Comparative Cognition By Olmstead Kuhlmeier Test Bank

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Comparative Cognition By Olmstead Kuhlmeier Test Bank

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Comparative Cognition By Olmstead Kuhlmeier Test Bank

chapter 2

1.
Which
of
the
following
is
false
about
visual
adaptations?
a)
Animals
that
inhabit
environments
with
different
patterns
of
light
absorption
have
evolved
different
visual
sensitivities.
b)
Some
guppies
are
more
sensitive
to
red
light
while
others
are
more
sensitive
to
blue
light.
c)
Nocturnal
animals
have
a
much
higher
proportion
of
cones
than
rods.
d)
Animals
that
have
very
good
binocular
vision
have
a
much
smaller
field
of
view.
2.
Which
of
the
following
is
true
about
sensory
adaptations?
a)
All
snake
species
respond
at
higher
rates
to
chemical
cues
than
to
visual
or
thermal
cues.
b)
Noctuid
moths
have
ears
that
provide
feedback
on
wing
position
and
detect
sound.
c)
Fruit
flies
show
an
increase
in
eye
size
that
is
related
to
their
time
in
an
environment
with
minimal
light.
d)
The
stripes
on
zebras
act
as
insect
repellant.
3.
According
to
the
sensory
drive
hypothesis,
a)
sophisticated
sensory
abilities
emerge
when
there
are
harsh
ecological
conditions.
b)
natural
selection
favors
sensory
adaptations
that
maximize
the
effectiveness
of
communication
in
a
new
environment.
c)
selective
pressures
reduce
sensory
traits
that
are
too
costly
to
maintain.
d)
sensory
preferences
drive
particular
traits
to
become
selected
for.
4.
In
one
experiment,
Greylag
geese
retrieved
and
attempted
to
incubate
giant
artificial
eggs,
while
neglecting
their
own
normal
sized
eggs.
This
is
an
example
of
a)
sensory
bias.
b)
Sensory
exploitation.
c)
maladaptation.
d)
a
and
b.
Chapter 2
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 11
5.
The
period
in
which
experience
dependent
changes
can
have
profound
and
enduring
effects
on
development
is
called
the
a)
critical
period.
b)
sensitive
period.
c)
sensory
period.
d)
experience-dependent
period.
6.
Which
of
the
following
statements
does
not
fit
the
compensatory
plasticity
hypothesis?
a)
A
loss
or
a
deficit
in
one
sense
leads
to
a
heightened
capacity
in
another.
b)
Once
one
sense
becomes
dominant
during
development,
it
cannot
be
reversed.
c)
Compensatory
plasticity
provides
a
mechanism
for
adaptation
across
generations.
d)
None
of
the
above
statements
fit
the
hypothesis.
7.
How
do
sensory
receptors
code
for
stimulus
duration?
a)
Pattern
of
firing.
b)
Rate
of
firing.
c)
Number
of
neurons
firing.
d)
Duration
of
firing.
8.
What
is
the
simplest
way
to
study
discrimination
abilities
in
animals?
a)
Breed
and
raise
animals
under
different
stimulus
conditions.
b)
Experimentally
manipulate
the
physical
attributes
of
a
sensory
stimulus.
c)
Train
animals
to
make
one
response
when
a
stimulus
is
present
and
another
when
it
is
absent.
d)
Vigilance
tasks.
9.
What
happens
between
sensation
and
perception?
a)
Sensory
information
is
taken
apart
and
then
recombined
and
integrated
at
relay
nuclei.
b)
Sensory
information
is
filtered
by
specialized
neurons.
c)
Sensory
information
divided
into
elements
and
then
reprocessed
to
produce
a
perceptual
whole.
d)
Sensation
and
perception
happen
at
the
same
time.
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 12
10.
Schneider
showed
that
lesions
of
the
visual
cortex
rendered
golden
hamsters
unable
to
discriminate
between
visual
stimuli,
but
did
not
impair
the
ability
to
turn
towards
a
food
reward.
How
can
this
be?
a)
The
hamsters
could
smell
the
food.
b)
The
visual
system
that
identifies
the
where
of
stimuli
was
intact
in
these
hamsters.
c)
The
hamsters
lateral
geniculate
nucleus
showed
compensatory
plasticity.
d)
Lesions
of
the
visual
cortex
do
not
impair
a
hamsters
ability
to
attend
to
relevant
stimuli.
11.
Blue
jays
were
better
at
detecting
one
type
of
moth
over
another
if
it
appeared
in
successive
trials.
What
does
this
finding
suggest?
a)
Blue
jays
were
using
selective
attention.
b)
Blue
jays
were
using
sustained
attention.
c)
Blue
jays
were
forming
search
images.
d)
a
and
c.
12.
The
Sensory
Drive
Hypothesis
states:
When
populations
occupy
new
habitats
with
different
sensory
environments,
natural
selection
favors
adaptations
that
maximize
the
effectiveness
of
______.
a)
foraging.
b)
mating.
c)
prey
detection.
d)
communication.
13.
What
is
the
biggest
indicator
of
how
much
of
the
environment
an
animal
can
see
at
once?
a)
Where
its
eyes
are
located.
b)
How
big
its
eyes
are.
c)
How
big
its
pupils
are.
d)
How
big
its
head
is.
14.
Vision
is
an
example
of
a
a)
feature.
b)
dimension.
c)
sensory
modality.
d)
stimulus.
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 13
15.
Which
of
the
following
is
the
best
definition
for
psychophysics?
a)
A
branch
of
psychology
concerned
with
how
sensations
are
translated
into
mental
processes.
b)
A
branch
of
psychology
concerned
with
the
interaction
between
the
physics
of
movement
(e.g.,
inertia,
momentum)
and
perception.
c)
A
branch
of
psychology
concerned
with
examining
psychopaths.
d)
A
branch
of
psychology
that
examines
how
learning
and
memory
shape
perception.
16.
What
is
the
primary
factor
which
shapes
the
types
of
sensory
information
that
an
animal
uses
to
find
food
or
mates
and
to
hide
from
predators?
a)
The
size
of
the
animal.
b)
How
plentiful
food,
mates,
young
and
predators
are.
c)
The
environment
in
which
they
are
active.
d)
How
quickly
the
animal
moves.
17.
Many
animals
have
evolved
in
such
a
way
that
it
is
difficult
for
them
to
hide
from
predators.
What
is
a
primary
explanation
for
this
paradox?
a)
Being
visible
to
predators
makes
the
animals
liable
to
be
inadvertently
harmed.
b)
Being
more
visible
to
predators
also
makes
them
more
visible
to
potential
mates.
c)
Animals
have
to
sacrifice
mobility
to
remain
hidden.
d)
Animals
have
multiple
predators
with
different
sensory
abilities.
18.
Children
who
are
born
with
cataracts
never
fully
recover
their
sight
if
they
are
removed
after
the
age
of
3.
Cataracts
that
develop
and
are
removed
in
adulthood
have
no
impact
on
this
vision.
This
reflects
the
fact
that
the
visual
system
has
a
specific:
a)
type
of
energy
that
it
responds
to.
b)
peak
developmental
period.
c)
sensitive
period.
d)
functional
period.
19.
The
loss
or
deficit
in
one
sense
that
leads
to
a
heightened
capacity
in
another
sense
is
related
to
the
a)
sensory
preference
hypothesis.
b)
plastic
development
principle.
c)
compensatory
plasticity
hypothesis.
d)
compensatory
development
principle.
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 14
20.
__________
are
produced
when
physical
stimuli
activate
receptors
which
send
neural
signals
to
the
rest
of
the
CNS.
________________
is
the
interpretation
of
these
signals
when
the
sensory
information
is
processed,
organized
and
filtered.
a)
Sensations;
Perception.
b)
Sensory
Illusions;
Sensation.
c)
Sensations;
Attention.
d)
Sensations;
Sensory
Coding
21.
The
____________
threshold
for
detecting
light
that
occurs
under
reduced
illumination
is
called
________________________.
a)
raised;
dark
adaptation.
b)
lowered;
dark
adaptation.
c)
lowered;
light
adaptation.
d)
raised;
light
adaptation.
22.
The
processing
of
separating
and
extracting
meaningful
information
from
the
abundance
of
sensory
cues
in
the
environment
is
known
as
a)
stimulus
separation.
b)
sensory
processing.
c)
extraction
process.
d)
stimulus
filtering.
23.
Which
region
of
the
thalamus
relays
information
received
from
the
eyes?
a)
Lateral
dorsal
nucleus.
b)
medial
geniculate
nucleus.
c)
Dorsal
geniculate
nucleus.
d)
Lateral
geniculate
nucleus.
24.
Which
cortical
region
might
be
responsible
for
assigning
motivational
values
to
sensory
systems?
a)
Orbitofrontal
Cortex.
b)
Dorsolateral
Prefrontal
Cortex.
c)
Anterior
Cingulate
Cortex.
d)
Ventromedial
Prefrontal
Cortex.
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 15
25.
Which
theory
states
that
characteristics
of
a
sensory
stimulus
are
coded
before
they
get
combined
to
a
whole?
a)
Top-down
theory.
b)
Elemental
parts
theory.
c)
Feature
integration
theory.
d)
Building
block
theory.
26.
Which
is
the
best
definition
of
the
term,
sign
stimulus?
a)
An
essential
feature
of
a
stimulus
that
releases
a
fixed
activity
pattern
(FAP).
b)
A
stimulus
that
orients
the
individual
in
space.
c)
A
stimulus
that
elicits
a
quick
cessation
of
behavior
(like
a
stop
sign).
d)
Any
stimulus
that
delivers
information
about
the
intentions
of
others.
27.
The
process
through
which
sensory
receptors
translate
physical
events
into
electrical
signals
is
called
a)
transduction.
b)
stimulus
filtering.
c)
optic
flow.
d)
an
action
potential.
28.
The
process
of
separating
and
extracting
meaning
information
from
the
myriad
of
stimuli
in
our
environment
is
called
a)
stimulus
filtering.
b)
sensory
exploitation.
c)
selective
attention.
d)
transduction.
29.
The
Tinbergen
study
in
which
birds
tended
to
artificial
oversized
eggs
while
ignoring
their
own
normal
sized
eggs
is
an
example
of
a)
supernormal
stimuli.
b)
compensatory
plasticity
hypothesis.
c)
greedy
birds.
d)
sensory
bias.
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 16
30.
According
to
the
principal
of
frequency
coding,
as
the
intensity
of
the
physical
stimulus
increases
a)
the
frequency
of
action
potentials
increase.
b)
the
number
of
neurons
firing
increases.
c)
more
attention
is
paid
to
the
stimulus.
d)
information
travels
along
the
axon
at
a
faster
rate.

 

chapter 10

1.
All
but
which
one
of
the
following
research
findings
provides
evidence
for
early
detection
of
biological
motion
in
chicks:
a) newly-hatched
chicks
look
at
depictions
of
hen
faces
more
than
non-
face
stimuli
b) newly-hatched
chicks
look
at
point-light
depictions
of
hens
more
than
randomly
moving
point-light
stimuli
c) newly-hatched
chicks
look
at
point-light
depictions
of
cats
more
than
randomly
moving
point-light
stimuli
d) newly-hatched
chicks
look
at
randomly
moving
point-lights
more
than
point-light
depictions
of
hens
2.
Pascalis
and
colleagues
found
that
6-
and
9-month-old
human
infants
distinguished
among
photographs
of
different
human
faces,
but
only
the
younger
age
group
could
also
distinguish
among
a
set
of
monkey
faces.
This
type
of
developmental
process
is
often
referred
to
as:
a) Speciesism
b) Conspecific
focusing
c) Perceptual
narrowing
d) Adaptive
perception
3.
In
the
1970s,
Gallup
had
certain
assumptions
and
conclusions
regarding
mirror
self
recognition.
These
included
all
of
the
following
except:
a) only
apes
and
humans
show
self
recognition
b) self
recognition
is
related
to
Theory
of
Mind
c) recognizing
oneself
in
a
mirror
implies
a
concept
of
self
d) mirror
neurons
underlie
mirror
self-recognition
Chapter 10
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 56
4.
Which
of
the
following
observations
of
behavior
does
not
consider
the
mental
states
that
might
underlie
the
behavior?
a) She
ordered
chocolate
ice
cream
instead
of
strawberry
because
she
did
not
like
fruit-flavored
desserts.
b) The
child
carried
the
cup
to
the
table,
placed
it
gently
on
the
placemat,
and
smiled
while
thinking,
I
didnt
spill!
Im
a
big
boy!
c) She
ordered
chocolate
ice
cream
because
she
did
not
know
that
strawberry
was
available.
d) The
child
carried
the
cup
to
the
table,
placed
it
gently
on
the
placemat,
and
said,
I
didnt
spill!
Im
a
big
boy!
5.
Tina,
a
five-year-old
human
child,
is
shown
a
Cheerios
box
and
then
shown
that
it
contains
marbles.
If
asked
what
her
friend,
Timothy,
will
think
upon
seeing
the
box
for
the
first
time,
Tina
will
most
likely
say
that
Timothy
will
think
it
contains:
a) Cheerios
b) marbles
c) pencils
d) beads
6.
Chimpanzees
in
Group
A
see
the
following
scenario:
an
experimenter
looks
at
the
chimpanzee,
picks
up
a
grape,
places
it
near
the
chimpanzee,
but
the
grape
unexpectedly
rolls
out
of
reach
of
chimpanzee.
Chimpanzees
in
Group
B
see
a
different
set
of
events:
an
experimenter
looks
at
the
chimpanzee,
picks
up
a
grape
and
places
it
far
away
from
the
chimpanzee
participant.
Given
the
results
of
Call
et
al.
(2004),
what
behavior
do
you
expect
to
observe?
a) Chimpanzees
in
both
groups
become
agitated
with
the
experimenter
and
leave
the
testing
room
because
the
grape
could
not
be
eaten.
b) Chimpanzees
in
Group
B,
but
not
Group
A,
become
agitated
with
the
experimenter
and
leave
the
testing
room
because
for
Group
B,
the
experimenter
was
unwilling
to
give
the
grape.
c) Chimpanzees
in
Group
B,
but
not
Group
A,
become
agitated
with
the
experimenter
and
leave
the
testing
room
because
of
an
underlying
inequity
bias.
d) Chimpanzees
in
both
groups
look
longer
at
the
grape
than
the
experimenters
actions
because
of
an
underlying
food
bias.
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 57
7.
Neurons
in
the
premotor
cortex
that
fire
when
monkeys
reach
for
and
grasp
objects,
and
also
fire
when
the
monkey
observes
another
monkey
doing
the
same
action,
are
called.
a) Medial
prefrontal
neurons
b) Temporal
parietal
junction
neurons
c) Mirror
neurons
d) Mimicry
neurons
8.
You
test
two
groups
of
western
scrub
jays.
In
Group
1,
the
jays
had
to
cache
food
in
private,
without
any
other
jays
watching.
In
Group
2,
the
jays
were
able
to
cache
food
in
the
presence
of
other
jays
that
were
dominant
to
them.
Then,
jays
from
both
groups
are
given
access
to
the
cached
food
while
no
other
birds
are
present.
Given
the
results
of
Dally
et
al.
(2006),
what
do
you
expect
to
observe?
a) The
jays
in
Group
2
will
move
the
cached
food
to
new
locations
more
so
than
the
jays
in
Group
1.
b) The
jays
in
Group
1
will
move
the
cached
food
to
new
locations
more
so
than
the
jays
in
Group
2.
c) The
jays
in
Group
1
will
engage
in
more
species-specific
mobbing
behavior
than
the
jays
in
Group
2.
d) The
jays
in
Group
2
will
engage
in
more
species-specific
mobbing
behavior
than
the
jays
in
Group
1.
9.
Which
of
the
following
is
an
example
of
redirected
aggression?
a) After
threatening
Monkey
B,
Monkey
A
shows
aggression
toward
his
own
kin.
b) After
being
threatened
by
Monkey
A,
Monkey
B
threatens
a
relative
of
Monkey
A.
c) After
being
threatened
by
Monkey
A,
Monkey
B
shows
aggression
toward
Monkey
A
d) After
being
threatened
by
Monkey
A,
Monkey
B
turns
his
back
and
engages
in
eating
behavior.
Instructors Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 58
10.
From
the
chapter
on
social
competence,
what
cognitive
mechanism(s)
might
underlie
the
ability
to
recognize
dominance
structures?
a) formation
of
equivalence
classes
b) a
memory
system
that
allows
for
chunking
c) a
memory
system
that
allows
for
reciprocity
and
ordinality
d) formation
of
equivalence
classes
and
a
memory
system
that
allows
for
chunking

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If you have questions, you can contact us here