Clinically Oriented Anatomy 7Th Ed By Agur Dalley Test Bank

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Clinically Oriented Anatomy 7Th Ed By Agur Dalley Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Clinically Oriented Anatomy 7Th Ed By Agur Dalley Test Bank

Chapter 4- Back

1. In the following lateral radiograph of the thoracic part of the vertebral column, the arrow points to the:
  A) head of a rib.
  B) pedicle of vertebra.
  C) superior articular facet.
  D) lamina of vertebrae.
  E) spinal nerve.
  Ans: B

 

 

2. In the following AP radiograph of the inferior thoracic and lumbosacral parts of the vertebral column, the arrow points to the:
  A) spinous process of L3.
  B) spinous process of L4.
  C) spinous process of L5.
  D) median sacral crest.
  E) lamina of L5.
  Ans: B

 

 

3. Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to typical cervical vertebrae?
  A) nearly horizontal articular facets
  B) most mobile region of the vertebral column
  C) presence of transverse foramina
  D) presence of uncinate processes
  E) dislocations that are always associated with spinal cord damage
  Ans: E

 

 

4. In the following image of a lateral radiograph of the cervical part of the vertebral column, the arrow points to a fracture of the:
  A) pars interarticularis of the axis (hangmans fracture).
  B) posterior arch of the atlas.
  C) lamina of the atlas.
  D) spinous process of C3.
  E) occipital condyles.
  Ans: A

 

 

5. In the following AP radiograph of the mouth and upper cervical part of the vertebral column, the arrow points to the:
  A) uvula.
  B) spinous process of C3.
  C) dens (odontoid) process of C2 (axis).
  D) anterior tubercle of  C1 (atlas).
  E) canine tooth.
  Ans: C

 

 

6. Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to the thoracic part of the vertebral column?
  A) includes the most frequently fractured vertebra
  B) presence of costal facets
  C) Most vertebrae have horizontal spinous processes.
  D) articular facets that are most effective at limiting flexion
  E) Inferior vertebrae have mammillary processes.
  Ans: C

 

 

7. Lumbar spinal stenosis refers to:
  A) a narrowing of the lumbar intervertebral foramina.
  B) a narrowing of the vertebral (spinal) canal in one or more of the lumbar vertebrae.
  C) a congenitally restricted dural sheath in the lumbar region.
  D) osteoporotic changes in the lumbar bodies that reduce lumbar movements.
  E) progressive abnormal shortening of the lumbar spinous processes resulting in extreme lordosis.
  Ans: B

 

 

8. Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to the sacrum?
  A) It articulates with the L5 vertebra at the lumbosacral angle.
  B) It articulates with the coccyx at its apex.
  C) Its sacral hiatus leads to the sacral canal.
  D) Its cornua articulate with the inferior articular facets of the L5 vertebra.
  E) It articulates with the ilium at the auricular surface.
  Ans: D

 

 

9. During vertebral ossification, the costal elements in the cervical region:
  A) become part of the spinous processes.
  B) become part of the transverse processes.
  C) become part of the vertebral arch.
  D) never develop.
  E) degenerate.
  Ans: B

 

 

10. The following lateral view MRI of the lumbosacral part of the vertebral column shows:
  A) L4/L5 IV disc hypertrophy.
  B) L4/L5 IV disc herniation.
  C) L5/S1 IV disc hypertrophy.
  D) L5/S1 IV disc herniation.
  E) spondylosis of the vertebral lamina at L5.
  Ans: D

 

 

11. The following lateral view MRI of the lumbosacral part of the vertebral column shows:
  A) a fracture of the vertebral body at L5.
  B) a fracture of the sacrum.
  C) spondylolisthesis.
  D) sacral movement associated with parturition.
  E) separation of the sacroiliac ligament.
  Ans: C

 

 

12. Spina bifida cystica refers to a congenital anomaly characterized by:
  A) an asymptomatic bifurcation of the cauda equina.
  B) a division of the L5 vertebral body that is often associated with sciatica.
  C) a developmental defect of one more lumbar vertebral arches that may be associated with limb paralysis and deficiencies in bowel/bladder control.
  D) an abnormal division of spinal nerves so that lower limb movement control is disturbed.
  E) the spinous processes of all of the presacral vertebral column being bifid.
  Ans: C

 

 

13. Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to IV discs?
  A) They are traversed by blood vessels that are branches of the anterior and posterior spinal arteries.
  B) They differ in thickness in different parts of the vertebral column.
  C) Cervical and lumbar discs are thicker anteriorly than posteriorly.
  D) The nucleus pulposus is primarily composed of water.
  E) The annulus fibrosus is composed of concentric lamellae of fibrocartilage.
  Ans: A

 

 

14. Which of the following is correct pertaining to the longitudinal ligaments of the vertebral column?
  A) Both tend to limit hyperflexion.
  B) Both tend to limit hyperextension.
  C) The anterior limits hyperextension whereas the posterior limits hyperflexion.
  D) The anterior limits hyperflexion whereas the posterior limits hyperextension.
  E) Both limit lateral flexion.
  Ans: C

 

 

15. Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to herniation of the nucleus pulposus?
  A) usually occurs posterolaterally
  B) may produce lumbago
  C) may produce sciatica
  D) tends to occur acutely in an elderly person
  E) typically occurs at or near the lumbosacral junction
  Ans: D

 

 

16. Typically, cervical disc herniation:
  A) results from forcible hyperextension.
  B) affects the spinal nerve exiting at the level of the affected disc (C5 nerve affected with C4/C5 disc herniation).
  C) is associated with vertebral body fracture.
  D) is associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints.
  E) is associated with rupture of the ligamentum flavum.
  Ans: B

 

 

17. Which one of the following associations is incorrect?
  A) tectorial membranesuperior continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament
  B) cruciate (cruciform) ligamentcomposed of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the longitudinal bands
  C) rupture of the transverse ligament of the atlasatlantoaxial subluxation
  D) rupture of the alar ligamentsincreased range in head movements
  E) fracture of the densanterior dislocation of C3C5 vertebrae
  Ans: E

 

 

18. While driving under the influence of alcohol, one of your patients hit a streetlight head-on at 50 mph. There is some concern that she injured her vertebral column. As a result of this accident, which of the following injuries would be most likely?
  A) fracture of the facet joints at C3/C4
  B) fracture of the facet joints at T12/L1
  C) fracture of the facet joints at L5/S1
  D) fracture of the body of T12
  E) dislocation of C3 on C4
  Ans: D

 

 

19. Excessive lumbar lordosis is associated with all of the following except:
  A) pregnancy.
  B) obesity.
  C) unequal limb length.
  D) hollow back.
  E) anterior rotation of the pelvis.
  Ans: C

 

 

20. Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to the neurovascular supply of the vertebral column?
  A) The vertebral bodies are supplied exclusively by the anterior and posterior spinal arteries.
  B) Venous drainage is to both internal (within the vertebral canal) and external venous plexuses.
  C) Zygapophyseal joints are supplied by medial branches of posterior rami of spinal nerves.
  D) Pain fibers from the ligamentum flavum are conveyed by (recurrent) meningeal branches of spinal nerves.
  E) Proprioceptive fibers from the anterior longitudinal ligament are conveyed by (recurrent) meningeal branches of spinal nerves.
  Ans: A

 

 

21. The following lateral radiograph of the thoracic part of the vertebral column is from a patient with severe osteoporosis. Which of the following conditions does it demonstrate?
  A) kyphosis
  B) scoliosis
  C) lordosis
  D) IV disc herniation
  E) vertebral body hypertrophy
  Ans: A

 

 

22. Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to the lumbar cistern?
  A) It contains CSF.
  B) It contains the cauda equina.
  C) It contains the internal filum terminale.
  D) It typically begins in adults at L2.
  E) It contains epidural fat.
  Ans: E

 

 

23. The denticulate ligaments:
  A) anchor the dural sac to the walls of the vertebral canal.
  B) anchor the spinal cord to the dural sac.
  C) are composed of arachnoid matter.
  D) are composed of dura matter.
  E) attach to the filum terminale.
  Ans: B

 

 

24. One of your patients is about to undergo emergency surgery to repair an upper  abdominal aortic aneurysm. You explain to your patient that there is a distinct risk that when he awakes from surgery, the lower half of his body will be paralyzed. The most likely reason for this is that:
  A) the anesthesiologist will incorrectly inject the anesthetic fluid into the spinal cord instead of into the lumbar cistern.
  B) the surgeon will accidentally cut into the spinal cord.
  C) ligation of the aorta will interrupt blood flow to the great anterior medullary artery (of Adamkiewicz).
  D) access to the aorta requires partial transaction of the lumbosacral trunk.
  E) during surgery venous thrombosis may result in a stroke.
  Ans: C

 

 

25. In the following myelogram, the drawn loop encircles the:
  A) filum terminale.
  B) conus medullaris.
  C) body of L3.
  D) cauda equina.
  E) sympathetic trunk.
  Ans: D

 

 

26. The semispinalis capitis:
  A) is part of the erector spinae group of muscles.
  B) when acting unilaterally, rotates the head so that the face points to the ipsilateral side.
  C) when acting bilaterally, flexes the neck.
  D) is innervated by cervical and upper thoracic posterior rami.
  E) is superficial to the splenius capitis.
  Ans: D

 

 

27. The rotatores:
  A) have a relatively large mechanical advantage for producing trunk rotation.
  B) possibly function primarily as kinesiological monitors or organs of proprioception.
  C) are part of the erector spinae group of muscles.
  D) are attached to the transverse processes of a pair of consecutive vertebrae.
  E) when acting bilaterally, can produce trunk flexion.
  Ans: B

 

 

28. Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to the vertebral artery?
  A) It traverses the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae.
  B) If partially occluded, it can cause dizziness upon turning the head.
  C) It traverses the suboccipital triangle.
  D) It traverses a groove on the posterior arch of the atlas.
  E) It only has branches that supply the brain.
  Ans: E

 

 

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