within the
A) microsystem.
B) mesosystem.
C) exosystem.
D) macrosystem.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 28
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.6
107) Twelve-year-old Ross lives in a country with very low governmental standards for public education. As a result, he is barely literate. The public policies that impact Rosss education are part of the
A) microsystem.
B) mesosystem.
C) macrosystem.
D) exosystem.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 28
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.6
108) An organized family life
A) is linked to economic disadvantage.
B) provides a supportive context for warm, involved parentchild interaction.
C) guarantees high IQ in offspring.
D) can stifle childrens creativity and independence.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 29 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Family Chaos Undermines Childrens Well-Being
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
109) According to ecological systems theory, the priority that the __________ gives to childrens needs affects the support they receive at inner levels of the environment.
A) microsystem
B) mesosystem
C) exosystem
D) macrosystem
Answer: D
Page Ref: 28
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6

110) According to Bronfenbrenner, the environment
A) negatively impacts the breakdown in exosystem activities.
B) is a static force.
C) is an effective substitute for lack of parental involvement.
D) is an ever-changing system.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 28
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
111) Annmaries grades in school have never been affected by her fathers multiple job transfers. However, when the family moves from Michigan to Texas between her sophomore and junior years of high school, Annmaries grades drop significantly. In ecological systems theory, this move represents a change in her
A) chronosystem.
B) mesosystem.
C) microsystem.
D) macrosystem.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 28
Skill: Apply
Objective: 1.6
112) In ecological systems theory, children are
A) primarily influenced by the social transmission of knowledge.
B) controlled by successful imprinting during the early critical period.
C) both products and producers of their environments.
D) driven solely by their inner dispositions.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 28
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
113) Family life survey findings reveal that considering U.S. families as a whole, __________ time with children has __________ over the past three decades.
A) mothers; increased
B) fathers; remained fairly stable
C) mothers; remained fairly stable
D) fathers; increased
Answer: D
Page Ref: 29 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Family Chaos Undermines Childrens Well-Being
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
114) Frequency of __________ is associated with reduced sexual risk taking, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems in adolescence.
A) family meals
B) extracurricular activities
C) peer interaction
D) parental communication
Answer: A
Page Ref: 29 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Family Chaos Undermines Childrens Well-Being
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6

115) According to the dynamic systems perspective, development occurs when
A) behavior is actively reorganized following a change in any part of the childs integrated system.
B) a child internalizes the behaviors of more skilled members of society.
C) a child is in the sensitive period for a particular behavior.
D) disequilibrium is experienced by the child in the home environment.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 30
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
116) Dynamic systems theorists emphasize that
A) children are driven mainly by instincts and unconscious motives.
B) different children master the same skills in unique ways.
C) sensitive periods are key to understanding development.
D) development can be best understood in terms of its adaptive value.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 30
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.6
117) Dynamic system theorists regard development as
A) a single, continuous line.
B) stagewise.
C) a web of fibers branching out in many directions.
D) static.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 30
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.6
118) Both __________ and __________ emphasize discontinuous development.
A) behaviorism; social learning theory
B) Piagets cognitive-developmental theory; the psychoanalytic perspective
C) information processing; Vygotskys sociocultural theory
D) ethology; evolutionary developmental psychology
Answer: B
Page Ref: 32
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.7
119) Which of the following theories emphasizes many possible courses of development?
A) psychoanalytic perspective
B) cognitive-developmental theory
C) information processing
D) social learning theory
Answer: D
Page Ref: 32
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.7

120) Which of the following major theories in child development primarily emphasizes nurture rather than nature as an important influence?
A) the psychoanalytic perspective
B) behaviorism
C) ethology
D) information processing
Answer: B
Page Ref: 32
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.7
121) Both __________ and __________ emphasize nature and nurture.
A) behaviorism; ethology
B) social learning theory; evolutionary developmental psychology
C) sociocultural theory; the dynamic systems perspective
D) behaviorism; ecological systems theory
Answer: C
Page Ref: 32
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.7
122) Public policy research shows that
A) the United States has more public policies safeguarding children than any other developed nation.
B) extreme poverty is no longer a major problem among U.S. families with children.
C) U.S. public policies safeguarding children and youths lag behind policies in other developed nations.
D) the United States has an excellent system in place for guaranteeing high-quality child care to all citizens.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 33
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8
123) Of all Western nations, __________ has the highest percentage of extremely poor children.
A) the United States
B) Canada
C) Denmark
D) Australia
Answer: A
Page Ref: 33
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8
124) __________ is the only industrialized nation without a universal, publicly funded health-care system,
A) Saudi Arabia
B) Japan
C) The United States
D) The United Kingdom
Answer: C
Page Ref: 33
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8

125) Which of the following countries has the highest teenage pregnancy rate?
A) Canada
B) the United States
C) Slovakia
D) Poland
Answer: B
Page Ref: 34
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8
126) One reason Americans have been slow to endorse government-supported benefits for all families is because the
A) people in the United States tend to value interdependence.
B) United States is a relatively wealthy nation.
C) United States is a highly complex society.
D) United States is an individualistic society.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 3435
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.8
127) Which of the following statements is true about collectivist societies?
A) Most Western European countries lean away from collectivism.
B) Collectivism tends to increase as cultures become more complex.
C) Collectivist societies value the interdependent self.
D) People think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own needs.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 35
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.8
128) Research on the importance of early experiences for childrens intellectual development played a major role in the founding of
A) the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
B) the Childrens Defense Fund.
C) Project Head Start.
D) the National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 35
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8
129) In the United States, a family can be on Temporary Aid to Needy Families for _____ continuous months.
A) 24
B) 36
C) 48
D) 60
Answer: A
Page Ref: 36 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Child Development
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8

130) Welfare reform
A) promotes childrens development only when it results in a more adequate standard of living.
B) is beneficial for children and for low-skilled, less-educated single mothers.
C) protects children from the damaging effects of poverty.
D) has been successful, even in families that moved to total reliance on work.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 36 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Child Development
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8
131) Which of the following is one way Great Britain used welfare policies to reduce its child poverty rate by more than half over the past decade?
A) It initiated a minimum wage sufficient to cover a familys basic needs.
B) It instituted a 60-month lifetime cap on welfare benefits.
C) It only allows families to receive welfare benefits for 24 continuous months.
D) It completely eliminated government-funded preschool and child-care subsidies.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 36 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Child Development
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8
132) The field of child development now recognizes that __________ is among the most powerful tools for preventing developmental problems and enhancing childrens quality of life.
A) sound public policy
B) family therapy
C) early IQ testing
D) high-quality child care
Answer: A
Page Ref: 37
Skill: Understand
Objective: 1.8
133) With regard to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United States
A) played no role in drafting the agreement.
B) is one of only two nations in the world whose legislature has not yet ratified it.
C) ratified it in 1989.
D) adopted it as public policy in 2010.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 37
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8
134) Opponents of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
A) maintain that its provisions would shift the burden of child rearing from the family to the state.
B) believe that investing in children yields valuable returns to a nations economy.
C) are mostly located in war-torn nations.
D) argue that it should contain child abuse and neglect protections.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 37
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8

135) The Childrens Defense Fund
A) was founded by James Mark Baldwin.
B) engages in public education, legal action, and community organizing.
C) partners with corporations to enhance the social relevance of child development research.
D) primarily publishes reports on childrens conditions in developing nations.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 37
Skill: Remember
Objective: 1.8
ESSAY
136) Summarize differences between continuous and discontinuous development.
Answer: The continuous view of development holds that infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do. The difference between the immature and the mature being is simply one of amount or complexity. Continuous development is a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with. The discontinuous view of development holds that childrens thoughts, emotions, and behavior differ considerably from those of adults. Discontinuous development is a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times. Children move through a series of developmental steps, each with unique features, until they reach the highest level of functioning. Theories that accept the discontinuous perspective regard development as taking place in stages. In stage theories, development is much like climbing a staircase, with each step corresponding to a more mature, reorganized way of functioning. The stage concept assumes that children undergo periods of rapid transformation as they step up from one stage to the next, alternating with plateaus during which they stand solidly within a stage. In other words, change is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing.
Page Ref: 78
137) Discuss the concepts of stability and plasticity with regard to individual differences among children.
Answer: A theorys position on the roles of nature and nurture affects how it explains individual differences. Some theorists emphasize stabilitythat children who are high or low in a characteristic (such as verbal ability, anxiety, or sociability) will remain so at later ages. These theorists typically stress the importance of heredity. If they regard environment as important, they usually point to early experiences as establishing a lifelong pattern of behavior. Powerful negative events in the first few years, they argue, cannot be fully overcome by later, more positive ones. Other theorists, taking a more optimistic view, see development as having substantial plasticity throughout lifeas open to change in response to influential experiences.
Page Ref: 9
138) Compare and contrast the terms critical period and sensitive period, and discuss how observations of imprinting led to the development of these concepts.
Answer: Watching diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The best known of these is imprinting, the early following behavior of certain baby birds, such as geese, which ensures that the young will stay close to the mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place during an early, restricted time period of development. If the mother goose is absent during this time but an object resembling her in important features is present, young goslings may imprint on it instead.
Lorenzs and Tinbergens observations of imprinting led to the concept of the critical period. It refers to a limited time during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of an appropriately stimulating environment. A sensitive period refers to a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. However, its boundaries are less well defined than those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce. The term sensitive period applies better to human development than the strict notion of a critical period.
Page Ref: 2324

139) Describe Urie Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory.
Answer: According to Bronfenbrenners theory, the child develops within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. Because the childs biologically influenced dispositions join with environmental forces to mold development, Bronfenbrenner characterized his perspective as a bioecological model. Bronfenbrenner envisioned the environment as a series of nested structures that form a complex functioning whole, or system. These include but also extend beyond the home, school, and neighborhood settings in which children spend their everyday lives. Each layer of the environment joins with the others to powerfully affect development. The microsystem concerns relations between the child and the immediate environment, the mesosystem encompasses connections among immediate settings, the exosystem consists of social settings that affect but do not contain the child, and the macrosystem consists of the values, laws, customs, and resources of the culture that affect activities and interactions at all inner layers. The chronosystem refers to the dynamic, ever-changing nature of the persons environment. It is the temporal dimension of his model. Life changes can be imposed on the child. Alternatively, they can arise from within the child, since as children get older they select, modify, and create many of their own settings and experiences.
Page Ref: 2628
140) Describe the dynamic systems perspective of child development.
Answer: According to the dynamic systems perspective, the childs mind, body, and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. The system is dynamic, or constantly in motion. A change in any part of itfrom brain growth to physical and social surroundingsdisrupts the current organismenvironment relationship. When this happens, the child actively reorganizes her behavior so the components of the system work together again but in a more complex, effective way. Researchers adopting a dynamic systems perspective try to find out just how children attain new levels of organization by studying their behavior while they are in transition. Dynamic systems theorists acknowledge that a common human genetic heritage and basic regularities in childrens physical and social worlds yield certain universal, broad outlines of development. But biological makeup, everyday tasks, and the people who support children in mastery of those tasks vary greatly, leading to wide individual differences in specific skills. Even when children master the same skills, such as walking, talking, or adding and subtracting, they often do so in unique ways. And because children build competencies by engaging in real activities in real contexts, different skills vary in maturity within the same child. From this perspective, development cannot be characterized as a single line of change. It is more like a web of fibers branching out in many directions, each representing a different skill area that may undergo both continuous and stagewise transformations.
Page Ref: 30
141) List the three basic issues in child development. What stances do behaviorism and Piagets cognitive-developmental theory take on each of these issues?
Answer: The three basic issues in child development are: (1) Is the course of development continuous or discontinuous? (2) Does one course of development characterize all children, or are there many possible courses? (3) What are the roles of genetic and environmental factorsnature and nurturein development?
Behaviorism views development as continuous. Development involves an increase in learned behaviors. Behaviors reinforced and modeled may vary from child to child. Thus, there are many possible courses of development. Finally, the theory emphasizes nurture. Development results from conditioning and modeling. Both early and later experiences are important. On the other hand, Piagets cognitive-developmental theory views development as discontinuous. Cognitive development takes place in stages. There is one course of development, as stages are assumed to be universal. Both nature and nurture are important. Development occurs as the brain grows and children exercise their innate drive to discover reality in a generally stimulating environment. Both early and later experiences are important.
Page Ref: 7, 32

142) Compare the United States with other industrialized countries on several indicators of child health and well-being. Why have U.S. public policies safeguarding children and youths lagged behind policies in other developed nations?
Answer: American children do not fare well compared to those living in other industrialized countries on a range of childhood social indicators. For example, the United States has high percentages of children living in poverty, infant deaths in the first year of life, and teenage pregnancy rates. The United States has been slow to move toward national standards and funding for child care.
U.S. public policy has lagged behind that of other nations because of the cultural value of individualism, limited social programs, lack of involvement of researchers in the policy-making process, and a public that has been slow to endorse government-supported benefits for all families.
Page Ref: 3336

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