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Multiple Choice Questions
1. Each year, approximately __________ state and federal prisoners are released from prison on supervision each year.
a. 1 million
c. 2 million
ANS: B REF: p. 42 LO: 1
2. Which of the following statements best describe parole?
a. the conditional release of a convicted offender from a correctional institution, under the continued custody of the state, to serve the remainder of his or her sentence in the community under supervision.
b. involves forgiveness of the offender by the victim
c. is an executive act of grace
d. is entering the community automatically after the expiration of a maximum term less time off for good behavior
ANS: A REF: p. 42 LO: 5
3. There are two types of post-prison supervision: discretionary release and _________ release.
ANS: A REF: 42 LO: 1
4. Discretionary release is decided by __________.
a. prison administrators
b. the parole board
c. prison medical doctors
d. a judge
ANS: B REF: 42 LO: 1
5. The American colonies and English Government agreed to transport English criminals to American colonies to:
a. provide a humane form of punishment
b. partially alleviate the poor economic conditions and unemployment in England
c. banish dangerous criminals
d. study the effects of conditional liberation
ANS: B REF: p. 46 LO: 1
6. The word parole is derived from the French parole dhonneur, which means:
a. word of honor
b. contract of consent
c. ticket of leave
d. discretionary release
ANS: A REF: 44 LO: 1
7. Sir Walter Crofton, who had studied Maconochies innovations on Norfolk Island, became the administrator of the __________ prison system in 1854.
ANS: C REF: p. 46-47 LO: 3
8. Under Croftons administration, the Irish system became known for its three levels. Which of the following is not one of these levels?
a. strict imprisonment
b. indeterminate sentence
d. parole dhonneur
ANS: D REF: 46-47 LO: 3
9. Which of the following is not one of the four concepts that underlie the development of parole in the United States?
a. Reduction in length of incarceration as reward for good conduct
b. Supervision of parolee
c. Imposition of indeterminate sentence
d. Reduction of prison populations
ANS: D REF: p. 47 LO: 4
10. The American prison reformer who introduced parole to the Elmira Reformatory in New York in 1876 was:
a. Walter Crofton
b. William Penn
c. Zebulon R. Brockway
d. Jeremy Bentham
ANS: C REF: p. 47 LO: 3
11. The __________ model of corrections assumed criminal behavior was caused primarily by environmental and psychosocial aspects of the offenders life and that corrections could correct the behavior.
b. law enforcement
d. social work
ANS: C REF: p. 48 LO: 3
12. Under the medical model, the court set a minimum and maximum release date and the parole board determined when the appropriate time was to release the offender back into the community. This is a(n) _________ sentence.
ANS: A REF: p. 48 LO: 4
13. Manuel Montesinos was the governor of a prison in _______ and is often credited, along with Georg Michael Obermaier and Alexander Maconochie for creating parole.
ANS: A REF: p. 44 LO: 2
14. In the 1970s there was a move away from individualism, rehabilitation, and sentence indeterminacy towards giving the offender a more punitive sentence based on the offense. This type of sentencing practice is:
a. indeterminate sentencing
b. determinate sentencing
c. split sentencing
d. rehabilitative sentencing
ANS: B REF: p. 49 LO: 4
15. The correctional practice based on the concept of just deserts and even-handed punishment that calls for fairness in criminal sentencing, in that all persons convicted of a similar offense will receive a like sentence, is known as the:
a. Justice model
b. Casework era
c. Medical model
d. Service broker model
ANS: A REF: p. 48-49 LO: 4
16. As of 2005, ___ states and the federal system had replaced discretionary release with mandatory release by abolishing parole boards for all offenses, and another five states had abolished discretionary release for violent offenses.
ANS: C REF: p. 48 LO: 4
17. Under ____________ release, offenders reentered society when correctional authorities and board members believed they were ready or they had improved their lives enough to earn the privilege to be released.
a. Croftons Parole
d. good time
ANS: C REF: p. 48-49 LO: 4
18. One study showed that first time offenders in states without discretionary parole actually served _____ time in prison than in states that retained parole boards.
c. the same
d. ten years less
ANS: A REF: p. 49 LO: 4
19. Reasons presented by the American Probation and Parole Association and the Association of Paroling Authorities to justify keeping parole include:
a. Parole boards can impose prisoner participation in treatment programs.
b. Victims have a greater say in parole board hearings than the automatic releases.
c. Release decisions are made by a computer under automatic release.
d. All of the above.
ANS: D REF: p. 51 LO: 4
20. The geographic region of the country that had the highest concentration of parolees in the populations is the:
ANS: A REF: p. 51 LO: 4
21. Parolees typically serve how much time under supervision in the community?
a. 3 months
b. 6 months
c. 1-2 years
d. more than 3 years
ANS: C REF: p. 51 LO: 4
22. For which of the following crime types were parolees most frequently convicted?
a. violent crimes
b. drug crimes
c. property crimes
d. sex crimes
ANS: B REF: p. 44 LO: 5
23. The largest number of parolees in the community under supervision are:
a. community controlees
b. discretionary parolees
c. mandatory releasees
d. expiration releasees
ANS: C REF: p. 46 LO: 4
24. The function of parole has changed its traditional role. It is now tasked primarily with:
a. protecting the public from released offenders
b. rehabilitating the offender
c. providing community help services for the offender
d. meeting the multiple treatment needs of the offender
ANS: A REF: p. 51 LO: 4
25. Most authorities agree that in the long term, it is not feasible to control prison populations only by __________ action.
a. probation board
b. parole board
c. court clerk
ANS: B REF: p. 49 LO: 4
26. Using parole for population control has had detrimental effects on postrelease supervision because of escalating ________ sizes.
b. court docket
c. jail populations
d. resource agency
ANS: A REF: p. 53 LO: 4
27. The conditional release of an inmate with a terminal illness is:
a. mercy pardon
b. conditional pardon
c. medical parole
d. mandatory release
ANS: C REF: p. 53 LO: 5
28. Sixty-five percent of state and federal prison systems and 44 percent of city/county jails have a ________ parole policy, but few states utilize this option.
c. good time
ANS: A REF: p. 53 LO: 5
29. Thirty percent of parolees are removed from parole for:
a. a new crime
b. too many rule violations
c. a drug crime
d. curfew violations
ANS: B REF: p. 51 LO: 4
30. What percent of all people released from prison do not receive post-prison supervision?
ANS: B REF: p. 55 LO: 3
1. The terms parole and mandatory release are synonymous terms.
ANS: false REF: p. 42 LO: 4
2. The decision to grant discretionary parole is made by a parole board.
ANS: true REF: p. 44-45 LO: 4
3. Georg Michael Obermaier was warden at Norfolk Island in 1842 and implemented humane prison reforms and a rudimentary form of parole.
ANS: false REF: p. 45 LO: 2
4. Credit for developing an early form of our current parole system goes to Alexander Maconochie, who was in charge of the English penal colony at Norfolk Island.
ANS: true REF: p. 45 LO: 2
5. Felons were transported to American colonies as a partial solution to the poor economic conditions and unemployment in England.
ANS: true REF: p. 45 LO: 1
6. The English Government designated Australia as a convict settlement and paid for the transportation and maintenance of English prisoners shipped to Australia.
ANS: true REF: p. 45 LO: 1
7. Maconochie, an opponent of the mark system, believed prisoners should be kept in leg irons without relief from an imposed sentence.
ANS: false REF: p. 45 LO: 2
8. The Irish System was developed by Sir Walter Crofton and involved the conditional release of offenders into the community under supervision.
ANS: true REF: p. 46 LO: 3
9. In the United States, parole was first tried in New York at Elmira Reformatory.
ANS: true REF: p. 47 LO: 3
10. Reduction in the rising prison population was the most important of the four justifications for the development of parole in the United States.
ANS: false REF: p. 47 LO: 4
11. An indeterminate sentence law was adopted in 1876 in New York with the help of prison superintendent William Penn.
ANS: false REF: p. 47 LO: 3
12. The medical model made the assumption that all criminality was caused by psychiatric problems and the undesirable behaviors could be modified only through professional counseling.
ANS: false REF: p. 48 LO: 4
13. In the 1970s there was a dramatic change from a focus on individualism, rehabilitation, and indeterminate sentences to determinate sentencing.
ANS: true REF: p. 48 LO: 4
14. In contrast to the rehabilitative ideal, the just deserts or justice model changes the focus of the system from the offender to the offense.
ANS: true REF: p. 48 LO: 4
15. In 1977, nearly nine out of ten prisoners were released via a parole board.
ANS: true REF: p. 48 LO: 4
16. Under discretionary release, offenders are released no matter how many disciplinary reports they have had or how they acted while incarcerated.
ANS: false REF: p. 48 LO: 4
17. Parolees typically serve more than one year of time on supervision.
ANS: true REF: p. 51 LO: 5
18. Despite the changes in parole models, the parole success rates have remained unchanged with less than half of all parolees able to successfully complete their parole term.
ANS: true REF: p. 51 LO: 5
19. Most authorities agree that it is not feasible to control prison populations in the long term by the use of parole board action.
ANS: true REF: p. 53 LO: 4
20. Medical parole occurs when medical doctors and experts in the community advise the prison officials that they must release a prisoner because their medical condition is such that they are going to cost more than the average offender per day to incarcerate.
ANS: false REF: p. 53 LO: 5
1. __________ is the conditional release of an offender from confinement in a correctional institution by a parole board.
ANS: discretionary release REF: p. 42 LO: 4
2. The English word parole is derived from the French phrase, ___________, which means word of honor.
ANS: Parole dhonneur REF: p. 44 LO: 3
3. The __________of English criminals to the American colonies evolved from a 1597 law that provided for the banishment of dangerous criminals.
ANS: transportation REF: p. 45 LO: 1
4. ____________ proposed a marks system by which daily credits were credited to a prisoner based on the amount of labor performed and behavior.
ANS: Alexander Maconochie REF: p. 47 LO: 2
5. Sir Walter Crofton refined the scheme originated by Maconochie, into what is known today as the ____________, or Irish system.
ANS: ticket-of-leave REF: p. 46 LO: 3
6. The ___________ was renowned for its three classes of penal servitude: strict imprisonment, indeterminate sentences, and ticket-of-leave.
ANS: Irish System REF: p. 46 LO: 3
7. Federal parole began in June 1910, due to legislation that established the first three federal __________.
ANS: penitentiaries REF: p. 47 LO: 4
8. The rehabilitative ideal known as the __________ model dominated American corrections between the 1930s and the 1960s.
ANS: medical REF: p. 48 LO: 4
9. Although parole has generally drawn support from many sources and has a history of consensual acceptance, it drew heavy criticism for not fulfilling its promise after ____________.
ANS: World War I REF: p.51 LO: 4
10. The Vietnam War, the Kent State shootings, and the Attica prison uprising convinced many ________ that the state could not be trusted to administer rehabilitation in a just and humane manner.
ANS: liberals REF: p. 51 LO: 4
11. For conservatives, the 1974 publication by Robert Martinson was interpreted that few correctional treatment programs worked and the indeterminate sentence, parole, and treatment programs were too __________ on crime.
ANS: soft REF: p. 53 LO: 4
12. First-time offenders on mandatory release serve __________ time on average in prison than do first timers with discretionary release.
ANS: less REF: p. 49 LO: 5
13. Generally, the __________ region of the United States had the highest incarceration rates, but the lowest parole rates.
ANS: Southern REF: p. 51 LO: 4
14. Parole is tasked primarily with _________ the public from released offenders
ANS: protecting REF: p. 46 LO: 4
15. The conditional release from prison to the community for prisoners with terminal illnesses who do not pose an undue risk to public safety is ________ .
ANS: medical release REF: p. 53 LO: 4
1. Discuss Manuel Montesinos and Georg Michael Obermaier and their contributions to discretionary release and the development of parole.
ANS: In 1835 Col. Manuel Montesinos was appointed governor of the prison at Valencia, Spain, which held about 1,500 convicts. He organized the institution using military-type discipline, and he encouraged prisoner vocational training and education. The novelty of his plan was that there were practically no officers to watch the prisoners, who nevertheless made few, if any, attempts to escape. Each prisoner could earn a one-third reduction in the term of his sentence by good behavior and positive accomplishments. The number of prisoner recommitments while Montesinos was governor was significantly reduced. Despite all his efforts, the law that allowed this program was subsequently repealed, and Montesinos ultimately resigned.
Georg Michael Obermaier became governor of a prison in Munich, Germany, in 1842 where he found approximately 700 rebellious prisoners being kept in order by more than 100 soldiers (Wines 1919). In a short time he gained the mens confidence, removed their chains, discharged nearly all of their guards, and appointed one of them superintendent of each of the industrial shops. His success in reforming prisoners was so great that reportedly only 10 percent of prisoners relapsed into crime after their discharge. He was aided by two favorable circumstances: Many of the men had no fixed term of imprisonment, and discharged inmates were supervised by prison aid societies.
REF: p. 44-45 LO: 1
2. Compare Croftons ticket-of-leave and Maconochies marks system? How do they compare to the contemporary U.S. system?
ANS: In 1837 Alexander Maconochie proposed to the House of Commons a system whereby the duration of the sentence would be determined not by time but by the prisoners industry and good conduct. He proposed a marks system by which marks or credits would be credited daily to prisoners in accordance with their behavior and the amount of labor they performed. As prisoners demonstrated evidence of good behavior and a good work ethic, their freedom and privileges gradually increased. Marks were deducted for negative behavior. Maconochies system allowed prisoners to move from strict imprisonment, to labor in work gangs, through conditional release around the island, and finally to complete restoration of liberty (Morris, 2002). It should be noted the primary condition attached to the release was to not incur further law violations and the behavior of the releasee was not supervised in the sense that it is today.
Sir Walter Crofton, who had studied Maconochies innovations on Norfolk Island, became the administrator of the Irish prison system in 1854. Crofton adopted the use of the marks system inside prison. Under Croftons administration, the Irish system became renowned for its three levels: strict imprisonment, indeterminate sentence, and ticket of leave. Each prisoners classification was determined by the marks he or she had earned for good conduct and achievement in industry and education, a concept borrowed from Maconochies experience on Norfolk Island. The ticket-of-leave system was different from the one in England. The general written conditions of the Irish ticket-of-leave were supplemented with instructions designed for closer supervision and control and thus resembled the conditions of parole in the United States today. Ticket of leave men and women residing in rural areas were under police supervision, but a civilian employee called the inspector of released prisoners supervised those living in Dublin. The inspector had the responsibility of securing employment for the ticket of leave person, visiting his or her residence, and verifying employment. The Irish system of ticket of leave had the confidence and support of the public and of convicted criminals.
REF: p. 46-47 LO: 2 & 3
3. Why did England transport convicts to America and Australia?
ANS: The transportation of English criminals to the American colonies evolved from a 1597 law that provided for the banishment of dangerous criminals. The government transported convicted felons to the American colonies as a partial solution to the poor economic conditions and widespread unemployment in England. The king approved the proposal to grant reprieves and stays of executionpardonsto convicted felons who could physically be employed in the colonies. Until 1717 the government had paid a fee to contractors for each prisoner transported. Under a new procedure adopted that year, the contractor was given property in service, and the government took no interest in the welfare or behavior of the offender unless he or she violated the conditions of the pardon by returning to England before the sentence expired. Upon arrival in the colonies, the services of the prisoner were sold to the highest bidder, and thereafter the prisoner was an indentured servant.
The Revolutionary War brought an end to the practice of transporting criminals to America, but the transportation law was not repealed. Detention facilities in England became overcrowded, resulting in a more liberal granting of pardons. During a serious crime wave, the English public demanded enforcement of the transportation law, and Australia was designated as a convict settlement, with the first shipload arriving there in 1788. Transportation to Australia differed from transportation to the American colonies in that the government incurred all expenses of transportation and maintenance, and the prisoners remained under government control instead of being indentured. The governor of New South Wales granted conditional pardonssetting deserving convicts free and giving them grants of land, and even assigning newly arrived convict laborers to them. In 1811 a policy was adopted that required prisoners to serve specific periods of time before becoming eligible to receive a ticket of leave (for example, a seven-year sentence became eligible for the ticket of leave after four years, and those serving life sentences after eight years). However, there were no provisions for supervision of ticket of leave men.
REF: p. 46 LO: 1
4. What was the medical model and why did it lose favor?
ANS: Parole was seen as a major adjunct to the rehabilitation philosophy that dominated American corrections from the 1930s through the 1960s. This rehabilitative ideal, called the medical model, assumed that criminal behavior had its roots in environmental and psychosocial aspects of the offenders life and that these behaviors could be corrected. This meant that every offender would be dealt with on an individual basis to determine the causes of his or her criminal behavior.
Under the old punitive model of corrections, the question was What did he do? The medical model was more concerned with why criminals commit crime and what can be done to improve the convicts situation. According to the medical model, if prison staff could diagnose and treat badness, then the lawbreaker should be released when cured. The mechanisms for accomplishing this were the indeterminate sentence and parole. The release decision was thus shared between the court, which sets a minimum and a maximum period of incarceration, and the correctional system. The parole boards responsibility was to determine the optimal release time at which the inmate is most ready to reenter the community as a responsible citizen.
REF: p. 48 LO: 4
5. What is the justice model of corrections? What factors were associated with its emergence in the 1970s?
ANS: In the 1970s, individualism, rehabilitation, sentence indeterminacy, and parole all seemed to fall from grace and appeared to be on their way out. A national commission stated, One of the movements we are currently witnessing in the criminal justice field is the trend toward the establishment of determinate or fixed sentencing of criminal offenders (National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals 1973). The correctional systems failure to reduce the steadily increasing crime rate and its inability to reduce recidivism, rehabilitate offenders, or make predictive judgments about offenders future behavior brought about public disillusionment, disappointment, and resentment. Concern also arose that wide and unfair disparities existed in sentencing based on the offenders race, socioeconomic status, and place of conviction (Petersilia, 2000b). The pendulum began to swing, and by the late 1970s it seemed to have moved 180 degrees from the rehabilitative ideal to the just deserts approach to criminal correction.
In contrast to the rehabilitative ideal, the just deserts or justice model changes the focus of the system from the offender to the offense. Liberals and conservatives alike embraced determinate sentencing and the abolition of parole, but for different reasons (Cullen and Gilbert, 1982). The Vietnam War, the Kent State shootings, and the Attica prison uprising convinced many liberals that the state could not be trusted to administer rehabilitation in a just and humane manner. The indeterminate sentence was too vague and without due process protections to limit discretion. The just deserts approach was perceived as providing fair punishment. For conservatives, the 1974 publication by Robert Martinson was interpreted that few correctional treatment programs worked and the indeterminate sentence, parole, and treatment programs were too soft on crime. Determinate sentencing and the just deserts approach was seen as a return to a punishment oriented correctional system. (Cullen and Gilbert, 1982).
REF: p. 48-49 LO: 4
6. Differentiate between mandatory release and discretionary release and explain the role of parole.
ANS: There are two types of post-prison supervision: discretionary and mandatory release. Individuals on mandatory release enter the community automatically at the expiration of their maximum term minus credited time off for good behavior. Mandatory release is decided by legislative statute or good-time laws. In contrast to mandatory release, individuals released on discretionary release enter the community because members of a parole board have decided that the prisoner has earned the privilege of being released from prison while still remaining under supervision of an indeterminate sentence.
Parole is the conditional release of a convicted offender from a correctional institution, under the continued custody of the state, to serve the remainder of his or her sentence in the community under supervision. Historically, parole referred only to discretionary release. But as laws and release methods changed, parolees became a more general concept that has incorporated mandatory supervision. Parole is a broad concept that refers to post-prison supervision of both mandatory and discretionary released offenders. Parolees on both mandatory release and discretionary release are supervised by a parole officer and adhere to similar conditions. If these conditions are not followed, either type of parolee (mandatory or discretionary) can be returned to prison for the remainder of the sentence.
REF: p. 42-43 LO: 4
7. Explain the concept of medical parole and discuss the pros and cons releasing offenders due to medical conditions.
ANS: Medical parole, also known as compassionate release, is an option for some elderly prisoners or prisoners with terminal illnesses who are no longer viewed as a risk to public safety if released to the community. Due to the high costs of health care and the increased age of prisoners in America, there has been an increase in the discussion surrounding medical parole. To be eligible for medical parole, prisoners must have a medical condition that is terminal, permanently limits them from movement, or a medical condition that could be treated less expensively in a community treatment facility instead of a prison.
Medical parole is not the widely used, despite the arguments showing it to be a more cost-effective and humane approach to hospice care for inmates and their families. Two-thirds of prison systems and nearly half of all city/county jails have a medical parole policy, but only about 300 people are released each year on medical parole (Hammett, Harmon, & Maruschak, 1999).
Pros of medical parole include a decrease in health care costs for prison/jail systems, as well as a more humane approach for inmates who are suffering from terminal illnesses or who are very elderly. Cons are that the public often does not support medical parole due to the type of crime committed. The victim and his or her family may also oppose medical parole. This lack of public and victim support was evident in the Susan Atkins case. Susan Atkins was a follower of Charles Manson and was convicted for highly publicized murders. She developed brain cancer and was transferred to community hospice to live out her final days, rather than being released on medical parole, because of the victims familys wishes that she remain incarcerated.
REF: 53-54 LO: 5
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