Children 12th Edition by John Santrock Test bank

Children  12th Edition by John Santrock  Test bank
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Book Title: Children, 12e
Author: John Santrock
Chapter Fifteen: Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Learning Goals

1. Discuss different approaches to adolescent cognition.
2. Describe adolescents values, moral education, and religion.
3. Characterize schools for adolescents.
4. Summarize career development in adolescence.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. In the _____ stage individuals are no longer limited to actual experiences as anchors
for thought.
A. sensorimotor
B. preoperational
C. concrete operational
D. formal operational
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Formal operational thought is more abstract than concrete operational
thought. Adolescents are no longer limited to actual experiences as anchors
for thought.

2. The formal operational period is characterized by:
A. animistic reasoning.
B. coordination of perception and action.
C. logical reasoning about the world as reality.
D. abstract thinking.
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Formal operational thought is more abstract than concrete operational
thought.

3. According to Jean Piagets theory, people going into adolescence are entering which stage?
A. Sensorimotor
B. Preoperational
C. Concrete operational
D. Formal operational
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 456
Explanation: According to Piaget, the concrete operational stage lasts until the child is about 11 years old, when the fourth and final stage of cognitive development begins, the formal operational stage.

4. Children are likely to solve problems _____, whereas adolescents begin to solve problems _____.
A. idealistically; through inductive reasoning
B. through trial and error; systematically
C. by thinking them through carefully; by guessing
D. using heuristics; using past experience
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Children are likely to solve problems through trial-and-error; adolescents begin to think more as a scientist thinks, devising plans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions.

5. What if the sun were to explode? asked Arleneene. But it never has, replied Karlevin. But what if it did? insisted Arlene. But it never has! You worry too much about all those what-ifs, said Karl. In this example, Arlene is exhibiting _____ thought, while Karl is showing _____ thought.
A. abstract; concrete
B. concrete; abstract
C. abnormal; idealistic
D. deductive; inductive
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Hard
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 457
Explanation: Adolescents are no longer limited to actual experiences as anchors for thought. They can conjure up make-believe situations, events that are purely hypothetical possibilities or abstract propositions and can try to reason logically about them.

6. Which of the following statements is true about adolescents?
A. They usually solve problems through trial and error.
B. They are limited to actual experiences as anchors for thought.
C. They need to see the concrete elements A, B, and C to be able to make the logical inference that, if A = B and B = C, then A = C.
D. They have an increased tendency to think about thought itself.
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: An indication of the abstract quality of adolescents thought is their increased tendency to think about thought itself.

7. Idealistic beliefs about possibilities that can change the world for the better are characteristic of the _____ stage of cognitive development.
A. sensorimotor
B. preoperational
C. concrete operations
D. formal operations
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Page: 457
Explanation: Accompanying the abstract nature of formal operational thought is thought full of idealism and possibilities, especially during the beginning of the formal operational stage, when assimilation dominates. Adolescents engage in extended speculation about ideal characteristicsqualities they desire in themselves and in others.

8. During formal operational stage, _____ dominates.
A. trial-and-error problem solving
B. egocentrism
C. assimilation
D. pragmatism
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Accompanying the abstract nature of formal operational thought is thought full of idealism and possibilities, especially during the beginning of the formal operational stage, when assimilation dominates.

9. Which of the following statements is true about Piagets formal operational stage?
A. This stage is characterized by the ability to reason logically about specific or concrete examples.
B. This stage is characterized by the ability to classify things into different sets or subsets.
C. This stage is characterized by the ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions.
D. This stage is characterized by the ability to create a hypothesis and deduce its implications.
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Adolescents think more abstractly and idealistically, they also
think more logically about abstract concepts.

10. According to Jean Piaget, adolescents differ from younger children in that younger children will have significant difficulty in:
A. solving problems through trial-and-error.
B. differentiating between thoughts and reality.
C. dealing with concrete experiences.
D. creating and testing hypotheses.
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Children are likely to solve problems through trial-and-error; adolescents begin to think more as a scientist thinks, devising plans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions. This type of problem solving requires hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Such reasoning involves creating a hypothesis and deducing its implications, which provide ways to test the hypothesis.

11. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning enables adolescents to:
A. indulge in idealistic thinking.
B. plan and systematically test alternatives.
C. overcome adolescent egocentrism in their thinking.
D. speculate about ideal characteristics they desire in themselves and in others.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Hypothetical-deductive reasoning refers to Piagets formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems.

12. Khloe has not been getting along with her best friend. She writes down all the difficulties they have been having and tries to generate possible reasons for them. She then considers what she can do to deal with the problems, weighing the pros and cons of each possibility. Khloe is using which of the following to solve her problem?
A. Idealistic scenario reasoning
B. Concrete operational reasoning
C. Adolescent-egocentric reasoning
D. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Hard
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 457
Explanation: Hypothetical-deductive reasoning refers to Piagets formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems.

13. Which of the following is an example of hypothetical-deductive reasoning?
A. Andrew draws his family tree and is able to understand that his mother is also a daughter, a sister, and a wife at the same time.
B. Paula solves an algebraic problem by making plans to solve the problem and systematically testing each solution.
C. Ann resolves a fight with her friend by offering a compromise, an approach that had always worked in the past.
D. Viola learns how to play the piano by observing her mother closely while she plays the instrument, and then practising by herself.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 457
Explanation: Hypothetical-deductive reasoning refers to Piagets formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems.

14. According to Piaget, hypothetical-deductive reasoning abilities develop in _____ stage.
A. sensorimotor
B. preoperational
C. formal operations
D. concrete operations
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Formal operational thought is more abstract than concrete operational thought. Adolescents are no longer limited to actual experiences as anchors for thought. They can conjure up make-believe situations, events that are purely hypothetical possibilities or abstract propositions and can try to reason logically about them.

15. John, an adolescent, was thinking about how animals think. Then he started thinking about why he was thinking about how animals think. Which of the following characteristics of formal operational stage is John displaying in this example?
A. abstract thought
B. concrete thought
C. critical thought
D. egocentric thought
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 457
Explanation: An indication of the abstract quality of adolescents thought is their increased tendency to think about thought itself. One adolescent commented, I began thinking about why I was thinking what I was. Then I began thinking about why I was thinking about what I was thinking about what I was.

16. _____ is Piagets formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems.
A. Idealistic scenario reasoning
B. Divergent thinking
C. Convergent thinking
D. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 457
Explanation: Hypothetical-deductive reasoning is Piagets formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems.

17. The heightened self-consciousness of adolescence, the belief that everyone is as interested in them as they are in themselves, and a sense of personal uniqueness and invulnerability are all parts of:
A. adolescent egocentrism.
B. hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
C. realistic reasoning.
D. concrete operational thinking.
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 458
Explanation: The heightened selfconsciousness of adolescents that is reflected in their belief that others are as interested in them as they are in themselves, and in their sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility is known as adolescent egocentrism.

18. Paul feels extremely self-consciousness in public. He believes that everyone is watching him and that they all notice the pimple on the end of his nose. Pauls behavior is characteristic of:
A. convergent thinking.
B. imaginary audience phenomenon.
C. transitivity.
D. seriation.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 458
Explanation: Imaginary audience is an adolescentss belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior.

19. Which of the following is an essential characteristic of the imaginary audience phenomenon?
A. A sense of immortality
B. A feeling of insignifiance
C. Attention seeking behavior
D. A sense of indestructibility
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 458
Explanation: Imaginary audience is an adolescentss belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior.

20. Which of the following is an example of the imaginary audience phenomenon?
A. Jean likes the challenge of dissecting frogs in his biology class.
B. Haley doesnt want to go to school today, because everyone will see she is having a bad hair day.
C. Ashton sometimes takes LSD, yet she believes that she will never experience a bad trip.
D. Bradley thinks that his parents have stupid political ideas, listen to horrible music, and are always doing annoying things.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Hard
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 458
Explanation: Imaginary audience is adolescentss belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior.

21. Which of the following statements, made by Barbara, is an indicator of the imagined audience phenomenon?
A. Why am I always thinking that bad things will happen to me?
B. My parents are so frustrating.
C. I love arguing politics and religion.
D. Everyone is going to notice that Im wearing braces.
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Hard
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 458
Explanation: Imaginary audience is an adolescentss belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior.

22. _____ refers to an adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as their attention-getting behavior.
A. Personal fable
B. Social comparison
C. Imaginary audience
D. Perspective thinking
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 458
Explanation: Imaginary audience is an adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior.

23. Which of the following is a central characteristic of the personal fable?
A. Self-criticism
B. An awareness of others
C. A sense of uniqueness
D. A sense of being ordinary
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 458
Explanation: Personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescents sense of uniqueness and invincibility.

24. _____ refers to adolescents sense of invincibility that may also lead them to believe that they themselves are invulnerable to dangers and catastrophes that happen to other people.
A. Personal fable
B. Social comparison
C. Imaginary audience
D. Perspective thinking
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 458
Page: 459
Explanation: Personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescents sense of uniqueness and invincibility. This sense of invincibility may also lead adolescents to believe that they themselves are invulnerable to dangers and catastrophes (such as deadly car wrecks) that happen to other people.

25. Which of the following is an example of personal fable?
A. Jake enjoys creative activities such as making Christmas decorations.
B. Haley doesnt want to go to school today, because everyone will notice that she has a pimple on her face.
C. Ashton drives fast and recklessly but says she will never get in an accident because it could never happen to her.
D. Bradley constantly compares himself with his friends, and feels that he is inferior to them.
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Hard
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 458
Explanation: According to Elkind, the personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism involving a sense of uniqueness and invincibility. This sense of invincibility may also lead adolescents to believe that they themselves are invulnerable to dangers and catastrophes (such as deadly car wrecks) that happen to other people.

26. Emma often does shoplifting and other petty crimes, with her group of friends. Even though she has heard that people eventually get caught while shoplifting, she feels that it will never happen to her. Emmas beliefs is characteristic of _____.
A. personal fable
B. social comparison
C. imaginary audience phenomenon
D. perspective thinking
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 458
Explanation: According to Elkind, the personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism involving a sense of uniqueness and invincibility. This sense of invincibility may also lead adolescents to believe that they themselves are invulnerable to dangers and catastrophes that happen to other people.

27. Which of Ethans statements is an indicator of personal fable?
A. Nobody could possibly understand how I feel.
B. My parents are so boring.
C. I love listening to music.
D. Why cant I stop worrying about my driving test?
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 458
Explanation: Adolescents sense of personal uniqueness makes them believe that no one can understand how they really feel. Personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescents sense of uniqueness and invincibility.

28. Deanna Kuhn argues that the most important cognitive change in adolescence is:
A. problem solving through trial-and-error.
B. increased concrete thinking.
C. reduced egocentrism.
D. improvement in executive functioning.
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 459
Explanation: Kuhn (2009) argues that the most important cognitive change in adolescence is improvement in executive functioning, which is as an umbrella-like concept that consists of a number of higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the prefrontal cortex.

29. ______ invulnerability, involves adolescents sense of indestructibility and tendency to take on physical risks.
A. Psychological
B. Natural
C. Danger
D. Induced
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 459
Explanation: Danger invulnerability, which involves adolescents sense of indestructibility and tendency to take on physical risks.

30. Driving recklessly at high speeds is an example of _____ invulnerability.
A. psychological
B. natural
C. danger
D. induced
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 459
Explanation: Danger invulnerability, which involves adolescents sense of indestructibility and tendency to take on physical risks (driving recklessly at high speeds, for example).

31. _____ invulnerability, captures an adolescents felt invulnerability
related to personal or psychological distress.
A. Psychological
B. Natural
C. Danger
D. Induced
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 459
Explanation: Psychological invulnerability, which captures an adolescents felt invulnerability related to personal or psychological distress.

32. _____ involves managing ones thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control.
A. Mindfulness
B. Lower-order cognitive processes
C. Executive functioning
D. Mnemonic strategies
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 459
Explanation: Executive functioning involves managing ones thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control.

33. _____ is a kind of mental workbench where information is manipulated and assembled to help make decisions, solve problems, and comprehend written and spoken language.
A. Intermediate memory
B. Long-term memory
C. Short-term memory
D. Working memory
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 460
Explanation: Working memory is a kind of mental workbench where information is manipulated and assembled to help make decisions, solve problems, and comprehend written and spoken language.

34. Making decisions and thinking critically are part of:
A. mindfulness.
B. lower-order cognitive processes.
C. executive functioning.
D. mnemonic strategies.
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 459
Explanation: Making decisions and thinking critically are part of executive functioning.

35. Which of the following is part of executive functioning?
A. Critical thinking
B. Perception
C. Attention
D. Memory
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 459
Explanation: Making decisions and thinking critically are part of executive functioning.

36. Which of the following statements is true about adolescent decision making?
A. Adolescence is a time of decreased decision making.
B. Adolescents make better decisions when they are emotionally aroused rather than when they are calm.
C. Young adolescents are less likely to generate different options, compared with children.
D. Adolescents need more opportunities to practice and discuss realistic decision making. Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 461
Explanation: Adolescents need more opportunities to practice and discuss realistic decision making. Many real-world decisions on matters such as sex, drugs, and daredevil
driving occur in an atmosphere of stress that includes time constraints and emotional
involvement. One strategy for improving adolescent decision making in such circumstances is to provide more opportunities for them to engage in role playing and group problem solving.

37. _____ states that decision making is influenced by two systemsone analytical and one experiential, which compete with each other.
A. Executive function approach
B. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
C. Dual-process model
D. Social constructivist approach
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 462
Explanation: The dual-process model states that decision making is influenced by two systemsone analytical and one experiential, which compete with each other; in this model, it is the experiential systemmonitoring and managing actual experiencesthat benefits adolescent decision making.

38. In the dual-process model, it is the _____ system that benefits adolescent decision making.
A. experiential
B. analytical
C. deductive
D. inductive
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 462
Explanation: Dual-process model states that decision making is influenced by two systemsone analytical and one experiential, which compete with each other; in this model, it is the experiential systemmonitoring and managing actual experiencesthat benefits adolescent decision making.

39. Which of the following strategies can be used to improve adolescent decision making in an atmosphere of stress?
A. Visual matrix
B. Role playing
C. Mnemonics
D. Imaginary audience
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 462
Explanation: One strategy for improving adolescent decision making in such circumstances is to provide more opportunities for them to engage in role playing and group problem solving. Another strategy is for parents to involve adolescents in appropriate decision-making activities.

40. Which of the following cognitive changes that occur during adolescence allow(s) for improved critical thinking?
A. Increased breadth of content knowledge in a variety of domains.
B. Improvement in concrete thinking.
C. Increased ability to indulge in idealistic thinking.
D. Engaging in imaginary audience and personal story processes.
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 462
Explanation: Greater breadth of content knowledge in a variety of domain is one of the factors that provide a basis for improvement in critical thinking during adolescence.

41. If an individual has not developed a solid basis of _____ during childhood, critical-thinking skills are unlikely to mature in adolescence.
A. fundamental skills
B. literacy and math skills
C. hypothetical-deductive reasoning
D. personal fable
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 462
Explanation: Although adolescence is an important period in the development of critical-thinking skills, if an individual has not developed a solid basis of fundamental skills (such as literacy and math skills) during childhood, critical-thinking skills are unlikely
to mature in adolescence. For the subset of adolescents who lack such fundamental skills, potential gains in adolescent thinking are not likely.

42. _____ are beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be.
A. Perceptions
B. Ethics
C. Values
D. Thoughts
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 464
Explanation: Values are beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be.

43. Over the past three decades, traditional-aged college students have shown:
A. an increased concern for personal well-being.
B. a decreased concern for the well-being of others.
C. an increased concern for the disadvantaged.
D. a decreased concern for being well off financially.
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 464
Explanation: One way of measuring what people value is to ask them what their goals are. Over the past three decades, traditional-aged college students have shown an increased concern for personal well-being and a decreased concern for the well-being of others, especially for the disadvantaged (Pryor & others, 2008).

44. Implementation of _____ in schools benefits adolescents by helping them achieve higher grades, increase their goal setting, achieve higher self-esteem, and increase the likelihood that they will serve as volunteers in the future.
A. etiquette training
B. service learning
C. moral science
D. religious learning
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 464
Explanation: Researchers have found that service learning benefits adolescents in a number of ways. These improvements in adolescent development related to service learning include higher grades in school, increased goal setting, higher self-esteem, an improved sense of being able to make a difference for others, and an increased likelihood that they will serve as volunteers in the future.

45. One important goal of service learning is to help students:
A. become less self-centered.
B. improve their grades.
C. develop their academic skills.
D. become more competitive and ambitious.
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 464
Explanation: An important goal of service learning is for adolescents to become less self-centered and more strongly motivated to help others (Catalano, Hawkins, & Toumbourou, 2008).

46. Researchers found that students who participated in service learning were more likely to:
A. become self-centered.
B. have higher self-esteem.
C. participate in religious activites.
D. have lower grades.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 464
Explanation: Researchers have found that service learning benefits adolescents in a number of ways. These improvements in adolescent development related to service learning include higher grades in school, increased goal setting, higher self-esteem, an improved sense of being able to make a difference for others, and an increased likelihood that they will serve as volunteers in the future.

47. At Boston Sacred Heart School all the students in grades 9 to 12 are asked to participate in community building programs. Students were asked to choose from a wide range of initiatives, such as helping older adults, conducting activities in orphaneges, assisting animal-welfare workers, etc. The school also conducted group discussions where children were encouraged to reflect upon their experiences. This program aimed at enabling the students to become less self-centered and promote prosocial behavior. In this example, Boston Sacred Heart School uses _____.
A. life skillsbased training
B. service learning
C. classical conditioning
D. operant conditioning
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 464
Explanation: Service learning is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community. In service learning, adolescents engage in activities such as tutoring, helping older adults, working in a hospital, assisting at a child-care center, or cleaning up a vacant lot to make a play area.

48. _____ is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and helping others in the community.
A. Environmental science
B. Service learning
C. Hidden curriculum
D. Religious learning
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 464
Explanation: Service learning is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community. In service learning, adolescents engage in activities such as tutoring, helping older adults, working in a hospital, assisting at a child-care center, or cleaning up a vacant lot to make a play area.

49. The _____ is conveyed by the moral atmosphere that is a part of every school.
A. hidden curriculum
B. character education
C. political orientation
D. values clarification
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 465
Explanation: The hidden curriculum is conveyed by the moral atmosphere that is a part of every school. The moral atmosphere is created by school and classroom rules, the moral orientation of teachers and school administrators, and text materials.

50. In the _____, the moral atmosphere is created by school and classroom rules, the moral orientation of teachers and school administrators, and text materials.
A. hidden curriculum
B. character education
C. political orientation
D. values clarification
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 465
Explanation: The hidden curriculum is conveyed by the moral atmosphere that is a part of every school. The moral atmosphere is created by school and classroom rules, the moral orientation of teachers and school administrators, and text materials.

51. A direct approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and harming themselves or others is called:
A. hidden curriculum.
B. character education.
C. service learning.
D. value clarification.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 466
Explanation: Character education is a direct education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves or others.

52. In the _____ approach, every school is expected to have an explicit moral code that is clearly communicated to students. Any violations of the code will be met with sanctions.
A. hidden curriculum
B. character education
C. political orientation
D. values clarification
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 465
Explanation: In the character education approach, every school is expected to have an explicit moral code that is clearly communicated to students. Any violations of the code will be met with sanctions.

53. Cognitive moral education is a concept based on the belief that:
A. students should be encouraged to define their own moral values and to understand the moral values of others.
B. students need to be taught a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves and others.
C. students should learn to value such aspects of life as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.
D. students can learn moral values only through observational learning.
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 466
Explanation: Cognitive moral education is a concept based on the belief that students should develop such values as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.

54. In a typical _____ program, high school students meet in a semester-long course to discuss a number of moral issues. The instructor acts as a facilitator, rather than as a director, of the class.
A. hidden curriculum
B. character education
C. cognitive moral education
D. values clarification
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 466
Explanation: Cognitive moral education is based on the belief that students should learn to value aspects of life such as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops. In a typical program, high school students meet in a semester-long course to discuss a number of moral issues. The instructor acts as a facilitator, rather than as a director, of the class.

55. Mark, an adolescent, attends a program in his school in which he is taught about basic moral concepts, and codes of behavior that are in accordance with the moral concepts. Marks instructor also warns him that violation of the moral codes would be dealt with severe sanctions. The program aims to teach students a basic moral code so that they do not engage in immoral behavior and cause harm to themselves or others. Which moral education program is Marks school following?
A. A hidden curriculum
B. Character education
C. Cognitive moral education
D. A values clarification program
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 466
Explanation: Character education, a direct education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves or others.

56. Clarence High School is a private school in Cincinnati. The school conducts a semester-long course that deal with moral education. The school educators believe that students should learn to value such aspects of life as freedom, truth, and equality as their moral reasoning develops. The classes are facilitated by an instructor who encourages students to discuss moral issues. Clarence High School uses which of the following methods of moral education?
A. A hidden moral curriculum
B. Character education
C. Cognitive moral education
D. A values clarification program
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 466
Explanation: Cognitive moral education is a concept based on the belief that students should develop such values as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.

57. Cognitive moral education differs from values clarification in that cognitive moral education:
A. fails to stress distinctions between right and wrong behavior.
B. is conveyed by the moral atmosphere that is a part of every school.
C. advocates that every school should have an explicit moral code that is clearly communicated to students.
D. is based on the belief that students should develop such values as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 466
Explanation: Cognitive moral education is a concept based on the belief that students should learn to value such aspects of life as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops. In values clarification exercises, there are no right or wrong answers. The clarification of values is left up to the individual student. Advocates of values clarification say it is value-free.

58. Lawrence Kohlbergs theory has been the basis for a number of _____ programs.
A. cognitive moral education
B. values clarification
C. service learning
D. character education
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 466
Explanation: Lawrence Kohlbergs theory has been the basis for a number of cognitive moral education programs. In a typical program, high school students meet in a semester-long course to discuss a number of moral issues.

59. Hidden curriculum differs from values clarification in that hidden curriculum:
A. is conveyed by the moral atmosphere that is a part of every school.
B. is based on the belief that students should develop such values as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.
C. fails to stress distinctions between right and wrong behavior.
D. does not tell students what their values should be.
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 465
Explanation: The hidden curriculum is conveyed by the moral atmosphere that is a part of every school. Values clarification means helping people to make clear what is important to them, what is worth working for, and what purpose their lives are to serve.

60. The _____ approach to moral education encompasses reflective moral thinking and commitment to justice advocated in Kohlbergs approach along with an emphasis on developing a particular moral character as advocated in the character education approach.
A. integrative
B. normative
C. prescriptive
D. induced
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 467
Explanation: Darcia Narvez (2006, 2008, 2010a, b) emphasizes an integrative approach to moral education that encompasses the refl ective moral thinking and commitment to justice advocated in Kohlbergs approach along with an emphasis on developing a particular moral character as advocated in the character education approach.

61. The increase in _____ lets adolescents consider various ideas about religious and spiritual concepts.
A. abstract thinking
B. trial-and-error learning
C. adolescent egocentrism
D. the imaginary audience phenomenon
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Religion
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 468
Explanation: The increase in abstract thinking lets adolescents consider various ideas about religious and spiritual concepts. Many of the cognitive changes thought to influence religious development involve Piagets cognitive developmental theory. Adolescents think more abstractly, idealistically, and logically.

62. In Erik Eriksons (1968) theory, as part of their search for_____, adolescents begin to grapple in more sophisticated, logical ways with such questions as Why am I on this planet? ,Is there really a God or higher spiritual being?, and What really are my religious views?
A. ego strength
B. identity
C. autonomy
D. a sense of competence
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Religion
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 469
Explanation: In Erik Eriksons (1968) theory, adolescents want to know answers to questions like these: Who am I? What am I all about as a person? What kind of life do I want to lead? As part of their search for identity, adolescents begin to grapple in more sophisticated, logical ways with such questions as Why am I on this planet? Is there really a God or higher spiritual being, or have I just been believing what my parents and the church imprinted in my mind? What really are my religious views?

63. Which of the following is true?
A. Critics stress that many high schools foster autonomy rather than passivity.
B. The transition to middle school from elementary school is a smooth one for most students.
C. Educators worry that middle schools mimic the curricular and extracurricular schedules of high schools.
D. Students in middle school tend to feel less grown up than they felt in elementary school.
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American Middle School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 470
Explanation: One worry of educators and psychologists is that middle schools (most often consisting of grades 6 through 8) are simply watered-down versions of high schools, mimicking their curricular and extracurricular schedules.

64. Which of the following statements is true about the top-dog phenomenon?
A. It refers to an adolescents tendency to indulge in risk-taking behavior, to maintain the top-position amongst his or her peers.
B. It refers to the circumstance of moving from the top position in elementary school to the lowest position in middle or junior high school.
C. It refers to adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are.
D. It refers to an adolescents sense of uniqueness and invincibility.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American Middle School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 471
Explanation: Top-dog phenomenon refers to the circumstance of moving from the top position (in elementary school, being the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students in the school) to the lowest position in middle or junior high school.

65. Moving from the oldest student in middle school to the youngest in high school is known as:
A. top-of-the-heap phenomenon.
B. bottom-of-the-pile phenomenon.
C. top-dog phenomenon.
D. younger sibling syndrome.
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American Middle School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 471
Explanation: Top-dog phenomenon, the circumstance of moving from the top position (in elementary school, being the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students in the school) to the lowest position in middle or junior high school.

66. Researchers who have charted the transition from elementary to middle school find that:
A. many students find the first year of middle school to be difficult.
B. most students perform better in academic and extracurricular activities during the first year of middle school.
C. most students experience an increase in adolescent egocentrism during the transition to middle school.
D. most students experience the imaginary audience phenomenon during the first year of middle school.
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American Middle School
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Page: 471
Explanation: Researchers who have charted the transition from elementary to middle school find that the first year of middle school can be difficult for many students.

67. One finding from the Carnegie Corporations 1989 report, Turning Points, was that most middle schools and junior high schools tend to:
A. be too small to provide a diversified curriculum.
B. involve parents and community leaders in schools.
C. provide health care and counseling services to students.
D. teach from seemingly irrelevant curricula.
Answer: D
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American Middle School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 471
Explanation: In the report Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the Twenty First Century the conclusion was reached that most young adolescents attend massive, impersonal schools; learn from seemingly irrelevant curricula; trust few adults in school; and lack access to health care and counseling.

68. The 1989 Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development report recommended that middle schools:
A. should separate students into smaller, more personal units and involve parents more.
B. should focus on the academic curriculum and downplay the extracurricular programs.
C. should increase student-to-counselor ratios.
D. should be integrated with high schools to take advantage of having older adolescents as role models.
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American Middle School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 471
Explanation: The Carnegie report recommended: developing smaller communities or houses to lessen the impersonal nature of large middle schools and involving parents and community leaders in schools.

69. Turning Points 2000 continued to endorse the recommendations set forth in Turning Points 1989. One new recommendation in the 2000 report stated that:
A. it is important to teach a curriculum grounded in rigorous academic standards for what students should know and should be able to learn.
B. large middle schools can develop smaller communities or houses to lessen their impersonal nature.
C. it is important to involve parents and community leaders in schools.
D. it is important to lower student-to-counselor ratios from several hundred-to-1 to 10-to-
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American Middle School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 471
Explanation: One new recommendation in the 2000 report stated that it is important to teach a curriculum grounded in rigorous academic standards for what students should know and should be able to learn.

70. Researchers have found that participation in extracurricular activities is linked
to:
A. reduced school engagement.
B. greater likelihood of dropping out of school.
C. lower rates of depression.
D. lower self-esteem.
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American Middle School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 471
Explanation: Researchers have found that participation in extracurricular activities is linked to higher grades, school engagement, less likelihood of dropping out of school, improved probability of going to college, higher self-esteem, and lower rates of depression, delinquency, and substance abuse (Fredricks, 2008; Parente & Mahoney, 2009; Peck & others, 2008).

71.The National Research Council (2004) recommended which of the following as a way to improve U.S. high schools?
A. Involve students in public health care.
B. Discourage students from taking on community service involvement.
C. Find ways to get students more engaged in learning.
D. Encourage students to focus on one extracurricular activity at a time.
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American High School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 472
Explanation: The National Research Council (2004) made a number of recommendations for improving U.S. high schools. They especially emphasized the importance of finding ways to get students more engaged in learning.

72. Which of the following is one of the most common cause for dropping out of high school?
A. Early marriage
B. Work to help support the family
C. Not liking school
D. Poor relations with peers
Answer: C
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: The American High School
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 474
Explanation: In one investigation, almost 50 percent of the dropouts cited school-related reasons for leaving school, such as not liking school, being suspended, or being expelled
(Rumberger, 1995). Twenty percent of the dropouts (but 40 percent of the Latino students) cited economic reasons for dropping out.

73. Educators wanting to reduce the dropout rate should:
A. provide early reading programs and tutoring.
B. provide easy access to computers and instruction in computer technology.
C. provide monetary incentives for school attendance and academic performance.
D. raise the required number of days of attendance per year.
Answer: A
Learning Goal: 15-03
Topic: High School Dropouts
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 474
Explanation: A review of school-based dropout programs found that the most effective programs provided early reading programs, tutoring, counseling, and mentoring.

74. William Damon (2008) suggested that many of todays adolescents:
A. have realistic career goals.
B. have fantasy career goals that have no connection to reality.
C. want to take up a career path that is similar to their parents.
D. choose career paths that their peers choose.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-04
Topic: Developmental Changes
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 476
Explanation: William Damon (2008) recently described how it is not only children who have idealistic fantasies about careers but that too many of todays adolescents also dream about fantasy careers that may have no connection to reality.

75. In late teens most individuals:
A) often begin to think about careers on an idealistic basis.
B) usually turn serious about their careers as they explore different career possibilities.
C) choose a major or specialization that is designed to lead to work in a particular field.
D) have completed their education or training and entered a full-time occupation.
Answer: B
Learning Goal: 15-04
Topic: Developmental Changes
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Page: 476
Explanation: Many children have idealistic fantasies about what they want to be when they grow up. In the high school years, they often begin to think about careers on a somewhat less idealistic basis. In their late teens and early twenties, their career decision making has usually turned more serious as they explore different career possibilities and zero in on the career they want to enter. In college, this often means choosing a major or specialization that is designed to lead to work in a particular field. By their early and mid-twenties, many individuals have completed their education or training and entered a full-time occupation.

Short Answer Questions

76. Describe the characteristics of Jean Piagets stage of formal operational thought and give examples of each characteristic. Discuss David Elkinds conceptualization of adolescent egocentrism.
Answer: Students answers may vary.
* Abstract reasoning: Adolescents are no longer limited to actual experiences as anchors
for thought. They can conjure up make-believe situations, events that are purely
hypothetical possibilities or abstract propositions and can try to reason logically about them. For example, adolescents are capable of verbal problem-solving.
* Thinking of possibilities: Adolescents engage in extended speculation about ideal characteristicsqualities they desire in themselves and in others.
* Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: Adolescents think more like scientists, devising plans to solve problems, and systematically testing solutions.
* Adolescent egocentrism is the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents. David
Elkind (1976) argues that adolescent egocentrism has two key components:
* The imaginary audience is adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior. For example, adolescents believe everyone is watching them when they enter the room or go to school.
* The personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism involving a sense of uniqueness and invincibility. Adolescents believe they are unique; it cant happen to them; risky behavior is encouraged.
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Piagets Theory
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Page: 457
Page: 458

77. Hector, an adolescent, often engages in rash driving. Though he has witnessed several of his friends getting hurt, he feels that such an eventuality will never happen to him. His friends have advised him not to drive while drinking. However, Hector believes that he is different from everyone else, and no one can understand how he really feels. Explain Hectors bevior using the adolescent egocentrism approach.
Answer: Students answers may vary.
According to Elkind, the personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism involving a sense of uniqueness and invincibility. Because of this feeling of invincibility, Hector believe that he is invulnerable to car crashes that happens to other people. This sense of personal uniqueness makes Hector believe that no one can understand how he really feels.
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Hard
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Page: 458

78. Describe the key changes in adolescent information processing and explain how these changes affect the adolescent.
Answer: Students answers may vary.
* Memory: During adolescence, the storage space in short-term memory increases, working memory improves, and long-term memory memory continues to improve.
Executive functioning strengthens during adolescence.
* Decision-making abilities: The ability to regulate ones emotions during decision making, to remember prior decisions and their consequences, and to adapt subsequent decision making on the basis of those consequences appear to improve with age through the early adulthood years.
* Critical thinking skills: Although adolescence is an important period in the development of critical-thinking skills, if an individual has not developed a solid basis of fundamental skills (such as literacy and math skills) during childhood, critical-thinking skills are unlikely to mature in adolescence.
* Effects on the adolescent: more breadth of knowledge and experience can make for better-informed decisions; adolescents can begin to think about deeper issues like spirituality, worldwide problems, and moral issues; they can become self-starters; lets the adolescent use better strategies to solve problems based on better thinking skills and past experience.
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Information Processing
Difficulty: Medium
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Page: 459
Page: 460
Page: 462

79. What is adolescent egocentrism? What are its key components?
Answer: Adolescent egocentrism is the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents. David Elkind (1976) argues that adolescent egocentrism has two key componentsthe imaginary audience and personal fable. The imaginary audience is adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior. According to Elkind, the personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism involving a sense of uniqueness and invincibility. This sense of invincibility may also lead adolescents to believe that they themselves are invulnerable to dangers and catastrophes (such as deadly car wrecks) that happen to other people.
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 458

80. Describe danger invulnerability and psychological invulnerability.
Answer: Some researchers have questioned the view that invulnerability is a unitary
concept and argued rather that it consists of two dimensions. Danger invulnerability, which involves adolescents sense of indestructibility and tendency to take on physical risks (driving recklessly at high speeds, for example).
Psychological invulnerability , which captures an adolescents felt invulnerability
related to personal or psychological distress (getting ones feelings hurt, for
example).
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 459

81. What is working memory? What are the developmental changes in working memory during adolescence?
Answer: British psychologist Alan Baddeley proposed the concept of working memory, which is a kind of mental workbench where information is manipulated and assembled to help make decisions, solve problems, and comprehend written and spoken language. The adolescent years are an important developmental period for improvement in working memory.
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 460

82. What are the factors that provide a basis for improvement in critical thinking during adolescence?
Answer: The factors that provide a basis for improvement in critical thinking during adolescence include:
Increased speed, automaticity, and capacity of information processing, which
free cognitive resources for other purposes.
Greater breadth of content knowledge in a variety of domains.
Increased ability to construct new combinations of knowledge.
A greater range and more spontaneous use of strategies and procedures for obtaining and applying knowledge, such as planning, considering the alternatives, and cognitive monitoring.
Learning Goal: 15-01
Topic: Adolescent Egocentrism
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 462

83. What is service learning and when is it most effective?
Answer: Service learning is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community. In service learning, adolescents engage in activities such as tutoring, helping older adults, working in a hospital, assisting at a child-care center, or cleaning up a vacant lot to make a play area. An important goal of service learning is for adolescents to become less self-centered and more strongly motivated to help others.
Service learning is often more effective when two conditions are met (Nucci, 2006): (1) giving students some degree of choice in the service activities in which they participate, and (2) providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation.
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 464

84. What are the changing values that are seen amongst adolescents today?
Answer: Students answers may vary.
One way of measuring what people value is to ask them what their goals are. Over the past three decades, traditional-aged college students have shown an increased concern for personal well-being and a decreased concern for the well-being of others, especially for the disadvantaged (Pryor & others, 2008). Todays college freshmen are more strongly motivated to be well off financially and less motivated to develop a meaningful philosophy of life than were their counterparts of 20 or even 10 years ago. There are some signs that U.S. college students are shifting toward a stronger interest in the welfare of society.
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Values
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 464

85. What is hidden curriculum?
Answer: Educator John Dewey recognized that, even when schools do not have specific programs in moral education, they provide moral education through a hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum is conveyed by the moral atmosphere that is a part of every school. The moral atmosphere is created by school and classroom rules, the moral orientation of teachers and school administrators, and text materials. Classroom rules and peer relations at school transmit attitudes about cheating, lying, stealing, and consideration of others. And, through its rules and regulations, the school administration infuses the school with a value system.
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 465

86. What is character education?
Answer: Character education refers to a direct education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves and others. In the character education approach, every school should have an explicit moral code that is clearly communicated to students. Any violations of the code should be met with sanctions. Instruction in specified moral concepts, such as cheating, can take the form of example and definition, class discussions and role playing, or rewarding students for proper behavior.
Learning Goal: 15-02
Topic: Moral Education
Difficulty: Easy
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Page: 466

87. What i

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