Clinical Psychology Science Practice and Culture DSM 5 Update 3rd Edition by Andrew M. Pomerantz Test bank

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Clinical Psychology Science Practice and Culture DSM 5 Update 3rd Edition by Andrew M. Pomerantz Test bank


Test Bank Chapter 7
Diagnosis and Classification Issues

Note: New or modified questions are marked with an *.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The harmful dysfunction theory of mental disorders was developed by
A) Sigmund Freud
B) Jerome Wakefield
C) Emil Kraepelin
D) B. F. Skinner
Ans: B

2. Jerome Wakefield is the creator of the theory of
A) harmful dysfunction.
B) the unconscious.
C) aberrant behavior.
D) categorical disorders.
Ans: A

3. According to the harmful dysfunction theory of mental disorders, when we try to determine what is abnormal, we should consider
A) scientific or evolutionary data
B) the social values that provide the context for the behavior in question
C) all of the above
D) none of the above
Ans: C

*4. The DSM-5 defines mental disorders as
A) a clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior.
B) indicating a dysfunction in mental functioning.
C) usually associated with significant distress or disability in work, relationships, or other areas of functioning.
D) all of the above
Ans: D

5. All editions of the DSM have been published by the
A) American Psychiatric Association
B) American Psychological Association
C) American Psychological Society
D) American Counseling Association
Ans: A

6. The DSM is primarily authored by
A) social workers.
B) counselors.
C) psychologists.
D) psychiatrists.
Ans: D

7. The DSM reflects a medical model of psychopathology, according to which
A) each mental disorder is a byproduct of a medical disorder centered in a part of the body other than the brain.
B) each mental disorder is an entity defined categorically and features a list of specific symptoms.
C) medication is the only acceptable form of treatment for mental disorders.
D) psychotherapy cannot be expected to succeed unless it is accompanied by medication.
Ans: B

*8. Attenuated psychosis syndrome
A) is not mentioned in the current DSM at all.
B) is listed in the Emerging Measures and Models section of the current DSM.
C) is listed as an official disorder in the current DSM.
D) is included in the current DSM as a sub-type of schizophrenia.
Ans: B

*9. Why might naming various experiences mental disorders be beneficial?
A) An official label may help clients demystify an otherwise nameless experience.
B) Naming promotes greater attention to the symptoms by researchers and clinicians.
C) An official diagnosis can help clients gain access to treatment, especially if health insurance is used to pay.
D) All of the above.
Ans: D

*10. Disorders such as attenuated psychosis syndrome are not official diagnoses and are listed as _____ in the DSM-5.
A) upcoming diagnoses
B) research disorders
C) proposed criteria sets
D) cultural diagnoses
Ans: C

11. Hippocrates identified an imbalance in _____ as the source of abnormality.
A) the ego
B) spiritual harmony
C) bodily fluids
D) the unconscious
Ans: C

12. Emil Kraepelin was a pioneer of the diagnosis of mental disorders. Among the categories he identified were _____, which is similar to the current label of bipolar disorder, and _____ which is similar to the current label of schizophrenia.
A) manic-depressive psychosis; dementia praecox
B) anxiety neurosis; disorderly thought psychosis
C) dementia praecox; separation disorder
D) none of the above
Ans: A

13. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the primary purpose of diagnostic categories was
A) the diagnosis of prisoners.
B) the collection of statistical and census data.
C) compliance with health insurance and managed care company policies.
D) to offer guidance toward particular forms of medication and psychotherapy.
Ans: B

16. In the mid-1900s, _____ developed a classification system to treat World War II soldiers that had a significant influence on the creation of the first DSM.
B) the World Health Organization
C) the U.S. Army and Veterans Administration
D) the European Psychiatric Association
Ans: C

17. The first edition of the DSM was published in
A) 1914
B) 1930
C) 1952
D) 1986
Ans: C

18. The first edition of the DSM contained only three broad categories:
A) psychoses, neuroses, and character disorders.
B) internalizing, externalizing, and mediating disorders.
C) primary, secondary, and tertiary disorders.
D) Freudian, Jungian, and undifferentiated disorders.
Ans: A

19. DSM-I and DSM-II
A) were entirely empirically based.
B) reflected a psychoanalytic orientation.
C) included lists of specific symptoms or criteria for each disorder.
D) all of the above
Ans: B

20. DSM-III differed from its predecessors in significant ways, such as
A) the inclusion of a multi-axial system by which clinicians could diagnose clients on five separate axes.
B) the use of specific diagnostic criteria to define disorders.
C) a greater reliance on empirical data rather than clinical consensus.
D) all of the above
Ans: D

21. DSM-III was published in
A) 1952
B) 1968
C) 1980
D) 1994
Ans: C

*22. Which of the following is true?
A) DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR used a multiaxial diagnosis system.
B) DSM-5 uses a multiaxial diagnosis system.
C) DSM-5 switched to a dimensional model of diagnosis.
D) None of the above is/are true.
Ans: A

*23. DSM-5 added a number of new disorders including
A) premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
B) disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.
C) binge eating disorder.
D) All of the above.
Ans: D

*24. New features in DSM-5 include
A) elimination of the multiaxial diagnostic system.
B) the use of Arabic, rather than Roman, numerals in the title.
C) Both A and B.
D) None of the above.
Ans: C

*25. DSM-5 has received numerous criticisms. Which of the following is NOT one of these criticisms?
A) Diagnostic overexpansion
B) Lack of transparency of the revision process
C) The high price of the manual
D) All of the above.
Ans: D

26. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
A) was an official disorder in the original edition of the DSM, but is not mentioned at all in the current edition.
B) is listed as a provisional disorder, or a criteria set for further study, in the current DSM.
C) is a subtype of bipolar disorder.
D) is an official mental disorder in DSM-5.
Ans: D

27. All editions of the DSM have offered a _____ approach to diagnosis.
A) dimensional
B) symptom- or criteria-based
C) categorical
D) multi-axial
Ans: C

28. Essentially, a categorical approach to diagnosis of mental disorders suggests that an individual
A) has a disorder or does not have it.
B) has every disorder to some extent.
C) can only be diagnosed with one disorder at a single point in time.
D) can have multiple disorders at the same time only if those disorders fall within the same larger category, such as mood disorders or anxiety disorders.
Ans: A

29. In recent years, researchers have offered alternatives to the categorical approach to the diagnosis of mental disorders. Specifically, the _____ approach has received significant attention, especially regarding the _____ disorders.
A) dimensional; anxiety
B) dimensional; personality
C) multi-axial; mood
D) medical model; eating
Ans: B

30. Researchers who endorse the dimensional approach to diagnosis of mental problems most often recommend that _____ serve as the basis for the dimensions.
A) the five-factor model of personality
B) cognitive thought distortion categories
C) baseline behavioral data
D) neurosis and psychosis
Ans: A

31. A potential risk of expanding the range of pathology included in the DSM is that
A) more people may have to live with stigma associated with a diagnostic label.
B) the concept of mental illness could be trivialized because it is applied to so many people and experiences.
C) all of the above
D) none of the above
Ans: C

32. Categorical diagnosis of mental illness has many advantages, including the fact that it
A) facilitates communication between professionals.
B) forces professionals to think categorically, which is an unnatural and uncommon manner of cognition among human beings.
C) all of the above
D) none of the above
Ans: A

Short Answer Questions

1. What is harmful dysfunction theory?
Ans: The harmful dysfunction theory proposes that in our efforts to determine what is abnormal, we consider both scientific (e.g., evolutionary) data and the social values in the context of which the behavior takes place.

2. The DSM reflects a _____ model of psychopathology.
Ans: medical

*3. Where are disorders such as internet gaming disorder and attenuated psychosis syndrome listed in DSM-5?
Ans: Emerging Measures and Models

4. Which edition of the DSM was the first to rely heavily on empirical data to determine which diagnoses to include?

*5. What is one major change in DSM-5 in comparison to DSM-IV?
Ans: The use of Arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals in the title; the removal of the multiaxial assessment system

*6. Who was the Chair of the Task Force for DSM-IV and has also been a vocal critic of DSM-5?
Ans: Allen Frances

*7. List one criticism of recent DSMs.
Ans: Breadth of coverage, controversial cutoffs, cultural issues/sensitivity, gender bias, nonempirical influences, limitations on objectivity.

8. The _____ approach to diagnosis examines where on a continuum a clients symptoms fall.
Ans: dimensional

Essay Questions

1. Briefly explain how the inclusion of minor depressive disorder could have beneficial or problematic consequences for clients in the future.

Ans: Beneficial consequences: identify and demystify the experience; allow the client to feel that he shares this experience with others and is not the only one with it; acknowledge the significance of problem to friends, family, employer, self; gain access to treatment. Problematic consequences: view of self as mentally ill could harm self-image; could be stereotyped by others; locate problem in individual rather than in system; negatively influence legal cases, such as child custody.

2. Briefly explain how the professions of the primary authors of the DSM, as well as its publisher, have influenced its approach to conceptualizing mental disorders.

Ans: The DSMs authors have always been primarily medical doctors, and the publisher as always been the American Psychiatric (not Psychological) Association. This results in a medical model and a categorical approach to diagnosis, rather than an alternate approach, such as the dimensional model.

3. Compare and contrast the categorical and dimensional approaches to diagnosis.
Ans: The categorical approach essentially requires a yes/no decision regarding diagnoses; a client either has or doesnt have a disorder. By contrast, the dimensional approach essentially eliminates yes/no categories and replaces them with a dimension or continuum on which clients system can be placed. The categorical approach has always been used by DSM, so it is more familiar at this point; also, it facilitates communication and research. The dimensional approach can produce more accurate client descriptions, especially when dimensions are readily identifiable (as is most true with personality disorders).

4. Describe two DSM-IV disorders that were revised in DSM-5. Be specific about the change(s) that occurred.
Ans: 1. The bereavement exclusion formerly included in the diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode was dropped. 2. The DSM-IV diagnoses of autistic disorder, Aspergers disorder, and related developmental disorders were combined into a single DSM-5 diagnosis: autism spectrum disorder. 3. In the criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the age at which symptoms must first appear was changed from 7 to 12 years old, and the number of symptoms required for the diagnosis to apply to adults was specified as 5 (as opposed to 6 for kids). 4. In the criteria for bulimia nervosa, the frequency of binge eating required for the disorder was dropped from twice per week to once per week. 5. In the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, the requirement that menstrual periods stop has been omitted, and the definition of low body weight has been changed from a numeric definition (less than 85% of expected body weight) to a less specific description that takes into account age, sex, development, and physical health. 6. The two separate DSM-IV diagnoses of substance abuse and substance dependence have been combined into a single diagnosis: substance use disorder. 7. Mental retardation was renamed intellectual disability (intellectual development disorder). 8. Learning disabilities in reading, math, and writing were combined into a single diagnosis with a new name: specific learning disorder.

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