Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology 5th Edition by Eisenberg Test bank

<< Chemistry For Changing Times 13th Edition 13th Edition by John W. Hill Terry W. McCreary Test Bank Computer Accounting with QuickBooks 2015 17th Edition Donna Kay Test bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology 5th Edition by Eisenberg Test bank

Description

Eisenberg: Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology, 5th Edition

Chapter 6: Urinary System

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What is the functional unit of the kidney?
a.
Lobule
b.
Nephron
c.
Glomerulus
d.
Ureterocele

ANS: B
The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron.

REF: p. 217

2. In an average person, the nephrons filter about _____ L of water out of glomerular blood each day.
a.
2
b.
10
c.
80
d.
190

ANS: D
The nephrons filter about 190 L of water out of the glomerular blood each day. Only about 1 to 2 L of water is excreted in urine, so about 99% of the filtered water is reabsorbed into the tubular blood.

REF: p. 217

3. Where does the formation of urine begin?
a.
Nephrons
b.
Bowmans capsule
c.
Glomerulus
d.
Distal convoluted tubule

ANS: C
The formation begins in the glomerulus, which is a tuft of capillaries surrounded by the Bowmans capsule. Nephrons are the basic, functional unit of the kidneys. The distal convoluted tubule is where the electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood occurs.

REF: p. 217

4. Which of the following stimulates the rate of red blood cell production?
a.
Erythropoietin
b.
Angiotensin
c.
Renin
d.
Aldosterone

ANS: A
Erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys and stimulates red blood cell production. Angiotensin secretion is controlled by renin and affects blood pressure. Aldosterone is secreted by the adrenals and affects the reabsorption of sodium and chloride during urine formation.

REF: p. 219

5. A miniature replica of a kidney is termed:
a.
Ectopic kidney
b.
Hypoplastic kidney
c.
Compensatory hypertrophy
d.
Supernumerary kidney

ANS: B
A hypoplastic kidney is a miniature replica of a kidney with normal function. It must be differentiated from acquired atrophic kidney, which is smaller in size as a result of vascular or inflammatory disease.

REF: p. 220

6. A rare anomaly in which a kidney fails to develop is called:
a.
Unilateral renal agenesis
b.
Hypoplastic kidney
c.
Compensatory hypertrophy
d.
Supernumerary kidney

ANS: A
Unilateral renal agenesis is a rare anomaly in which one kidney fails to develop and is associated with various other developmental anomalies. Complete renal agenesis is not compatible with life.

REF: p. 220

7. What term is applied to an acquired condition that occurs when one kidney is required to do the job of two?
a.
Supernumerary kidney
b.
Crossed ectopia
c.
Compensatory hypertrophy
d.
Hypoplastic kidney

ANS: C
Compensatory hypertrophy is an acquired condition that occurs when one kidney is required to do the job of two.

REF: p. 220

8. A rare anomaly in which there is a third, rudimentary kidney is termed:
a.
An ectopic kidney
b.
Compensatory hypertrophy
c.
Hypoplastic kidney
d.
Supernumerary kidney

ANS: D
Supernumerary kidney is a rare anomaly in which there is a third, rudimentary kidney. These usually function normally, but acquire secondary infections, which require their eventual removal.

REF: p. 220

9. What is an ectopic kidney?
a.
A third rudimentary kidney
b.
A kidney that is not located in the normal location
c.
A kidney that is enlarged because it has to do the job of both kidneys
d.
The most common type of fusion anomaly

ANS: B
An ectopic kidney is a kidney that is not located in the normal location. It may be found in the pelvis or the thorax.

REF: p. 220

10. What is the most common type of fusion anomaly?
a.
Horseshoe kidney
b.
Crossed ectopia
c.
Doughnut kidney
d.
Unilateral renal agenesis

ANS: A
Horseshoe kidney is the most common type of fusion anomaly in which the kidneys are joined at their lower poles.

REF: p. 221

11. When the kidneys are fused at their lower poles, they are termed a(an):
a.
Doughnut kidney
b.
Lump kidney
c.
Horseshoe kidney
d.
Ectopic kidney

ANS: C
Horseshoe kidney is the term applied to the most common fusion anomaly, in which the kidneys are fused at their lower poles.

REF: p. 221

12. Refer to the image below. What developmental anomaly is demonstrated?

a.
Crossed ectopia
b.
Horseshoe kidney
c.
Unilateral renal agenesis
d.
Supernumerary kidney

ANS: B
The arrows point to the outline of the fused, horseshoe kidneys.

REF: p. 222

13. Cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the urinary bladder is called a:
a.
Ureterocele
b.
Pyelonephritis
c.
Ureteral aneurysm
d.
Renal cyst

ANS: A
A ureterocele is a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the urinary bladder. Most occur in children with ureteral duplication.

REF: p. 223

14. What is a ureterocele?
a.
A nonsuppurative inflammatory process involving the tufts of the capillaries within the Bowmans capsule
b.
A smaller than normal amount of urine
c.
A fusion anomaly in which the ureter is directly connected to the kidney
d.
A cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the urinary bladder

ANS: D
A ureterocele is a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the urinary bladder. Most occur in children with ureteral duplication.

REF: p. 223

15. Which condition is most commonly found in children with ureteral duplication?
a.
Renal cyst
b.
Ureterocele
c.
Papillary necrosis
d.
Staghorn calculus

ANS: B
A ureterocele is a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the urinary bladder. Most occur in children with ureteral duplication.

REF: p. 223

16. A nonsuppurative inflammatory process involving the tufts of the capillaries within the Bowmans capsule is called:
a.
Ureterocele
b.
Pyelonephritis
c.
Glomerulonephritis
d.
Papillary necrosis

ANS: C
Glomerulonephritis is a nonsuppurative inflammatory process involving the glomerulus, which is the tufts of the capillaries within the Bowmans capsule.

REF: p. 223

17. A smaller than normal amount of urine is termed:
a.
Polyuria
b.
Oliguria
c.
Hematuria
d.
Dysuria

ANS: B
Oliguria is a smaller than normal amount of urine, which is symptomatic of some urinary abnormalities.

REF: p. 225

18. What is oliguria?
a.
A smaller than normal amount of urine
b.
A larger than normal amount of urine
c.
The presence of protein molecules in the urine
d.
The presence of fat molecules in the urine

ANS: A
Oliguria is a smaller than normal amount of urine and is symptomatic of certain urinary conditions.

REF: p. 225

19. A suppurative inflammatory process of the kidney and renal pelvis is termed:
a.
Glomerulonephritis
b.
Papillary necrosis
c.
Cystitis
d.
Pyelonephritis

ANS: D
Pyelonephritis is a suppurative inflammatory process of the kidney and renal pelvis.

REF: p. 225

20. Which type of severe infection occurs almost exclusively in diabetic patients and causes acute necrosis of the entire kidney?
a.
Cystitis
b.
Papillary necrosis
c.
Glomerulonephritis
d.
Emphysematous pyelonephritis

ANS: D
Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe form of acute parenchymal and perirenal infection that occurs almost exclusively in patients with diabetes.

REF: p. 227

21. What is the most common hospital-acquired infection?
a.
Cystitis
b.
Pyelonephritis
c.
Vasculitis
d.
Tuberculosis

ANS: A
The most common hospital-acquired infection is cystitis, an infection of the urinary bladder.

REF: p. 228

22. Which imaging modality is the safest and most accurate in detecting renal calculi?
a.
Ultrasound
b.
Excretory urography
c.
Noncontrast helical CT
d.
MRI

ANS: C
Noncontrast helical CT is the safest, easiest, and most accurate modality for the diagnosis of kidney stones. Excretory urography can detect stones, but it is not as accurate as helical CT.

REF: p. 230

23. What term is applied to a renal calculus that completely fills the renal pelvis?
a.
Pelvolithiasis
b.
Staghorn calculus
c.
Pelvocalcinosis
d.
Nephrocalcinosis

ANS: B
A staghorn calculus is the term given to a stone that completely fills the renal pelvis.

REF: p. 232

24. What is nephrocalcinosis?
a.
A condition of calcium deposits within the renal parenchyma
b.
A renal calculus that fills the entire renal pelvis
c.
Excretion of calcium ions in the urine
d.
A severe infection of the renal parenchyma

ANS: A
Nephrocalcinosis is a condition of calcium deposits within the renal parenchyma. The pattern can vary from small, punctate densities to extensive, dense calcifications in the kidneys.

REF: p. 232

25. Calcium deposits within the renal parenchyma are termed:
a.
Staghorn calculus
b.
Nephrolithiasis
c.
Nephrocalcinosis
d.
Glomerulonephritis

ANS: C
Nephrocalcinosis is the condition of calcium deposits within the renal parenchyma. Nephrolithiasis is the medical term for kidney stones, and a staghorn calculus is a type of kidney stone that fills the renal pelvis and calyces. Glomerulonephritis is an infection.

REF: p. 232

26. What is the cause of hydronephrosis?
a.
Chronic glomerulonephritis
b.
Blockage above the level of the bladder
c.
Staghorn calculus
d.
Aldosterone deficiency

ANS: B
Blockage of urine passage into the urinary bladder causes the ureter and renal collecting system to dilate. Dilatation of the pelvis and calyces is called hydronephrosis.

REF: p. 234

27. Blockage above the level of the bladder causes dilatation of the renal pelvicalyceal system, which is called:
a.
Glomerulonephritis
b.
Cystitis
c.
Hypernephroma
d.
Hydronephrosis

ANS: D
Blockage of urine passage into the urinary bladder causes the ureter and renal collecting system to dilate. Dilatation of the pelvis and calyces is called hydronephrosis.

REF: p. 234

28. Stone formation in the bladder occurs primarily in _____ with obstruction or infection of the lower urinary tract.
a.
Children
b.
Young adults
c.
Elderly males
d.
Diabetic persons

ANS: C
Stone formation in the bladder occurs primarily in elderly males with obstruction or infection of the lower urinary tract.

REF: p. 232

29. What is the most common unifocal mass of the kidney?
a.
Staghorn calculus
b.
Hypernephroma
c.
Nephrocalcinosis
d.
Renal cyst

ANS: D
Simple renal cysts are the most common unifocal masses of the kidney. They are fluid-filled sacs that vary in size.

REF: p. 236

30. The most common renal neoplasm is a:
a.
Hypernephroma
b.
Nephroblastoma
c.
Pyelocarcinoma
d.
Renal cell sarcoma

ANS: A
The most common renal neoplasm is a hypernephroma, also called renal cell carcinoma. A nephroblastoma is the most common abdominal neoplasm in infants and children.

REF: p. 239

31. Which of these is a common symptom of a renal neoplasm?
a.
Hydronephrosis
b.
Painless hematuria
c.
Proteinuria
d.
Renal neoplasms are asymptomatic.

ANS: B
The most common symptom of renal neoplasm in persons over age 40 is painless hematuria.

REF: p. 239

32. What is the most common abdominal neoplasm of infancy and childhood?
a.
Hypernephroma
b.
Wilms tumor
c.
Polycystic kidneys
d.
Renal cell carcinoma

ANS: B
A Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma is the most common abdominal neoplasm in infancy and childhood.

REF: p. 242

33. What condition most commonly occurs in children who are severely dehydrated?
a.
Nephrolithiasis
b.
Glomerulonephritis
c.
Pyelonephritis
d.
Renal vein thrombosis

ANS: D
Renal vein thrombosis occurs most frequently in children who are severely dehydrated.

REF: p. 244

34. What is the imaging modality of choice to diagnose renal vein thrombosis?
a.
CT
b.
MRI
c.
US
d.
Excretory urography

ANS: C
Ultrasound (US) is the imaging modality of choice for imaging of renal vein thrombosis and can show the clot with Doppler.

REF: p. 245

35. Which of the following are causes of enlarged kidneys?
(1) Polycystic renal disease
(2) Renal vein thrombosis
(3) Nephrosclerosis
a.
1 and 2 only
b.
1 and 3 only
c.
2 and 3 only
d.
1, 2, and 3

ANS: A
Enlarged kidneys are indicative of polycystic renal disease, renal vein thrombosis, obstruction, and infiltrative processes, such as myeloma and lymphoma.

REF: p. 237 | p. 245

36. Which of the following are causes of small kidneys with smooth contours?
(1) Renal vein thrombosis
(2) Nephrosclerosis
(3) Chronic glomerulonephritis
a.
1 and 2 only
b.
1 and 3 only
c.
2 and 3 only
d.
1, 2, and 3

ANS: C
Small kidneys with smooth contours are indicative of chronic glomerulonephritis and nephrosclerosis. Renal vein thrombosis causes enlarged kidneys.

REF: p. 247

37. The medical term that means to void or empty the bladder of urine is:
a.
incontenience
b.
continate
c.
micturate
d.
uremia

ANS: C
Micturate is the medical term for voiding or emptying the bladder of urine.

REF: p. 217

38. What term is used to describe abnormally positioned kidneys?
a.
Kidney agenesis
b.
Ectopic kidney
c.
Kidney aplasia
d.
Hypertrophic kidney

ANS: B
Ectopic kidney describes a kidney that is abnormally placed.

REF: p. 217

39. Refer to the image. Note the arrows. What condition is indicated by the arrows in this image of an intravenous urogram?

a.
Ureterocele
b.
Kidney agenesis
c.
Ectopic kidney
d.
Hypertrophic kidney

ANS: C
A kidney that is misplaced from its normal position is termed an ectopic kidney. In this image, the kidney is located in the pelvis and may be more accurately described as a pelvic kidney.

REF: p. 220

40. Which urinary disease occurs almost exclusively in males and is defined as a thin transverse membrane that causes bladder outlet obstruction and may lead to severe hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and renal damage?
a.
Ureterocele
b.
Posterior urethral valves
c.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
d.
Polycystic kidney disease

ANS: B
Posterior urethral valves are thin transverse membranes, found almost exclusively in males, which cause bladder outlet obstruction and may lead to severe hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and renal damage.

REF: p. 221

TRUE/FALSE

1. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron.
a. True
b. False

ANS: T
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney.

REF: p. 220

2. Urine formation begins in the glomerulus.
a. True
b. False

ANS: T
Urine formation begins in the glomerulus of the kidney.

REF: p. 223

3. A hypoplastic kidney is a small, third kidney and a rare developmental anomaly.
a. True
b. False

ANS: F
Supernumerary kidney is the term applied to a small, third kidney.

REF: pp. 228-229

4. Horseshoe kidney is the most common fusion anomaly of the urinary system.
a. True
b. False

ANS: T
Horseshoe kidney is fusion of the kidneys at the lower poles and is the most common fusion anomaly of the urinary system.

REF: p. 223

5. Ectopic kidney describes when a kidney fails to develop.
a. True
b. False

ANS: F
Ectopic kidney describes when a kidney is in an abnormal location.

REF: p. 230

6. Ureteroceles are commonly associated with duplicated ureters.
a. True
b. False

ANS: T
Ureteroceles are seen almost exclusively in children with duplication anomalies of the ureters.

REF: p. 239

7. Chronic cystitis is evidenced radiographically by a decrease in bladder size and wall irregularity.
a. True
b. False

ANS: T
Radiographic evidence of chronic cystitis is a decrease in bladder size and irregularity of the bladder wall.

REF: p. 219

8. Glomerulonephritis is the most common nosocomial infection.
a. True
b. False

ANS: F
Cystitis is the most common hospital-acquired or nosocomial infection.

REF: p. 220

9. Urinary calculi are asymptomatic while they are in the kidney.
a. True
b. False

ANS: T
Urinary calculi are asymptomatic while they are in the kidney. They become painful when they lodge in the ureter.

REF: p. 221

10. Painless hematuria is a common presentation of a hypernephroma.
a. True
b. False

ANS: T
A common symptom of a hypernephroma is painless hematuria.

REF: p. 223

MATCHING

Match the disease to its definition.
a.
Nonsuppurative inflammation of the tuft of the capillaries in the Bowmans capsule
b.
Suppurative infection of kidney and renal pelvis
c.
Inflammation of the urinary bladder
d.
A destructive condition involving the terminal portion of the renal pyramids

1. Cystitis

2. Glomerulonephritis

3. Pyelonephritis

4. Papillary necrosis

1. ANS: C REF: p. 228
NOT: Rationale: Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by bacteria traveling up the urethra to cause an infection in the bladder. Glomerulonephritis is a bacterial infection of the glomerulus. Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys and renal pelves caused by a pyogenic bacterium. Papillary necrosis is destruction of the papillae of the medulla and the terminal portion of the renal pyramids.

2. ANS: A REF: p. 223
NOT: Rationale: Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by bacteria traveling up the urethra to cause an infection in the bladder. Glomerulonephritis is a bacterial infection of the glomerulus. Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys and renal pelves caused by a pyogenic bacterium. Papillary necrosis is destruction of the papillae of the medulla and the terminal portion of the renal pyramids.

3. ANS: B REF: p. 225
NOT: Rationale: Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by bacteria traveling up the urethra to cause an infection in the bladder. Glomerulonephritis is a bacterial infection of the glomerulus. Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys and renal pelves caused by a pyogenic bacterium. Papillary necrosis is destruction of the papillae of the medulla and the terminal portion of the renal pyramids.

4. ANS: D REF: p. 228
NOT: Rationale: Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by bacteria traveling up the urethra to cause an infection in the bladder. Glomerulonephritis is a bacterial infection of the glomerulus. Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys and renal pelves caused by a pyogenic bacterium. Papillary necrosis is destruction of the papillae of the medulla and the terminal portion of the renal pyramids.

Match the disease to the imaging modality that is most commonly used to diagnose it.
a.
Contrast-enhanced CT
b.
Ultrasound
c.
Noncontrast helical CT
d.
MRI

5. Glomerulonephritis

6. Pyelonephritis

7. Acute renal failure

8. Kidney stones

5. ANS: B REF: p. 225
NOT: Rationale: Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for many urinary diseases because it is not dependent upon renal function and does not further damage renal tissue with the administration of contrast media. Ultrasound is particularly useful in acute and chronic renal failure and glomerulonephritis. Pyelonephritis is demonstrated well by contrast-enhanced CT, which demonstrates cortical changes and abscesses. Kidney stones are best demonstrated by noncontrast helical CT.

6. ANS: A REF: p. 226
NOT: Rationale: Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for many urinary diseases because it is not dependent upon renal function and does not further damage renal tissue with the administration of contrast media. Ultrasound is particularly useful in acute and chronic renal failure and glomerulonephritis. Pyelonephritis is demonstrated well by contrast-enhanced CT, which demonstrates cortical changes and abscesses. Kidney stones are best demonstrated by noncontrast helical CT.

7. ANS: B REF: p. 246
NOT: Rationale: Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for many urinary diseases because it is not dependent upon renal function and does not further damage renal tissue with the administration of contrast media. Ultrasound is particularly useful in acute and chronic renal failure and glomerulonephritis. Pyelonephritis is demonstrated well by contrast-enhanced CT, which demonstrates cortical changes and abscesses. Kidney stones are best demonstrated by noncontrast helical CT.

8. ANS: C REF: p. 230
NOT: Rationale: Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for many urinary diseases because it is not dependent upon renal function and does not further damage renal tissue with the administration of contrast media. Ultrasound is particularly useful in acute and chronic renal failure and glomerulonephritis. Pyelonephritis is demonstrated well by contrast-enhanced CT, which demonstrates cortical changes and abscesses. Kidney stones are best demonstrated by noncontrast helical CT.

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here