Classical And Contemporary Sociological Theory, 3rd Edition by Scott Appelrouth Test Bank

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Classical And Contemporary Sociological Theory, 3rd Edition by Scott Appelrouth Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Classical And Contemporary Sociological Theory, 3rd Edition by Scott Appelrouth Test Bank

 

  1. Which of the following is a class in capitalism according to Marx?
  2. Protestants

*b. wage laborers

  1. villagers
  2. Communism

 

  1. Marx refers to the middle-class owners of capital as
  2. proltariat.

*b. bourgeoisie.

  1. verstehen.
  2. veblen.

 

  1. Classes are groups of individuals who share a common position in relation to
  2. their religious affiliation
  3. how they interpret the world

*c. the forces of production

  1. how they consume products

 

  1. For Marx, which of the following is a catalyst for social change and the prime mover of history?
  2. forces of production
  3. bourgeoisie
  4. alienation

*d. class struggle

 

  1. Marx refers to propertyless wage earners as

*a. proletariat

  1. bourgeoisie
  2. verstehen
  3. veblen

 

  1. Marx used the term class consciousness to refer to:

*a. an awareness on the part of the working class of their common relationship to the means of production

  1. the alienation of the working class
  2. the false ideology of the working class
  3. the sense of entitlement of the middle class

 

  1. According to the authors, Karl Marxs basic theoretical orientation would fall under the category of:
  2. nonrational, collective
  3. nonrational, individual
  4. rational, individual

*d. rational, collective

 

  1. According to Marxs materialist conception of history, ideas or consciousness is determined by
  2. the fetishism of commodities
  3. forms of legitimate authority

*c. the forces and relations of production; what individuals produce and how they produce it

  1. the conceptual categories through which we order experience

 

  1. Whose theory is Marx inverting when he states Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life?
  2. Antonio Gramsci
  3. Friedrich Engels

*c. Georg W.F. Hegel

  1. Thorstein Veblen

 

  1. What term does Marx use to refer to when the process of production and the results of our labor confront us as a dominating power?
  2. class struggle
  3. forces of production

*c. alienation

  1. proletariat

 

  1. What is Marx referring to when he writes The universality of its property is the omnipotence of its being?
  2. power

*b. money

  1. authority
  2. alienation

 

  1. Marx states the capitalist class will produce its own grave-diggers. For Marx, who are these diggers?
  2. the bourgeoisie
  3. new capitalists

*c. class-conscious proletariat

  1. owners of capital

 

  1. What will become a fetter to the continued development of the means of production?
  2. class struggle
  3. ownership of production

*c. social relations of production

  1. class consciousness

 

  1. According to Marx, the standard on which the value of commodities is based is
  2. the degree of usefulness of the commodity

*b. the amount of labor time necessary to produce the commodity

  1. the level of exploitation experienced by the worker
  2. the exchange of private property necessary for actualizing an exchange

 

  1. Marx defined surplus value as
  2. difference between the number of workers and the number of products produced

*b. difference between what workers earn for their labor and the price or value of the goods they produce

  1. difference between the number of workers and the number of consumers in the same market
  2. the difference between what the workers earn across competing companies in the same market

 

  1. Marx argues that fetishizing commodities
  2. creates the conditions necessary for developing class consciousness and thus sparking the communist revolution

*b. leads us to attribute magical, personally transforming properties to the goods we buy

  1. leads workers to endow machines with human qualities and assign the source of their exploitation to technology and the production of commodities
  2. increases the surplus value produced during the production process

 

  1. The cycle of exchange for the typical wage earner as outlined by Marx resembles which pattern?
  2. M-C-M
  3. M-C-M-C

*c. C-M-C

  1. C-M-C-M

 

  1. Raw materials, machinery for production or even more generally money, in Marxs economic framework, are all considered
  2. commodities
  3. goods

*c. capital

  1. surplus

 

  1. Which classical sociological theorist wrote The Origin of Family, Private Property, and the State?
  2. Karl Marx
  3. Emile Durkheim

*c. Friedrich Engels

  1. Max Weber

 

  1. 20. The Origin of Family, Private Property, and the State has which of the following as a foundation for its conception of history?
  2. Hegelianism

*b. Materialism

  1. Interactionism
  2. Economism

 

  1. In The Origin of Family, Private Property, and the State, what term is used to refer to the period of communally organized hunting and gathering societies?
  2. stage of barbarism
  3. mechanical solidarity

*c. state of savagery

  1. organic solidarity

 

  1. Which form of family resulted in a new division of labor wherein the man received exclusive ownership of the means of production?

*a. pairing family

  1. polygyny
  2. group marriage
  3. polygamy

 

  1. According to Engels, which of the following ultimately became the decisive center of power in a civilized society?
  2. bourgeoisie

*b. the state

  1. proletariat
  2. the family

 

  1. Marx believed that capitalism was morally a good system; but that economically, it was doomed to fail.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Marx believed that capitalism was a necessary stage in the transition toward socialism/communism.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. As discussed by the authors, Marxs basic theoretical orientation could be said to be individualist and nonrational.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. The superstructure consists of everything non-economic such as legal, political, and educational systems.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Marxs arguments stems from his agreement with Hegel on the real basis of the progression of human societies.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. The dominant economic class controls only a societys means of material production.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. It will be the proletariat who chokes on the overabundance of goods produced by ever increasing industrial efficiency.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. From Marxs perspective, the grave-diggers are a class conscious proletariat.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Capitalists derive their profit from the surplus value workers earn for them.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The two factors of a commodity according to Marx are its use and surplus values.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Engels is credited with The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State because at the time Marx was in hiding due to his exile.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Barbarism is marked by the domestication and breeding of animals for food, the development of irrigation techniques for the cultivation of crops, and iron plows for tilling large fields.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. One of the most important changes effecting gender relations according to The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State is the overturning of mother-right lines of descent.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. According to The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State, monogamous marriage provided women with the freedom, honor, and respect lacking during the backward period of barbarism.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Many anthropologists and historians believe Engelss ethnographically and historically accurate portrayal of the premodern family is the real strength behind The Origin of the Family.
  2. True

*b. False

 

Type: E

  1. What role does private property play in Marxs discussion of the inevitable communist revolution?

*a. Varies. Must discuss the role of private property in a capitalist system v. community property. Presents a detail description of the types of property Marx identifies. Must mention the owners of property and the owners of labor, and what each means to the communist revolution that it doesnt mean to the capitalist

 

Type: E

  1. What role does class consciousness play according to Marx in the evolution of society?

*a. Knowledge of ones place in the scheme of society as: Must list what makes class distinctions; Must list and define the evolution of society. Describing the sequence of this evolution and each phase.

 

Type: E

  1. According to Marxs materialist conception of history, what is the relationship between property and ideas or consciousness?

*a. List how one owning property affects the view that one has of humanity. List examples of property ownership, ideas and what people are aware of and how so. Describe the relationship of both.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the following types of estrangement under capitalism as outlined by Marx, using concrete examples: man from man-from one another by class. man from nature-from the natural resources that one depends on for production of goods. man from self- from what one makes and from what one is.

*a. Varies. Defines and describes each of the estrangement types delineating what sets them apart from each other, as types.

 

Type: E

  1. What does Marx mean when he writes money is thus the object of eminent possession?

*a. Varies. Discusses the relationships that money has with ownership of: goods, labor, means of production.

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss Marxs concept the fetishism of commodities from Capital.

*a. Varies. Examples of needs over wants, modern day and/or from Marxs time.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the role pairing families and monogamy play in the subjugation of women in civilized society.

*a. Varies. Discusses domestic servitude and who serves whom and for what reasons. Womens role within the family unit and their relative position to male counterparts.

 

Type: E

  1. When most people discuss Marx in the everyday, in what context is his work discussed? Is the common understanding of Marxs work, correct. Be specific.

*a. Varies. Capitalist basher that was adamantly against capitalism. So far Scholars do not agree with Political Pundits that Marx hated or was against Capitalism and explains how so. Discusses how Marx is misquoted.

 

Type: E

  1. Define Hegels dialectical process. Explain its significance in relation to Marxs theory of history. Also explain its significance on Marxs basic theoretical orientation.

*a. Hegel saw change as the motor of history. For Hegel, change was driven by a dialectical process in which a given state of being or idea contains within it the seeds of an opposing state of being or opposing idea. The resolution of the conflict produces yet a new state of being or idea. This synthesis, in turn, forms the basis of a new contradiction, thus continuing the process of change. The essence of reality lies in thought or ideas because it is only in and through the concepts that order our experiences that experiences, as such, are known. Reality is a product of our conceptual categories or consciousness and thus has no existence independent of our own construction of it.

 

Type: E

  1. Define Marxs concept of species being. Discuss its significance in relation to his concept of alienation. Use specific quotes from the Economic Manuscripts for support.

*a. For the wage earner, work is alienating because it serves solely to provide the means (i.e., money) for maintaining her physical existence. Instead of labor representing an end in itselfan activity that expresses our capacity to shape our lives and our relationships with othersprivate ownership of the means of production reduces the role of the worker to that of a cog in a machine. The worker is an expendable object that performs routinized tasks. Put in another way, for Marx, working just for moneyand not for the creative potential of labor itis akin to selling your soul.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain in detail Marxs general formula for capital. In your explanation define and relate the connection commodities and surplus value have to the general formula.

*a. A cycle of exchange Marx labeled M-C-M. By definition, the capitalist enters into economic exchange already possessing capital (raw materials, machinery for production) or, more generally, money (M). Seeking to expand her business and profits, the capitalist converts her money into a commodity (C) by purchasing additional machinery, raw materials, or labor. The capitalist then uses these commodities to produce other commodities that are then sold for money (M). Hence, the meaning of the slogan, It takes money to make money. For the proletariat, the cycle of exchange takes an inverse path. Take a typical wage earner, for example.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain Marxs line a commodity is therefore a mysterious thing simply because in it the social character of mens labor appears to them as an objective character stamped upon the product of that labor

*a. Commodity fetishism refers to the distorted relationship existing between individuals and the production and consumption of goods. However, in fetishizing commodities, Marx argues that we treat the goods we buy as if they have magical powers. We lose sight of the fact that we create commodities and, in doing so; grant them a power over us that in reality they do not hold. Fetishizing commodity production also prevents laborers from holding capitalists accountable for their growing dissatisfaction. Instead, workers will assign the source of their increasing exploitation not to the capitalists who benefit from it, but to the new technology.

 

Type: E

  1. Summarize the main points of Engelss The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State. What weaknesses are present in this theory? What are the strengths of this theory (that you feel are still valid today)?

*a. Varies. Organization of societies is determined by both the production of the means of existence and the reproduction of the species. Engels argued that prehistoric societies had passed through two stages of developmentsavagery and barbarism. Group marriages were replaced by the pairing family consisting of one man, one woman, and their children. The advent of the pairing family effected a new division of labor in which the man took responsibility for obtaining food and, with it, ownership of the means of production. The mans power was further consolidated through overturning mother-right lines of descent. Laws of inheritance would henceforth be assigned through the male, not the female.

 

  1. For Simmel, the essence of society lies in
  2. the relations between forces of production

*b. the interactions between individuals and groups

  1. the interactions between strangers
  2. the relations between religion and society

 

  1. Simmel believes society and the individuals that compose it constitute an interdependent
  2. singularity
  3. exchange value
  4. stranger society

*d. duality

 

  1. Simmel was not interested necessarily in interaction itself, but rather the ______ in which interaction takes place.
  2. content
  3. sociability

*c. forms

  1. sociation

 

  1. The fact that modern, functionally specific organizations require only a part of the self illustrates which of Simmels concepts?
  2. conflict
  3. sociability

*c. web of association

  1. exchange value

 

  1. Simmel defines the tragedy of culture as:
  2. The source of economic value for goods and goals.
  3. The domination of individual will by the products of human creativity.

*c. The end of economic exchange.

  1. Societys move from the small, rural town to the metropolis.

 

  1. The impersonality and generalizability of money as a medium of exchange transforms
  2. the nature of forms

*b. the nature of social interaction

  1. the nature of conflict
  2. the nature of the stranger

 

  1. Simmels basic theoretical orientation as established by the authors is
  2. Nonrational, collective

*b. Nonrational, individual

  1. Rational, collective
  2. Rational, individual

 

  1. According to Simmel, the source of value is
  2. money

*b. sacrifice

  1. the amount of labor time necessary to produce a good
  2. intrinsic to the good or product

 

  1. For Simmel, the source of economic value is:
  2. Determined in interaction

*b. The measure of sacrifice necessary to attain goods or goals

  1. Listed on the price tag of a good
  2. Relative to goods or goals

 

  1. Simmels orientation on the issue of economic value would be categorized as:

*a. individual, nonrational

  1. individual, rational
  2. collective, nonrational
  3. collective, rational

 

  1. Which of the following would not be considered a positive function of conflict?
  2. it makes possible the enduring of people we dislike or who have power over us.
  3. it is a sign of more deeply emotional and caring relationships
  4. it leads to feelings of indifference between individuals

*d. it produces solidarity and greater integration within a group

 

  1. A positive function of conflict is to:
  2. Create discord within a group.

*b. Achieve unity in an interaction by resolving divergent dualisms.

  1. Annihilate one of the conflicting parties.
  2. Terminate sociation.

 

  1. Which of the following can NOT occur according to Simmel when individuals are faced with obstacles bearing a measure of conflict?
  2. Feelings of group solidarity
  3. harmony of interest
  4. cooperation

*d. distraction

 

  1. Simmel defines sociability as:

*a. The play form of association

  1. The purest and most concentrated form of all human interaction
  2. The duality between conformity and differentiation
  3. The highest conception indicated

 

  1. A particular kind of sociability that epitomizes the duality of social life discussed in the chapter is
  2. forms

*b. flirtation

  1. conflict
  2. content

 

  1. An important element of sociability which contributes to its frictionless quality is its:

*a. democratic nature

  1. organizational nature
  2. procedural nature
  3. political nature

 

  1. The __________ is the social type which is both near and far at the same time.
  2. Other
  3. Punk
  4. Metropolitan person

*d. Stranger

 

  1. In contending that the stranger is near and far at the same time, Simmel notes that the stranger
  2. never stays long in a particular community
  3. shares many similarities with those he interacts with
  4. is unable to provide important services to the community

*d. shares only the most general or common features with those he interacts with

 

  1. Which of the following was the classical example of the the stranger for Simmel?
  2. African Americans

*b. European Jews

  1. Chinese Americans
  2. South Africans

 

  1. Simmel argues that fashions

*a. simultaneously express individuality and conformity

  1. require the upper classes to adopt the styles of the lower classes
  2. becomes more fashionable as more people adopt the style
  3. are restricted in their development by practical concerns

 

  1. In discussing the concept of fashion, Simmel states as fashion spreads, it
  2. becomes more exclusive

*b. gradually goes to its doom

*c. increases its potency

*d. mimics religion

 

  1. In The Metropolis and Mental Life, Simmel argues that the metropolitan person adopts a blas attitude. By blas attitude he means:
  2. An intensifying of emotional reactions
  3. An un-intellectual approach to life

*c. A psychological device that protects the individual from becoming overwhelmed by the     intensity of city life

  1. An attitude necessary to foster a rich emotional life

 

  1. The metropolitan person is bombarded with sensory impressions that lead him to adopt, out of necessity, an _______ approach to life.
  2. emotional

*b. intellectualized

  1. idealized
  2. functional

 

  1. Which of the following combines with the blas attitude to hinder the development of an emotionally meaningful life?
  2. anomie

*b. money economy

  1. verstehen
  2. forces of production

 

  1. How is Simmels analysis of urban life similar to the work of Marx and Weber?
  2. all embrace post-modernism
  3. all critique feudalism

*c. all critique modernity

  1. all embrace industrialization

 

  1. Simmel believes society and the individuals that compose it exist as interdependent duality.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Sociologists following Simmels perspective focus on the content of interactions.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Simmels tragedy of culture is reminiscent of Marxs commodity fetishism.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. According to Simmel, the source of value is labor power.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. From Simmels perspective conflict can provide positive benefits for individuals and society.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The play form of association is termed sociability.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Sociability establishes an artificial world which is considered frictionless.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Being assigned or identified as a type of individual is a product of ones relationship to others.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The stranger shares many similarities with the individuals he interacts with.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. The stranger can also be identified as the outcast of a group.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. According to Simmel, fashion only symbolizes conformity to the group.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Contemporary society contains a Simmelian irony: as we try to express our uniqueness or individuality through fashion, we often turn to buying mass produced, standardized goods.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Inhabitants of small towns are bound together by emotional bounds.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. City dwellers that hate but are forced to live in the city develop a blas attitude.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. The metropolitan personality experiences quality and differences as meaningless.

*a. True

  1. False

 

Type: E

  1. Explain Simmels quote I know I shall die without intellectual heirs, and that is how it should be in the context of Simmels body of work and the discipline of sociology as a whole.

*a. An overview of Simmels central sociological Ideas: (1) Simmels image of society (2) his view of sociology as a discipline (3) the plight of the individual in modern society

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss Simmels concept of duality and how it affects the nature of individuality.

*a. His emphasis on the duality existing between society and the individual led him to define sociology as the study of social interaction or, as he often called it, sociation. But it was not interaction per se that interested Simmel. Rather, he sought to analyze the forms in which interaction takes place. For instance, understanding the specific content of interactions that take place between an employer and employeewhat they talk about and whyis not of central concern to sociologists.

Nowhere is the duality between individual identity and the web of association expressed more vividly than in Simmels discussion of the nature of modern society. For Simmel, modern, urban societies allow individuals to cultivate their unique talents and interests, but at the same time also lead to a tragic leveling of the human spirit.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the difference between content and form in regards to interaction. Provide a concrete contemporary example to illustrate your understanding.

*a. For him, the essence of society lies in the interactions that take place between individuals and groups. Thus, according to Simmel, society and the individuals that compose it constitute an interdependent duality. In other words, the existence of one presupposes the existence of the other.

 

Type: E

  1. Define and explain with a real world example Simmels concept of web of association.

*a. Varies.

 

Type: E

  1. Compare and contrast Simmel and Marxs conceptions of value.

*a. Simmel found in sacrifice the giving up of ones money, time, services, possessionsthe condition of all value. Hence, there can be no universal, objective standard by which value can be established.

Value, then, is always subjective and relative. It is determined by the interaction at hand in which actors weigh their desire for the goods in question against the amount of sacrifice required to attain them.

Moreover, without having to endure obstacles or some form of self denial, not even the most intensely felt desire for an object will make it valuable. Value is created out of the distance that separates desire from its satisfaction and the willingness to sacrifice something in order to overcome that distance.

 

 

Type: E

  1. Define the term sociability and explain how it connects within social life.

*a. Simmel called this form of interaction sociability, or the play-form of association. Sociable conversations have no significance or ulterior motive outside the encounter itself.  As soon as the truthfulness of the conversations content or the striving for personal rewards or goals is made the focus, the encounter loses its playfulness. Sociability establishes an artificial world, a world without friction or inequalities.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the following quote from Simmels The Stranger: The stranger is near and far at the same time, as in any relationship based on merely universal human similarities.

*a. No unique or specific qualities are shared with him that could in turn form the basis of a personal relationship. As a result, the stranger is seen not as an individual, but, rather, as a type of person whose particular characteristics make him fundamentally different from the group. This unique position of the stranger relative to the group allows him to provide services that are otherwise unattainable or unfit for the in-group to perform. In addition to these occupational consequences, the unique, unattached relation of the stranger to the larger group allows the stranger to adopt an objective attitude toward internal conflicts. Nonpartisanship grants the stranger a position of objectivity in efforts to resolve disputes.

 

Type: E

  1. Summarize Simmels main points concerning his analysis of fashion.

*a. Varies.

 

Type: E

  1. Compare and contrast Simmels The Metropolis and Mental Life with Durkheims view of the division of labor.

*a. Varies. Describes Simmels work, Durkheims work and their comparison and contrasting points.

 

Type: E

  1. Define Simmels blas attitude and provide concrete examples of it. If your school is not in a metropolitan area, discuss whether your community exhibits this attitude.

*a. As a result, the metropolitan person adopts a blas attitude, a psychological device that protects the individual from becoming overwhelmed by the intensity of city life. This adaptive outlook is essentially a form of shutting down, an emotional graying of reactions. The blas attitude, while an adaptive outlook, is coupled with a money economy that further hinders the development of an emotionally meaningful life. The emphasis on exactness and calculability required by the urban, capitalist economy finds its expression in the life of the individual to the extent that he likewise becomes indifferent to the qualitative distinctions in his surroundings and in his relationships. The more money mediates our relationships and serves as the medium for self-expression, the more life itself takes on a quantitative quality.

 

Type: E

  1. Simmel wrote essays on such topics as fashion, conflict, and flirtation. Use concrete examples from Simmels work and your own examples to explain their relationship and application to todays world.

*a. Simmels intellectual interests spanned three disciplines: philosophy, history, and sociology (Levine 1971: xxi). Second, Simmel published works on aesthetics, ethics, religion, the philosophy of history, the philosophies of Nietzsche and Schopenhauer, and the metaphysics of individuality. Third, Simmel, unlike, say, Marx or Mead, did not set out to construct a coherent theoretical scheme, nor did he explicitly aim to develop a systematic critique of or to build on a specific theoretical paradigm. As a result, his work perhaps is best seen as a collection of insights

 

Type: E

  1. What is the common denominator or central theme in Simmels work? What theoretical issue/s does this theme raise? Provide examples.

*a. An overview of Simmels central sociological Ideas: (1) Simmels image of society (2) his view of sociology as a discipline (3) the plight of the individual in modern society. For him, the essence of society lies in the interactions that take place between individuals and groups. Thus, according to Simmel, society and the individuals that compose it constitute an interdependent duality. In other words, the existence of one presupposes the existence of the other.

 

Type: E

  1. What role does interaction play in establishing the value of objects or goods? What roles do the quality of objects and the scarcity of objects play in establishing value?

*a. For him, the essence of society lies in the interactions that take place between individuals and groups. Thus, according to Simmel, society and the individuals that compose it constitute an interdependent duality. In other words, the existence of one presupposes the existence of the other. Simmel found in sacrifice the giving up of ones money, time, services, possessionsthe condition of all value (ibid.:49). Hence, there can be no universal, objective standard by which value can be established.

Value, then, is always subjective and relative. It is determined by the interaction at hand in which actors weigh their desire for the goods in question against the amount of sacrifice required to attain them.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the concept of flirtation within Simmels larger framework of duality. Also, provide other forms of sociability and explain how they function as a play-form of association.

*a. We do not always engage in interactions for strategic or objective purposes. Sometimes we find ourselves interacting with others simply for the sake of the connection itself. Simmel called this form of interaction sociability, or the play-form of association. Sociable conversations have no significance or ulterior motive outside the encounter itself. As soon as the truthfulness of the conversations content or the striving for personal rewards or goals is made the focus, the encounter loses its playfulness. Sociability establishes an artificial world, a world without friction or inequalities. A particular kind of sociability that epitomizes the duality of social life discussed previously is flirtation or coquetry. Flirtation is a type of erotic playfulness in which an actor continuously alters between consent and denial. Should a final decision be revealed, resolving the tension between consent and denial, the play is over. Other forms of conversation a student might use as an example: anecdotes, idle chatter, mild humor or witticisms.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the meaning of the following passage from Simmels, The Stranger:

The stranger is near and far at the same time, as in any relationship based on merely universal human similarities. Between these two factors of nearness and distance, however, a peculiar tension arises, since the consciousness of having only the absolutely general in common has exactly the effect of putting a special emphasis on that which is not common. For a stranger to the country, the city, the race, and so on, what is stressed is again nothing individual, but alien origin, a quality which he has, or could have, in common with many other strangers. For this reason strangers are not really perceived as individuals, but as strangers of a certain type. Their remoteness is no less general than their nearness.

*a. Varies. The remoteness and freedom from prejudiced understanding that objectivity entails can also make the stranger a valued confidant. The stranger has elements of nearness and remotenesshe is attached, but not completelywhile the social outcast is only remote. However, despite the services that strangers are able to provide to a community, nonetheless we should be careful not to romanticize the position of this social type. Strangers often are exceptionally vulnerable to discrimination, if not violence.

 

Type: E

  1. According to Simmel, what effects does the metropolis have on the psychology and intellect of individuals? How do these effects, in turn, effect expression of individuality? What role does money play in these processes?

*a. The intensity of stimuli created by the urban environment and its consequences for the psychology of the city dweller. Unlike the slower tempo and rhythms of small town life and the emotional bonds that tie its inhabitants together, the metropolitan person is bombarded with sensory impressions that lead him to adopt, out of necessity, an intellectualized approach to life. In order to protect oneself against this onslaught of stimuli and disruptions, the individual must avoid developing an emotional investment in the happenings and encounters that make up his daily life. As a result, the metropolitan person adopts a blas attitude, a psychological device that protects the individual from becoming overwhelmed by the intensity of city life. This adaptive outlook is essentially a form of shutting down, an emotional graying of reactions.

 

 

  1. Phenomenologists are interested primarily in how

*a. people actively produce and sustain meaning.

  1. psychology constructs social interaction.
  2. people use language and symbols.
  3. people emotionally feel about phenomena.

 

  1. Phenomenology investigates the systematic _________ of all existing assumptions regarding the external world.
  2. construction
  3. dismantling
  4. absorption

*d. bracketing

 

  1. Edmund Husserl referred to existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness as
  2. intersubjectivity.

*b. lifeworld.

  1. phenomenology.
  2. typifications.

 

  1. Schutzs lifeworld is considered to be an intersubjective world; this means
  2. we all share the same material world as others.

*b. we all share the same consciousness.

  1. we all must negotiate an objective world.
  2. we all only know our own world.

 

  1. Drawing upon both Weber and Husserl, Schutz envisioned social action as
  2. An action increasingly rationalized between two individuals in modern society.

*b. An action oriented toward the past, present, or future behavior of another person.

  1. An individualistic nonrational action oriented toward social institutions.
  2. An action oriented toward a lifeworld constructed via psychology.

 

  1. Which term did Schutz use to explain what provides actors with rules for interpreting interactions, social relationships, organizations, institutions, and the physical world?
  2. intersubjectivity
  3. feeling rules

*c. stocks of knowledge

  1. verstehen

 

  1. The process of constructing personal ideal-types based on the typical function of people or things rather than their unique features is termed
  2. verstehen
  3. reification.

*c. typification.

  1. habitualization.

 

  1. Differentiating various realms of social experience, Schutz use the term umwelt to
  2. refer to the overt feelings experienced via social institutions.
  3. refer to the unfelt subconscious feelings of the individual.

*c. refer to the realm of directly experienced social reality.

  1. refer to the realm of indirectly experienced social reality.

 

  1. What process outline by Berger and Luckmann contains psychological advantages of narrowed choices which allow us to engage in constructive actions on a daily basis?
  2. typification
  3. reification.
  4. institutionalization

*d. habitualization

 

  1. Social order and interaction would break down within society according to Berger and Luckmann if we were without
  2. typification.
  3. externalization.

*c. intersubjectivity.

  1. habitualization.

 

  1. According to Berger and Luckmann, it is through __________ that human life becomes coherent, meaningful, and continuous.

*a. institutions

  1. communication
  2. symbols
  3. minds

 

  1. According to Berger and Luckmann, typificatory schemes refer
  2. to a wholly subjective state that functions as the genesis of human consciousness.

*b. to patterns of apprehension in terms of which face-to-face encounters are structured.

  1. to well-defined, rigid forms of interaction.
  2. to participants attempts to construct their social world in highly unique ways.

 

  1. Reification refers to the process where

*a. man, the producer of a world, is apprehended as its product.

  1. man comprehends that he is the producer of the world.
  2. man internally fights against bad faith.
  3. man builds and destroys his product daily.

 

  1. Objectivation and reification are related to Karl Marxs concept of
  2. proltariat.
  3. surplus value.

*c. alienation.

  1. capital.

 

  1. For Berger and Luckmann, objectivation refers to
  2. the process of socialization through which the legitimation of the institutional order is assured.
  3. the moment of production in which individuals create and recreate their social worlds.
  4. the process of seeing others as stereotypes.

*d. the process whereby individuals apprehend everyday life as an ordered, patterned reality that imposes itself upon them.

 

  1. Which of the following descriptors would not be found within an ethnomethodologists understanding of how human social behavior occurs?
  2. local
  3. ideal
  4. practical

*d. effective

 

  1. Based upon their theoretical orientation, ethnomethodologists are usually criticized for neglecting which dimensions within society?
  2. Collective/non-rational
  3. Individual/rational

*c. Collective/rational

  1. Individual/non-rational

 

  1. The term _________ reflects Smiths dual rational and nonrational approach to action and individual and collective approach to order
  2. accounting
  3. breaching
  4. indexicality

*d. standpoint

 

  1. Which term refers to the vital process that sustains reality because it is what enables us to believe that social life is coherent and that meaning is shared?
  2. Ethnomethodological indifference
  3. Breaching experiments

*c. Accounting practices

  1. Indexicality

 

  1. Ethnomethodologists perspective on action and order would be found within which quadrant in our figure of theoretical orientation?
  2. Collective/rational
  3. Collective/nonrational
  4. Individual/rational

*d. Individual/nonrational

 

  1. According to Berger and Luckmann, the reality of everyday life is organized around the here of my body and the ____ of my present
  2. there
  3. where

*c. now

  1. day

 

  1. __________________infuses the ethnomethodological interest in the details of mundane everyday action and the production of order with a rigorous methodology and focus on the fundamental, taken-for-granted structures of conversational interaction.
  2. Foundation Knowledge

*b. Conversation analysis

  1. Production of order
  2. Lifeworld

 

  1. The notion of ___________________underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.

*a. bifurcation of consciousness

  1. standpoint
  2. feminism
  3. discrimination

 

  1. Berger and Luckmann stress that no individual internalizes the totality of what is objectivated as reality in his society . . . [and that] there are always elements of subjective reality that have not originated in _____________.
  2. standpoint
  3. phenomenology
  4. ethnomethodology

*d. socialization

 

  1. The lifeworld is the taken-for-granted backdrop within which all situations are measured and given meaning.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications are Schutzs attempts to clarify Durkheimian notions of social action.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Each human has his/her own biographically articulated stock of knowledge.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Social life is only possible via shared interpretative schemes and language.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Schutzs conceptions can be classified as rational and collective.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Berger and Luckmanns work can best be described as theoretically multidimensional phenomenological sociology.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Habitualized actions over time become taken-for-granted institutions that individuals are subject to.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Unlike Marx, Berger and Luckmann viewed reification as inherent to the human condition.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. In contrast to phenomenology, ethnomethodology pays attention to the procedures individuals use to interpretatively produce intelligible forms of action.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. The central difference between phenomenology and ethnomethodology is that phenomenology is resolutely sociological while ethnomethodology is deeply influenced by psychology.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Ethnomethodologists perspective on action and order would be found within the individual/nonrational quadrant in our figure of theoretical orientation.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. According to Berger and Luckmann, the reality of everyday life is organized around the here of my body and the there of my present.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Conversation analysis infuses the ethnomethodological interest in the details of mundane everyday action.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The notion of standpoint underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Berger and Luckmann stress that no individual internalizes the totality of what is objectivated as reality in his society.

*a. True

  1. False

 

Type: E

  1. Define Husserls lifeworld and how the concept of bracketing plays into it.

*a. Edmund Husserl is commonly considered the founder of phenomenology. Husserl developed what he called transcendental phenomenology, which holds that there is no pure subjective subject or pure objective object. Rather, all consciousness is consciousness of something, Husserl used the term lifeworld (Lebenswelt) to refer to the world of existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness (Wagner 1973:63). Husserl (1913) explains how intentional consciousness, that is, directing our attention in one way or another, enables the phenomenologist to reconstruct or bracket his basic views on the world and himself and explore their interconnections. In doing so, Husserl made the lifeworld, or thinking as usual in everyday life situations, a legitimate object of investigation. Phenomenology investigates the systematic bracketing of all existing assumptions regarding the external world.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain how Schutzs intersubjectivity connects to Emile Durkheim.

*a. Schutzs emphasis on shared consciousness and meaning recalls mile Durkheims conceptualization of collective conscience. Durkheim used this term to refer to the totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society that forms a determinate system which has its own life (1893/1984:3839).2 However, in contrast to Durkheim, Schutz does not conceptualize the preorganized and pregiven elements of the lifeworld as acting on the individual with the external power of constraint. Rather, in accordance with the basic premises of symbolic interactionism (see Chapter 5), Schutz views ones natural attitude as based on the acceptance, interpretation, redefinition, and modification of cultural elements by the individual (Wagner 1973:64).

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss the role Max Weber played in Schutzs work on meaning.

*a. In casting interpretive understanding, or Verstehen, as the principal objective of sociology, Weber offered a distinctive counter to those who sought to base sociology on the effort to uncover universal laws applicable to all societies. Schutz sought to expand on Webers conceptualization of Verstehen and interpretive sociology (verstedhende Soziologie) by formulating his own concept of meaning. In other words, while agreeing with Weber that social science must be interpretive, Schutz finds that Weber had failed to state clearly the essential characteristics of understanding (Verstehen), of subjective meaning (gemeinter Sinn), or of action (Handeln) (Walsh:xxi).

 

Type: E

  1. Define and differentiate stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications.

*a. Schutz sets out several interrelated concepts that help clarify the Weberian notion of social action and interpretive understanding. These concepts include lifeworld and intersubjectivity, discussed previously, and stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications. Stocks of knowledge (Erfahrung) provide actors with rules for interpreting interactions, social relationships, organizations, institutions, and the physical world. Although Schutz sometimes uses the terms recipe and typification interchangeably, typification is the process of constructing personal ideal-types based on the typical function of people or things rather than their unique features.

 

Type: E

  1. Define umwelt and mitwelt and show how they connect to stocks of knowledge.

*a. The elements in our stock of knowledge do not contain the same weight or value in every situation. Schutz uses the terms umwelt and mitwelt to differentiate various realms of social experience based on the level of intimacy/immediacy. Specifically, the umwelt is the realm of directly experienced social reality. Umwelt experiences (we relations) are a product of face-to-face relationships and are defined by a high degree of intimacy, as actors are in one anothers immediate copresence. By contrast, the mitwelt (world of contemporaries) is the realm of indirectly experienced social reality. In mitwelt relations, people are experienced only as types, or within larger social structures, rather than individual actors.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the differences and similarities between habitualization and institutionalization.

*a. Habitualization, that is, the process by which the flexibility of human actions is limited. All activity is subject to habitualization, as repeated actions inevitably become routinized. Habitualization carries with it the psychological advantage that choices are narrowed. That an action may be performed again in the future in the same manner and with the same economical effort provides a stable background from which human activity can proceed (Berger and Luckmann 1966:534). Habitualized actions set the stage for institutionalization, for institutionalization occurs whenever there is a reciprocal typification of habitualized action by types of actors (Berger and Luckmann 1966:54). That is, it is when habitualized actions are shared and/or available to all members of the particular social group (ibid.) that institutions are born.

 

Type: E

  1. Show how externalization, objectivation, and reification are connected by defining each concept and also by explaining the relationship between reification and Marxs work.

*a. Berger and Luckmann use the terms externalization, objectivation, and reification to refer to the process by which human activity and society attain the character of objectivity. Externalization and objectivation enable the actor to confront the social world as something outside of herself. Institutions appear external to the individual, as historical and objective facticities. They confront the individual as undeniable facts. Reification is an extreme step in the process of objectivation. In reification, the real relationship between man and his world is reversed in consciousness. For instance, we reify our social roles in such a way that we say, I have no choice in the matter. I have to act this way (ibid.:91). Objectivation and reification are related to the Marxist concept of alienation (Berger and Luckmann 1966:197,200).

 

Type: E

  1. Explain how externalization, objectivation, institutionalization, and internalization are connected in Berger and Luckmanns work.

*a. The final step in the process of externalization, objectivation, and institutionalization is  internalization. Internalization is the immediate apprehension or interpretation of an objective event as expressing meaning (1966:129), that is, the process through which individual subjectivity is attained. Internalization means that the objectivated social world is retrojected into consciousness in the course of socialization. The three moments of externalization, objectivation, and internalization are not to be understood as occurring in a temporal sequence, but rather as a simultaneous, dialectical process. Nevertheless, it is in intergenerational transmission that the process of internalization is complete.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the primary similarity and the central difference between phenomenology and ethnomethodology.

*a. Phenomenologists and ethnomethodologists analyze the taken-for-granted everyday world that is the basis for all human conduct. Phenomenologists seek to explain how people actively produce and sustain meaning. Ethnomethodologists focus less on meaning and subjectivity and more on the actual methods people use to accomplish their everyday lives. In contrast to phenomenology, which as indicated above has close ties to psychology and philosophy, ethnomethodology has close ties to linguistics and mainstream sociology. Ethnomethodologists are more interested in how actors assure each other that meaning is shared than the actual meaning structures themselves.

 

Type: E

  1. Define the term ethnomethodological indifference and its role in the relationship between ethnomethodology and other sociological theoretical perspectives.

*a. Ethnomethodologists strive for ethnomethodological indifference, an attitude of detachment that is rooted in neither intellectual navet nor condescension (Garfinkel and Sacks 1970:346). They seek to suspend belief in a rule-governed order in order to observe how the regular, coherent, connected patterns of social life are described and explained in ways that create that order itself (Zimmerman and Wieder 1970:289). That is, they seek to understand how people see, describe, and jointly develop a definition of the situation (ibid.). Students should contrast this from the structural functionalist, conflict, and interactionist perspectives as well as the sociological imagination.

 

Type: E

  1. Define the concept of bifurcation of consciousness. This term underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.

*a. Smith uses this term to refer to a separation or split between the world as you actually experience it and the dominant view to which you must adapt (e.g., a masculine point of view). The notion of bifurcation of consciousness underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world. Conversely, the dominant group enjoys the privilege of remaining oblivious to the worldview of the Other, or subordinate group, since the Other is fully expected to accommodate to them.

 

Type: E

  1. What examples can you think of that support or refute Smiths position on relations of

ruling.

*a. Thus, Smith (1990b:6) describes relations of ruling as including not only forms such as bureaucracy, administration, management, professional organization and media, but also the complex of discourses, scientific, technical, and cultural, that intersect, interpenetrate, and coordinate them. Smith (1987:4) maintains that behind and within the apparently neutral and impersonal rationality of the ruling apparatus is concealed a male subtext. Women are excluded from the practices of power within textually mediated relations of ruling (ibid.).

Thus, for instance, official psychiatric evaluations replace the individuals actual lived experience with a means for interpreting it; the individual becomes a case history, a type, a disease, a syndrome, and a treatment possibility (Seidman 1994:216). Smith goes on to suggest that because sociology too relies on these same kinds of texts, it too is part and parcel of the relations of ruling.

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss Husserls intersubjective lifeworld and explain the roles both Durkheim and Weber played in influencing Schutzs work.

*a. Husserl used the term lifeworld (Lebenswelt) to refer to the world of existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness (Wagner 1973:63). Husserl (1913) explains how intentional consciousness, that is, directing our attention in one way or another, enables the phenomenologist to reconstruct or bracket his basic views on the world and himself and explore their interconnections. In doing so, Husserl made the lifeworld, or thinking as usual in everyday life situations, a legitimate object of investigation. Phenomenology investigates the systematic bracketing of all existing assumptions regarding the external world. Durkheim used the term collective conscience to refer to the totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society that forms a determinate system which has its own life (1893/1984:3839). However, in contrast to Durkheim, Schutz does not conceptualize the preorganized and pregiven elements of the lifeworld as acting on the individual with the external power of constraint. Rather, in accordance with the basic premises of symbolic interactionism (see Chapter 5), Schutz views ones natural attitude as based on the acceptance, interpretation, redefinition, and modification of cultural elements by the individual  (Wagner 1973:64). Schutz sought to expand on Webers conceptualization of Verstehen and interpretive sociology (verstedhende Soziologie) by formulating his own concept of meaning. Starting with Webers conceptualization of action as behavior to which a subjective meaning is attached, and drawing heavily on Husserl (as well as Bergson), Schutz envisions social action as an action oriented toward the past, present, or future behavior of another person or persons.

 

Type: E

  1. Define stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications drawing upon your own life for concrete examples. Be sure to explain how these concepts differ between different individuals.

*a. Stocks of knowledge (Erfahrung) provide actors with rules for interpreting interactions, social relationships, organizations, institutions, and the physical world. Schutz (1970:98) also refers to stocks of knowledge as cookery-book knowledge. Just as a cookbook has recipes and lists of ingredients and formulas for making something to eat, so, too, we all have a cookbook of recipes, or implicit instructions, for accomplishing everyday life. Indeed, according to Schutz (1970:99), most of our daily activities, from rising to going to bed, are performed by following recipes reduced to automatic habits or unquestioned platitudes. Although Schutz sometimes uses the terms recipe and typification interchangeably, typification is the process of constructing personal ideal-types based on the typical function of people or things rather than their unique features.  Schutzs conceptualization of typification is more individualistic and interactive than the collectivistic sociological notion of stereotype. While stereotypes are, by definition, pregiven and somewhat stagnant or fi

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