Childhood Voyages in Development 5th Edition by Spencer A. Rathus test Bank

Childhood Voyages in Development  5th Edition by Spencer A. Rathus   test Bank
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Chapter 1History, Theories, and Methods

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. How do we define child?
a. A person undergoing development from infancy to puberty
b. A person undergoing development during the first three years of life
c. There is no agreement on how to define child
d. The period of development prior to the development of complex speech

ANS: A REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Factual

2. How is the definition of child different from that of infant?
a. Infancy is defined as the first two years of life, whereas childhood lasts from birth until puberty
b. Infancy lasts until age 2, whereas childhood lasts until age 5
c. Infancy is defined by a lack of complex speech, whereas childhood is defined as the presence of complex speech
d. The definition of child and infant are the same

ANS: A REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1
DIF: Conceptual

3. The term infancy is derived from Latin roots meaning
a. not walking.
b. not speaking.
c. not eating solid foods.
d. a child younger than age 3.

ANS: B REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Factual

4. Dillon is in the period known as early childhood. His membership in this group is determined by his
a. ability to communicate with others.
b. age.
c. level of social skill.
d. height and weight.

ANS: B REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Factual

5. Whereas early childhood includes the ages from 2 to 5 years, middle childhood can best be defined as the
a. blank slate period.
b. years from 6 to 12.
c. years from 6 to 9.
d. time of greatest gains in height and weight.

ANS: B REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Factual

6. The period of middle childhood is generally defined as the years from 6 to 12. In Western societies, the beginning of this period is usually marked by
a. a childs entry into preschool.
b. a childs entry into first grade.
c. the development of mixed-sex friendship groups.
d. a well-defined sense of self-concept.

ANS: B REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Factual

7. The study of development includes an examination of
a. the process of conception.
b. the prenatal period.
c. the origin of sperm and ova.
d. All of the above

ANS: D REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Factual

8. Development is
a. quantitative change in the individual over time.
b. predictable and consistent for all people.
c. the orderly appearance, over time, of physical structures, psychological traits, and behaviors.
d. qualitative change in the individual over time.

ANS: C REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Factual

9. Kylie first learned to lift her head, then sit up, crawl, stand, and walk. These changes in type and kind of motor development represent
a. qualitative changes.
b. quantitative changes.
c. both qualitative and quantitative changes.
d. neither qualitative nor quantitative changes.

ANS: A REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Applied

10. Sydney is 3 years old. Her height and weight are determined by
a. genetics only.
b. external factors only, such as nutrition.
c. factors such as genetics and nutrition.
d. her level of cognitive and emotional development.

ANS: C REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Applied

11. The terms growth and development are
a. synonymous.
b. opposites.
c. different; growth refers to changes in quality, whereas development refers to changes in quantity.
d. different; growth refers to changes in quantity whereas development refers to changes in quality.

ANS: D REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1
DIF: Conceptual
12. Why do we study child development?
a. To gain insight into the origins of sex differences
b. To help us understand developmental problems
c. To help us ensure optimal conditions of child development
d. All of the above

ANS: D REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Factual

13. Dr. Thomas wants to determine why some children are hyperactive, whereas others are not. Which of the following motives for studying child development does this best represent?
a. To gain insight into the origins of adult behavior
b. To gain insight into sex differences and gender roles and the effects of culture on development
c. To gain insight into the origins, prevention, and treatment of developmental problems
d. All of the above

ANS: C REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Applied

14. According to your textbook, the study of issues such as the effects of daycare programs on childrens social and intellectual development fall under which of the following motives for studying child development?
a. Gaining insight into human nature
b. Gaining insight into sex differences and gender roles
c. Gaining insight into the origins and prevention of developmental problems
d. Optimizing conditions of development

ANS: D REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 1 DIF: Applied

15. In ancient times and in the Middle Ages, children were
a. nurtured until they were 7 years old.
b. perceived as innately good.
c. considered blank slates.
d. protected by laws from harsh treatment.

ANS: A REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 2 DIF: Factual

16. Which thinker suggested that children are born a tabula rasa?
a. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
b. John Locke
c. Alfred Binet
d. Sigmund Freud

ANS: B REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 2 DIF: Factual

17. Which thinker suggested that children are innately good?
a. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
b. John Locke
c. Alfred Binet
d. Sigmund Freud

ANS: A REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 2 DIF: Factual

18. How have children been viewed historically?
a. As innately evil and in need of harsh discipline
b. As miniature adults after age 7, or the age of reason
c. As clean slates changed by experience
d. All of these

ANS: D REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 2 DIF: Factual

19. What changes regarding children did not occur until the 20th century?
a. Viewing children as miniature adults after the age of 7
b. Passing laws to protect children from strenuous labor and caretaker abuse
c. Convicting children of crimes, sending them to monasteries, and marrying them without their consent
d. Viewing children as the property of their parents

ANS: B REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 2 DIF: Factual

20. Charles Darwin is best known as
a. the creator of the theory known as behaviorism.
b. the founder of child development as an academic discipline.
c. the originator of the theory of evolution.
d. the developer of the research method known as the cross-sectional study.

ANS: C REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 2 DIF: Factual

21. Who is credited with founding child development as an academic discipline and used questionnaires to study the contents of childrens minds?
a. John Watson
b. G. Stanley Hall
c. Jean Piaget
d. John Locke

ANS: B REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 2 DIF: Factual

22. Developmentalists seek to
a. describe child development.
b. explain child development.
c. predict child development.
d. All of the above

ANS: D REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 2 DIF: Factual

23. Just four years after Watson proposed his view that children are blank slates, whose ideas, preferences, and skills are shaped by the environment, Gesell came forward with which perspective of child development?
a. Children are inherently evil
b. Children are inherently good
c. Biological maturation was the main principle of development
d. Environment was the main principle of development

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 2
DIF: Conceptual

24. How is theory defined?
a. Testable predictions about an event
b. Related sets of statements about events
c. A feedback process that predicts development
d. A scientific method used to study child development

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

25. Useful theories have which of the following characteristics?
a. They allow us to make predictions
b. They have a wide range of applicability
c. They enable researchers to influence events
d. All of the above

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

26. Who was the originator of psychoanalytic theory?
a. Horney
b. Jung
c. Freud
d. Darwin

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

27. According to psychoanalytic perspectives, children and adults are caught in conflict. Early in development, this conflict takes place between the child and
a. the external world.
b. their internal forces.
c. his/her superego.
d. the fixations the child develops during the psychosexual stages of development.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

28. According to Freud, which aspect of our personality is present at birth and is unconscious?
a. Id
b. Ego
c. Superego
d. Superid

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

29. Freud believed that most of the human mind lay beneath consciousness, similar to a/n
a. volcano.
b. submarine.
c. reflection.
d. iceberg.

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

30. According to Freud, where in consciousness does the psychic structure called the id reside?
a. Preconscious
b. Conscious
c. Unconscious
d. It varies throughout life

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

31. According to Freud, the psychic structure called ego
a. provides rational ways of coping with frustration.
b. is driven by a quest for pleasure.
c. is our moral base that forces us to follow rules.
d. is biologically based and present at birth.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

32. The superego
a. represents the moral standards and values of parents.
b. is innate and transmitted to the child genetically.
c. develops to help the child find rational ways of satisfying urges.
d. None of these

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

33. There is research evidence to support the idea that children who are weaned early or breast-fed too long develop oral fixations such as nail biting or smoking.
a. True
b. False
c. True for men, but not for women
d. False. Instead, the fixation leads to traits such as sloppiness and carelessness.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

34. According to Freud, during the first year of life, children are in the ____ stage of development.
a. oral
b. fixated
c. anal
d. latency

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

35. According to Freud, what causes a child to get fixated in a stage of development?
a. Insufficient gratification
b. Excessive gratification
c. Conflicts in gratification
d. All of the above

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

36. Which of the following persons would be labeled anal-expulsive?
a. Someone who is overly dependent
b. Someone who is very gullible or easily fooled
c. Someone who is orderly and neat
d. Someone who is careless and sloppy

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

37. Conner is 4 years old. He has developed a strong attachment to his mother and sees his father as a rival for her affections. According to Freud, which of the following stages is Connor in?
a. Phallic
b. Latency
c. Genital
d. Fixation

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

38. Which of the following is the correct order of Freuds psychosexual stages?
a. Anal, latency, phallic, oral, genital
b. Oral, latency, anal, phallic, genital
c. Phallic, oral, anal, latency, genital
d. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

39. Children enter the latency stage at 5 or 6 years of age and
a. usually never progress to further stages.
b. generally stay there until puberty.
c. then enter the phallic stage at adulthood.
d. stay there until the anal stage at age eight.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

40. Anna is an eight-year-old girl. Her sexual impulses are suppressed, and she spends her time focused on her schoolwork and developing relationships with same-sex friends. Which of Freuds psychosexual stages is Anna in?
a. Phallic
b. Latency
c. Genital
d. Oral

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

41. Freuds theory
a. has had little impact on modern thought and is not used today.
b. has influenced our ideas about when and how to toilet train children.
c. was praised for being based primarily on adults recollections of their childhoods.
d. None of these

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

42. What aspect(s) of Freuds theory has/have endured over time?
a. His suggestion that behavior is determined and not arbitrary
b. The idea that childhood experiences can have far-reaching effects
c. The idea that our cognitive processes can be distorted to defend us against feelings of anxiety or guilt
d. All of these

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

43. Who suggested that we develop in a healthy fashion by confronting and resolving developmental life crises?
a. Karen Horney
b. Erik Erikson
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Alfred Adler

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

44. Eriksons psychosocial theory deviates from Freuds psychosexual theory in that Erikson
a. emphasized sexual and aggressive instincts.
b. emphasized social relationships and physical maturation.
c. extended Freuds five stages to 10 stages.
d. All of these

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

45. Erikson labeled the stages of his theory based upon
a. chronological age.
b. psychosexual conflicts.
c. life crises.
d. unhealthy patterns of parenting.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

46. According to Erikson, early experiences
a. have no impact on later development.
b. exert a continued influence on later development.
c. are determined by internal struggles and unconscious urges.
d. only predict future development once we reach 6 to 8 years of age.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

47. Elena is a 6-month-old infant. She is leaning to trust her caregivers and her environment. According to Eriksons theory, which stage of psychosocial development is Elena in?
a. Trust vs. mistrust
b. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
c. Initiative vs. guilt
d. Industry vs. inferiority

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

48. What is the second stage of psychosocial development, according to Erikson?
a. Trust vs. mistrust
b. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
c. Initiative vs. guilt
d. Industry vs. inferiority

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

49. According to Erikson, which stage of development occurs between the ages of 3 to 6?
a. Trust vs. mistrust
b. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
c. Initiative vs. guilt
d. Industry vs. inferiority

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

50. Which stage in Eriksons theory involves the development of independence?
a. Trust vs. mistrust
b. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
c. Initiative vs. guilt
d. Industry vs. inferiority

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

51. According to Erikson, what is the primary task of the teenage years?
a. Sexual maturation
b. Gaining metacognitive abilities
c. Developing an identity
d. All of these

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

52. Jeremy is 16 years old. Hes in the process of figuring out not only his future career goals but also his political viewpoints and his perspectives on religion. According to Erikson, which is true about Jeremy?
a. He is in the initiative vs. guilt stage.
b. He has feelings of shame and doubt.
c. He is in the identity vs. role diffusion stage.
d. He is attempting to master his feelings of industry.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

53. Which of the following is considered an advantage of Eriksons theory?
a. It reinstated the importance of unconscious forces in human development.
b. He suggested that childhood experiences could easily be overcome as we develop in our lives.
c. He emphasized the importance of human consciousness and choice.
d. He reminded us that humans are selfish and need to be forced to adhere to social norms.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

54. Zack has been wetting the bed. A special pad is placed under him while he is sleeping. If the pad becomes wet, a circuit closes, causing a bell to ring. After several repetitions, Zack learns to wake up before wetting the pad. Over time, Zack stops wetting the bed altogether. This is an example of the application of what theory to the treatment of bed-wetting?
a. Psychodynamic theory
b. Psychosocial theory
c. Cognitive theory
d. Learning theory

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

55. Applying learning theory when trying to help children overcome behavioral disorders or to cope with adjustment problems is often referred to as
a. psychology of adjustment.
b. behavior modification.
c. classical conditioning.
d. sensitization learning.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

56. Kareem laughs whenever his neck is touched. Now before touching his neck, his mommy says gotcha. Pretty soon, as soon as she says gotcha, Kareem starts to laugh. This is an example of
a. habituation learning.
b. classical conditioning.
c. sensitization learning.
d. operant conditioning.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

57. Kareem laughs whenever his neck is touched. Now before touching his neck, his mommy says gotcha. Pretty soon, as soon as she says gotcha Kareem starts to laugh. In this example, what is the conditioned response?
a. Laughing when his neck is touched
b. Saying gotcha
c. Laughing when he hears gotcha
d. Touching his neck

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

58. Kareem laughs whenever his neck is touched. Now before touching his neck, his mommy says gotcha. Pretty soon, as soon as she says gotcha, Kareem starts to laugh. In this example, what is the unconditioned stimulus?
a. Laughing when his neck is touched
b. Saying gotcha
c. Laughing when he hears gotcha
d. Touching his neck

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

59. Kareem laughs whenever his neck is touched. Now before touching his neck, his mommy says gotcha. Pretty soon, as soon as she says gotcha, Kareem starts to laugh. In this example, what is the unconditioned response?
a. Laughing when his neck is touched
b. Saying gotcha
c. Laughing when he hears gotcha
d. Touching his neck

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

60. Kareem laughs whenever his neck is touched. Now before touching his neck, his mommy says gotcha. Pretty soon, as soon as she says gotcha, Kareem starts to laugh. In this example, what is the conditioned stimulus?
a. Laughing when his neck is touched
b. Saying gotcha
c. Laughing when he hears gotcha
d. Touching his neck

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

61. Which person introduced the concept of reinforcement into behaviorism?
a. Freud
b. Skinner
c. Watson
d. Piaget

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

62. Nathan enjoys riding his bicycle outside. Each day that Nathan cleans up the toys in his room, he gets to ride his bike for an extra 15 minutes that day. The additional bike-riding time
a. is a negative reinforcer.
b. is a positive reinforcer.
c. is a punishment.
d. is an unconditioned response.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

63. With negative reinforcement,
a. you eliminate an unwanted behavior by administering something bad.
b. you decrease an unwanted behavior by withholding something desired.
c. you increase a desired behavior by taking away something unpleasant.
d. negative reinforcement is the same as punishment.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

64. In the classic study by psychologist Harriet Rheingold, extinction of infant vocalizations occurred when the researcher
a. provided encouraging sounds, smiles, and touches.
b. passively observed each infant.
c. used punishment.
d. provided a negative reinforce.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

65. When Tomas teases his younger brother, his parents make Tomas sit in a corner for long periods of time. From what you have learned from the textbook about punishment, what is the likely outcome?
a. It will increase the frequency of Tomas teasing his brother.
b. It will teach Tomas new ways to interact with his brother.
c. Tomass parents should punish him by spanking, as it is proven to work best.
d. Tomas may learn to tease his brother only when his parents are not around.

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

66. Chriss mother offers to give him a cookie, but only if he doesnt throw a temper tantrum in the grocery store. What concept of operant conditioning is at work here?
a. Positive reinforcement
b. Negative reinforcement
c. Extinction
d. Conditioned stimulus and conditioned response

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

67. Timothy, who is 4 years old, is taking a soccer class. His parents are highly critical of his soccer skills and regularly scold him for not making more goals. Research suggests which of the following?
a. The scolding is a neutral stimulus
b. The scolding may result in Timothys withdrawal from wanting to play soccer
c. The scolding helps Timothy understand how to improve his soccer skills
d. All of these

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

68. The concept of shaping suggests
a. we can teach complex behaviors by reinforcing small steps toward behavioral goals.
b. children will behave the way they behave regardless of parental intervention.
c. children learn through observation only.
d. children will engage in more disruptive behaviors if you ignore them.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

69. Tamika is learning how to tie her shoes. Her father praises her for crossing the shoelaces. Then, he praises her again as she learns to form one end into a loop. Slowly, Tamika learns how to tie a bow with the laces. This reinforcing of small steps toward a desired behavior is called
a. negative reinforcement.
b. extinction.
c. conditioned response.
d. shaping.

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

70. What appears to be the most effective way for teachers to increase appropriate behaviors and decrease disruptive behaviors in their students?
a. Be very firm and harsh in response to disruption
b. Do not reinforce the positive but be sure to punish the negative
c. Reinforce appropriate behaviors and ignore misbehavior
d. None of these

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

71. Which of the following is an example of time out from positive reinforcement?
a. Placing the child in a time out seat at the front of the classroom
b. Punishing the child by making him write sentences on the board
c. Refusing to put stars and fun stickers on improperly completed homework
d. Placing the child away from peers for a time with no reinforcement

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

72. When her daughter misbehaves, Olivia has her daughter sit quietly by herself for a few minutes without being allowed to play with other children or toys. What else should Olivia do to ensure that the time out is effective in reducing her daughters unwanted behavior?
a. She should warn her daughter that a time out would occur if misbehavior continues
b. She should also use punishment to make the time out more effective
c. She should not tell her daughter how long the time out will last
d. She should not remind her daughter why the time out is occurring

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

73. Social cognitive theorists, such as Albert Bandura, suggest that
a. children do not learn by use of such principles as reinforcement and punishment.
b. children do not learn unless they are given hands-on practice with what is to be learned.
c. children learn much of what they learn through observation of others.
d. None of these

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

74. Is it possible for skills a child has learned to remain latent or unused?
a. No, if they dont use it, they lose it.
b. Yes, they may only use it when it is needed.
c. No, learning is an active, not a passive process.
d. Yes, but only for motor skills such as jumping rope or playing basketball.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

75. Albert Bandura would agree with which statement?
a. A child can learn how to use crayons by watching others use crayons.
b. The bell-and-pad method for bed-wetting is a social-cognitive approach.
c. Children react mechanically to stimuli.
d. People are driven by motives such as sex and aggression.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

76. According to Bandura,
a. children choose whether or not to show new behaviors they have learned.
b. children can only learn by doing.
c. children will not imitate the behavior of others unless they are rewarded for doing so.
d. children are passive recipients of knowledge.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

77. Which of the following represents observational learning?
a. Jonathan jumps when he hears loud thunder.
b. Antony isnt given any dessert because he didnt eat his green vegetables at dinner.
c. Gina watches her mother mow the grass and then she pushes her toy lawnmower around the lawn in a similar way.
d. Sara stops having temper tantrums in public when her father begins ignoring them.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

78. Brian wanted to learn how to play lacrosse. He chose to sign up for classes. The more he paid attention to his coaches, the better his skills became. People commented on how gifted a lacrosse player he was. As a result, he now thinks of himself as an excellent player. This example best illustrates
a. classical conditioning.
b. the conflict between the id and the superego.
c. positive reinforcement.
d. assimilation and accommodation.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

79. Piaget is known for developing
a. psychosexual stages.
b. psychosocial stages.
c. operant conditioning.
d. cognitive developmental theory.

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

80. In his research, Piaget became fascinated by the wrong answers children gave to items on intelligence tests. These wrong answers reflected
a. inconsistent but logical mental processes.
b. consistent but logical processes.
c. inconsistent but illogical processes.
d. consistent but illogical processes.

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

81. Which of the following is a cognitive theorist MOST likely to study?
a. How children confront and resolve developmental crises in their lives
b. How id, ego, and superego work together to form a healthy personality
c. How patterns of reinforcement and punishment promote learning
d. How children perceive and mentally represent the world

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Conceptual

82. From his work at the Binet Institute in Paris, Piaget concluded that
a. childrens incorrect answers resulted from inconsistent cognitive processing.
b. only their correct answers demonstrated what children were thinking.
c. childrens incorrect answers followed consistent cognitive processes.
d. there was nothing to learn about cognitive processes from childrens incorrect answers.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

83. Piaget saw children as
a. budding scientists.
b. ignorant blank slates.
c. at the mercy of instinctive impulses.
d. passive vessels waiting to be filled with knowledge.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

84. According to Piaget, which of the following represents a scheme for infants?
a. Things I can put in my mouth
b. Things I can grab
c. Things I can see from my crib
d. All of these

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

85. If Kaylees scheme of things I am good at changes, according to Piaget, how did this happen?
a. Through assimilation
b. Through accommodation
c. By comparing new information to existing schemes
d. All of these

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

86. Which word is not associated with Piagets cognitive developmental theory?
a. Sensorimotor
b. Operations
c. Equilibration
d. Scaffolding

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

87. Schemes serve
a. as action patterns that serve to guide behavior.
b. to limit our ability to learn about and to represent our world mentally.
c. to guarantee that information processing will be unique and individualized.
d. to restrict our understanding of the world.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

88. Infants
a. do not have schemes.
b. are incapable of cognition.
c. have schemes that involve simply what they can and cannot do with objects.
d. are entirely dependent upon reflexes for survival.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

89. Piaget called a biological tendency to interact with and respond to the environment
a. adaptation.
b. accommodation.
c. assimilation.
d. referencing.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

90. Assimilation is
a. learned.
b. acquired.
c. unusual.
d. biological.

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

91. Baby Tyrese has an understanding of things he can reach, such as a toy in his crib, and things he cant reach, such as the mobile hanging above his crib. According to Piaget, what are these cognitive structures called?
a. Theories
b. Schemes
c. Assimilation categories
d. Accommodation categories

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

92. Quinn is 3 years old. He is unable to focus on two aspects of a situation at once. According to Piaget, this indicates that Quinn lacks conservation skills. What developmental stage is Quinn in?
a. Sensorimotor
b. Concrete operations
c. Preoperational
d. Formal operations

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

93. Which of Piagets stages is characterized by deductive logic, mental trial-and-error, and hypothesis testing?
a. Preoperational
b. Concrete operational
c. Formal operational
d. Advanced adult operational

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

94. Cynthias mother gives her an apple each day and tells her that apples are fruit. However, one day, Cynthias mother gives her an orange. She tells Cynthia this is also fruit. What happens to Cynthias scheme of fruit?
a. She assimilates the new information about oranges into the existing scheme.
b. She ignores the new information about oranges.
c. She accommodates the information so that her scheme now includes apples and oranges.
d. She eliminates the concept of apple and now her scheme of fruit only contains oranges.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

95. When it comes to learning new things, children will
a. first attempt to accommodate.
b. ignore new information.
c. first attempt to assimilate.
d. abandon use of schemas.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

96. What happens when a child attempts to assimilate new information and cannot?
a. The child will ignore the contradiction at all costs
b. The child may accommodate to restore equilibrium
c. The child will simply accept the incongruity and move on
d. None of these

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

97. Drew has a pet dog. His sister, Amelia, has a pet cat. So, Drews scheme of things that are pets includes both dogs and cats. However, he visits a friend who has a pet parrot. This parrot does not fit into Drews existing scheme. So, he accommodates this information. Now his things that are pets scheme includes birds as well. This restoring of cognitive balance is called
a. assimilation.
b. shaping of schemes.
c. equilibration.
d. cognitive dissonance.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

98. Which of the following is not a stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget?
a. Hypothetical
b. Sensorimotor
c. Concrete operational
d. Preoperational

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

99. According to Piaget,
a. intelligence is genetic and unfolds through maturation with the passage of time.
b. cognition is a simple process that is innate and becomes stronger with experience and time.
c. cognitive developments are based upon childrens interactions with the environment.
d. None of these

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

100. Piaget believed that
a. development is haphazard, random, and based upon experience.
b. cognitive developments are stage-based and universal.
c. children learn in different sequences based upon their environments.
d. perception is too directly linked to sensation to separate the two.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

101. Piaget suggested
a. that cognitive development is orderly and predictable.
b. that all children progress through the same sequential stages of development.
c. that development at one stage is made possible by development in a preceding stage.
d. All of these

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

102. Applying Piagets theory to educational settings would involve
a. looking at the childs ability to repress his/her aggressive tendencies.
b. gearing instruction to the childs developmental level.
c. assisting children in completing problems in workbooks.
d. realizing that children of all ages process information similarly.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

103. Would Piaget agree with the statement, Children vary in the order in which they go through cognitive developmental stages and if a child does not succeed in one stage, that child can still succeed in future stages?
a. Yes, Piaget would agree.
b. No, Piaget would not agree.
c. Piaget would agree and hed also add that cognitive development is unpredictable.
d. Piaget is a behaviorist, not a cognitive developmental theorist.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

104. The information-processing perspective was influenced by which of the following inventions?
a. Steam engine
b. Airplane
c. Telephone
d. Computer

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

105. According to information-processing theorists, knowing your birth date is information stored where?
a. Long-term memory
b. RAM
c. Working memory
d. Superego

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

106. The information-processing perspective refers to peoples strategies for problem solving as
a. input.
b. hardware.
c. software.
d. RAM

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

107. Dr. Flynn studies childrens thought processes. She asks research questions regarding the size of a childs short-term memory and how many programs the child can run simultaneously. Dr. Flynns research is representative of which type of theoretical orientation?
a. Biological
b. Cognitive developmental
c. Behavioral
d. Information processing

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

108. What is the scope of the biological perspective?
a. It deals with the ways in which children encode information.
b. It examines how children learn to act by observing models.
c. It views children as going through stages of psychosexual development.
d. It refers to heredity, maturation of the nervous system, and the effects of hormones.

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

109. Ethology is an example of
a. a biologically-oriented theory of development.
b. a strict information processing approach to studying development.
c. a stage theory for studying cognitive development.
d. a behaviorist method for studying behavior.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

110. Birds raised in isolation sing the songs typical of their species. For ethologists, this speaks to the influence of
a. evolution.
b. environment.
c. learning.
d. reinforcements.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

111. Which of the following researchers was an ethologist?
a. Freud
b. Lorenz
c. Piaget
d. Bandura

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

112. According to the theory of ethology, built-in or instinctive behaviors can also be called
a. phenotypic.
b. nurture.
c. fixed action patterns.
d. releasing stimuli.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

113. Birds reared in isolation have been known to build nests, even if they have never seen another bird building a nest, or a nest itself. These built-in, instinctive behaviors are referred to by ethologists as
a. fixed action patterns.
b. learned behavioral tendencies.
c. survival mechanisms.
d. reflexes.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

114. Which of the following terms or phrases is not associated with ethological theory?
a. Critical period
b. Development is discontinuous
c. Imprinting
d. RAM

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

115. According to Urie Bronfenbrenner,
a. who you are at birth is who you are throughout life.
b. there are reciprocal interactions that influence child development.
c. unconscious conflicts and urges primarily influence child development.
d. interactions with parents determine what kind of adult a child becomes.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

116. Which of the following is the correct order of Bronfenbrenners five systems, going from narrowest (closest to the child) to widest (furthest away from the child)?
a. Microsystem, exosystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
b. Mesosystem, microsystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
c. Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
d. Macrosystem, exosystem, microsystem, chronosystem, mesosystem

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

117. Which of the following represents a microsystem?
a. The childs home
b. The interaction between a childs home and school
c. The school board
d. The childs culture

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

118. When a parent and teacher meet to develop an individualized education plan for a child, the home and school systems are interacting. According to Bronfenbrenner, this represents the
a. mesosystem.
b. exosystem.
c. microsystem.
d. macrosystem.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied
119. Ginas mother is a vice president at a large company. Her work requires long hours at the office. As a result, Ginas mom does not always make it to her basketball games. Her mothers workplace represents which type of system for Gina?
a. Mesosystem
b. Exosystem
c. Microsystem
d. Macrosystem

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

120. When researchers study the effects of events, such as wars or economic depressions, on children over time, which of Bronfenbrenners systems is being examined?
a. Mesosystem
b. Exosystem
c. Macrosystem
d. Chronosystem

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

121. What is valuable about ecological theory?
a. It looks for unconscious motives of behavior.
b. It emphasizes the impact of genetic determinants.
c. It makes researchers aware of the multiple systems that impact children.
d. It clearly delineates the overarching importance of reinforcement and punishment.

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

122. Which theorist developed the concept of the zone of proximal development?
a. Freud
b. Erikson
c. Bronfenbrenner
d. Vygotsky

ANS: D REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

123. Sociocultural theory
a. illuminates the interplay between genetics and development.
b. addresses the impact of diverse systems on children.
c. explores the importance of the unconscious on child development.
d. None of these

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Factual

124. Vygotsky suggests that
a. a childs interactions with adults organize the childs learning experiences.
b. children learn only through a complex interaction of rewards and punishments.
c. children are like miniature adults and need to be nurtured to obtain cognitive skills.
d. factors such as ethnicity and gender do not play an important role in development.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3
DIF: Conceptual

125. Omar can tie his shoes, but only with his mothers help. This suggests that tying shoes
a. is beyond Omars scope of capability.
b. is within Omars zone of proximal development.
c. is an innate process that simply needs nurturing to unfold.
d. is too difficult for a child his age and should not be attempted.

ANS: B REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

126. Which of the following is an example of scaffolding?
a. Tying a childs shoes for him
b. A child reading a book on her own
c. Using flash cards to learn math until the child can calculate the answer in her head
d. None of the above

ANS: C REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

127. Alyssa goes to a Montessori school in which there are children ranging in age from 3 to 6 in her class. The older children assist the younger ones in their learning of basic concepts and skills. This idea, that older individuals can assist younger ones in their learning, is best exemplified in which persons theory?
a. Vygotsky
b. Bronfenbrenner
c. Lorenz
d. Skinner

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

128. In the study of children, when we take into account factors such as racial and ethnic background, gender, socio-economic status, and sexual orientation, we are
a. considering their diversity.
b. examining biological factors that influence their behavior.
c. looking at specific factors in the childs exosystem.
d. examining the role of positive reinforcement in their behavior.

ANS: A REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3 DIF: Applied

129. The nature/nurture debate considers
a. why genes are more influential in development than environment.
b. why the environment is more important in development than evolution.
c. the relationship(s) between genetics, environment, and human development.
d. All of these

ANS: C REF: Controversies in Child Development OBJ: 4
DIF: Conceptual

130. Is development continuous or discontinuous?
a. Continuous
b. Discontinuous
c. The answer to this is not known
d. Both; it may depend upon what aspect of development is being studied

ANS: D REF: Controversies in Child Development OBJ: 4
DIF: Factual
131. Which theorist would answer the active-passive question in child development by suggesting the concept of reciprocal determinism?
a. Freud
b. Bronfenbrenner
c. Bandura
d. Piaget

ANS: B REF: Controversies in Child Development OBJ: 4
DIF: Applied

132. A hypothesis is
a. a testable statement.
b. a theory.
c. a research method.
d. an experiment.

ANS: A REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Factual

133. Dr. Martinez wants to know which exhibits children prefer at the new Childrens Museum. To find out, she unobtrusively observes them to see which exhibits they choose to visit most and at which ones they spend the most time. Which type of research method does this represent?
a. Naturalistic observation
b. The case study method
c. A longitudinal study
d. A standardized test

ANS: A REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

134. Dr. Meyers has intensely studied a child born with severe autism for five years. This represents
a. an experiment.
b. a correlational design.
c. a cross-lagged method.
d. a case study.

ANS: D REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

135. The University of Michigans Monitoring the Future research group has been surveying 6,000 different students a year for nearly 40 years. What type of research design is this?
a. An experiment
b. A longitudinal study
c. A cross-sectional study
d. A case study

ANS: C REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

136. Which correlation would be considered the weakest, or least strong?
a. +.65
b. +.70
c. -.20
d. +.45

ANS: C REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

137. A researcher found that the more hours college students spend in the library, the higher their grades. This represents
a. a fact of life for college students.
b. a negative correlation.
c. a positive correlation.
d. a case study.

ANS: C REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

138. Dr. Simmons has found a strong positive correlation between watching violent cartoons on TV and childrens levels of aggression towards others. What can be concluded from this research?
a. Violent TV causes aggressive behavior in children
b. Aggressive behavior causes children to watch more violent TV
c. Violent TV viewing and aggressive behavior are unrelated
d. None of the above

ANS: D REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

139. Dr. Turner forms the hypothesis that ingesting caffeine prior to an exam will improve exam performance. She gives half of her participants coffee and the other water. She then gives the participants an exam. In this experiment, what is the experimental group?
a. The group that drinks water
b. The performance on the exam
c. The group that has coffee
d. There is no experimental group as this is a case study

ANS: C REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

140. Dr. Yates forms the hypothesis that students who sleep more prior to taking an exam will score higher on the exam than students who sleep less. Half of the students sleep eight to nine hours the night before the exam. The other half sleep only four to five hours the night before the test. She then gives the participants an exam. In this experiment, what is the dependent variable?
a. The group that sleeps eight to nine hours
b. The performance on the exam
c. The group that sleeps four to five hours
d. Whether they slept four to five or eight or nine hours

ANS: B REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

141. Dr. Allen forms the hypothesis that students will score higher on take-home exams than they will on in-class exams. In this experiment, what is the best way to divide the participants into groups?
a. Have the participants choose which type of exam they want to take
b. How the groups are formed doesnt matter
c. Have all males in one group and all females in the other
d. Use random assignment

ANS: D REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

142. Which of the following methods involves studying development over time?
a. A longitudinal study
b. An experiment
c. A cross-sectional study
d. None of these

ANS: A REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Factual

143. Dr. Klein wants to investigate the long-term effects of antidepressants in children. To do so, she randomly selects a group of subjects and follows them across five years. What type of study is this?
a. Naturalistic
b. Cross-sequential
c. Cross-sectional
d. Longitudinal

ANS: D REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

144. Suppose you wished to conduct a cross-sequential study on childrens gender roles across a period of six years. Which method would you use?
a. Follow one group of children, assessing their gender roles across six years
b. Conduct detailed interviews of one child across six years
c. Obtain a sample of 3-year-olds and of 6-year-olds and assess them for three years
d. Visit a daycare center and observe which toys children choose to play with at different ages

ANS: C REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5 DIF: Applied

145. Four-year-old Shaunda took part in a research study that investigated the effects of fruit juice consumption on obesity in children. When the study was published in a research journal, Shaundas name was used in the article. Which guideline of ethical research involving children was violated?
a. Parental participation was not obtained
b. Identities of children are to remain confidential
c. Children and parents must be informed of the purposes of the research
d. The researchers did not get proper approval for conducting the study

ANS: B REF: Ethical Considerations OBJ: 6 DIF: Applied

146. Little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of
a. John Watson.
b. a laboratory rat.
c. the fur collar on a womans coat.
d. the laboratory setting.

ANS: B REF: Ethical Considerations OBJ: 6 DIF: Applied

147. Informing participants about the results of a study is called
a. debriefing.
b. counterconditioning.
c. voluntary consent.
d. informed consent.

ANS: A REF: Ethical Considerations OBJ: 6 DIF: Factual

MATCHING

Match the following:
a. people distinguished by cultural heritage k. relationships between living organisms and their environment
b. distinct periods which occur in an orderly sequence l. begins in the third year of life
c. theory of psychosocial development m. quantities that can vary
d. the building blocks of heredity n. decreases undesired behavior
e. subjects who do not receive treatment o. create a new schema
f. stimulus, response, consequence p. cross-cultural studies
g. similar behavior in same-age peers q. increases desired behavior
h. first year of life r. Pavlov
i. number ranging from +1.00 to 1.00 s. study of how behaviors specific to a species help them adapt
j. standardized intelligence test t. tabula rasa

1. Variables
2. Oral stage

3. Operant conditioning

4. John Locke

5. Correlation coefficient

6. Macrosystem

7. Genes

8. Accommodation

9. Stage theory

10. Punishment

11. Control group

12. Phallic stage

13. Ethnic groups

14. Classical conditioning

15. Binet

16. Ethology

17. Cohort effect

18. Negative reinforcer

19. Ecology

20. Erikson

1. ANS: M

2. ANS: H

3. ANS: F

4. ANS: T

5. ANS: I

6. ANS: P

7. ANS: D

8. ANS: O

9. ANS: B

10. ANS: N

11. ANS: E

12. ANS: L

13. ANS: A

14. ANS: R

15. ANS: J

16. ANS: S

17. ANS: G

18. ANS: Q

19. ANS: K

20. ANS: C

TRUE/FALSE

1. The terms growth and development are synonymous.

ANS: F REF: What Is Child Development? OBJ: 3

2. John B. Watsons theory emphasizes libidinal energy and erogenous zones.

ANS: F REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3

3. Theories are related statements about events.

ANS: T REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3

4. Freud felt insufficient or excessive gratification in a stage of development would lead to developmental problems.

ANS: T REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3

5. According to Erikson, successful resolution of early life crises sets the stage for positive resolution of later crises.

ANS: T REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3

6. The first stage of psychosocial development is trust vs. mistrust.

ANS: T REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3

7. A conditioned stimulus is one that occurs without prior learning.

ANS: F REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3

8. Negative reinforcement will increase a desired behavior when removed.

ANS: T REF: Theories of Child Development OBJ: 3

9. The study of the influence of genes on development is the study of nature (heredity) as opposed to nurture (environment).

ANS: T REF: Controversies in Development OBJ: 4

10. According to the textbook, the development of language is due entirely to biology (nature).

ANS: F REF: Controversies in Development OBJ: 4

11. Theorists who believe that a number of rapid, successive changes bring about development adhere to the belief that development is continuous.

ANS: F REF: Controversies in Development OBJ: 4

12. Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget are stage theorists.

ANS: T REF: Controversies in Development OBJ: 4

13. The first step in the scientific method is testing the hypothesis.

ANS: F REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5

14. In naturalistic observation studies, the researcher tries to change or alter the environment they are observing.

ANS: F REF: How Do We Study Development? OBJ: 5

15. Once agreeing to participate in a study, parents and children must remain in the study until it is over.

ANS: F REF: Ethical Considerations OBJ: 6

SHORT ANSWER

1. Why do we study child development?

ANS:
Researchers study child development for many reasons. For some, it is simply because they are curious to understand children and because the study of development is fun. But there are other reasons to study child development as well, such as hoping to gain insight into human nature. For example, are children essentially aggressive or loving? We study development to help us determine the basis of adult behaviors. We might also want to discover whether sex differences between women and men exist and how sex roles develop in children over time. We also study child development to help us understand the origins, prevention and treatment of developmental problems. For example, why are some children hyperactive and others are not? Is there any way to prevent hyperactivity in children? What are effective treatment options for hyperactive children? Finally, we study child development so that we may optimize the conditions of development. In other words, we use our research findings to help ensure that children grow up in the healthiest environments possible.

OBJ: 1

2. Describe the history of child development.

ANS:
There have been differing views of children throughout history. Early views considered children to be evil and in need of harsh and persistent discipline. Other views looked upon children as miniature adults who simply needed to grow. Advocates of this view, of course, would support putting children to work as soon as they were big enough to do the work. Others looked at childhood as a time of goodness or even blankness, making the child ready to experience the world and become whatever the environment destined the child to become. John Locke, for example, believed that children were born a tabula rasa or clean slate. They were not born with inborn predispositions. This meant they were born ready to become anything. If the environment and their caregiving were positive, they would become positive adults and do important things. If the environment and their caregiving were negative, they were destined to wither and be less productive adults. This idea, of course, can be seen in statements of behavioral psychologists such as John Watson.

OBJ: 2

3. Briefly describe the major theories of child development.

ANS:
Behaviorism suggests that children are like clay, ready to be molded. It is primarily parents, through patterns of reinforcement and punishment, who are thought to provide this molding. The psychoanalytic theories view children as caught in a series of conflicts. For Freud, those conflicts are between childrens urges and the constraints of society. For Erikson, they are crises such as trust vs. mistrust that influence whether children will develop in a healthy fashion and be positively prepared for the next crisis. Social cognitive theorists focus on what children learn by observing others such as parents, teachers, and other children. In addition, these theories attempt to explain the complex relationships between child behavior, cognitive characteristics, and the environment. The cognitive perspective became well known through the work of Jean Piaget. Piaget believed that childhood mistakes reflected as much or more about childrens logic than their lack of knowledge. He proposed a well-developed stage theory of cognitive development that showed how the childs increasing ability to create internal mental representations of the world was linked to his/her cognitive development. Theorists operating from the biological perspective look at maturation (the predetermined and orderly unfolding of abilities). Ethology examines instinctive or inborn behavior patterns. The ecological perspective examines the relationships between living organisms and their environments. Bronfenbrenner is a well-known ecologist. According to him, human development must be considered within the context of five intertwined systems: (1) microsystem such as home or school, (2) mesosystem such as how parents and school interact, (3) exosystem such as the school board with which the child does not directly interact but is still affected, (4) macrosystems such as ones culture and (5) chronosystem the impact of events across time as well as the effects of sociohistorical time on child development. The sociocultural perspective attempts to answer the question How much and what aspects of our development is influenced or determined by culture?

OBJ: 3

4. Describe the controversies in child development.

ANS:
The main controversies are (1) nature vs. nurture, (2) continuity vs. discontinuity, and (3) active vs. passive. The nature vs. nurture controversy is not as much a controversy as it is a debate. The issue is to delineate how much and what aspects of development are due to genetic influences and which are due to environmental influences. The issue of continuity or discontinuity concerns the orderliness and linearity of child development. Continuity theories assume that development is steady, gradual, stage-like, and sequential. Discontinuity theories stress individual differences in development and that development involves both gains and losses. The active vs. passive controversy focuses on how big a role the child plays in her own development. Theorists, such as Freud, seemed to think that development was something that happened to children (passive) while Piaget stressed the active role children take in their own cognitive development.

OBJ: 4

5. Discuss the research methods used to study child development.

ANS:
We study child development in a scientific manner. The goals of studying child development are (1) description, (2) prediction, (3) control, and (4) explanation. From observation, researchers may generate theories about why development might occur in certain ways. Hypotheses may be generated that are specific testable predictions that can then be used to formulate experiments and conduct research. Children may be studied using naturalistic observation. You might, for example, watch children at a daycare center and document gender differences in amount and type of aggressive behaviors. Experiments may be conducted if ethical and not harmful to children. Children may be randomly assigned to groups and comparisons made. Lets say you have the hypothesis that giving rewards for good behavior will increase those behaviors. You randomly assign 10 children to a reward group (the experimental group) and 10 to a non-reward group (the control group). You complete the first phase of the study by comparing the number of positive behaviors elicited by each child (this establishes that your groups are comparable in the number of positive behaviors elicited). During the second phase of the study, you reward the positive behaviors of the children in the reward group and not in the control group. During the third phase of the study, you count the number of positive behaviors elicited by the children in each group and then make comparisons. If the children in the reward group are engaging in more positive behaviors than those in the control group, you might conclude that this is due to the presence of the reward in one group and the absence of reward in the other group. Aside from experiments, other methods of doing research include the case study, in which one particular individual is studied intensively over time. Groups of individuals may be studied at one point in time, such as in a cross-sectional study, or data may be gathered across years, such as in a longitudinal study.

OBJ: 5

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