Criminological Theory Context and Consequences 6th Edition by J. Robert Lilly Francis T. Cullen Richard A. Ball Test Bank

Criminological Theory Context and Consequences  6th Edition by J. Robert Lilly Francis T. Cullen Richard A. Ball  Test Bank
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1. _____ is the author of Crimewarps, a study of what crime might look like during the next 2050 years.
*a. Bennett
b. Binet
c. Freud
d. Cloward
Answer location: page 14

2. It is impossible to understand criminological theory outside of its _____ context.
a. biological
*b. social
c. psychological
d. philopsophical
Answer location: page 15

3. Where did early theories of criminality locate the cause of crime?
a. The demographic shifts
*b. In the individual
c. Society
d. Neighborhoods
Answer location: page 15

4. _____ stressed the conflict between absolute good and absolute evil.
a. Free will
b. Differential association
*c. Spiritualism
d. Control theory
Answer location: page 15

5. During the era of spiritualism, which of the following was not a method constructed for dealing with those accused of committing a crime?
a. Trial by battle
b. Trial by ordeal
c. Compurgation
*d. Trial by jury
Answer location: page 16

6. In recent years, the percentage of people who state they have no religion has _____
a. increased
*b. decreased
c. stayed the same
d. not measured
Answer location: page 17

7. What is the major problem with spiritualism?
*a. Spiritualism cannot be tested scientifically
b. Not everyone believes in religion
c. It places too much emphasis on society
d. It places too much emphasis on the family
Answer location: page 17

8. Which of the following is one of the first naturalistic explanations in criminological theory?
a. Darwins Natural Selection
b. Darwins dictum that the brain is the organ of the mind
*c. Hippocrates dictum that the brain is the organ of the mind
d. Hippocrates Natural Selection
Answer location: page 17

9. The most important feature of the _____ school of thought is its emphasis on the individual criminal as a person who is capable of calculating what he or she wants to do.
a. Positivist
b. biological
*c. Classical
d. conflict
Answer location: page 18

10. Which of the following early theorists argued that punishment should be a deterrent and also explained behavior as a result of free will and hedonistic calculus?
*a. Bentham
b. Darwin
c. Howard
d. Freud
Answer location: page 19

11. Which of the following theorists studied prisons and advocated prison reform?
a. Bentham
b. Beccaria
*c. Howard
d. Darwin
Answer location: page 19

12. The _____ school wanted scientific proof of the causes of crime.
a. classical
b. neo-classical
*c. Positivist
d. biological
Answer location: page 20

13. Which of the following theorists is often called the father of modern criminology?
a. Bentham
b. Beccaria
c. Howard
*d. Lombroso
Answer location: page 20

14. Lombroso argued that criminals were _____ or throwbacks to an earlier form of evolutionary life.
a. retrospective
b. animalistic
*c. atavistic
d. criminoloids
Answer location: page 22

15. Which of the following is not one of Lombrosos criminal classifications?
a. Born criminal
b. Insane criminal
c. Occasional criminal
*d. Life-course persistent criminal
Answer location: page 21

16. _____, author of The Theory of Imputability and the Denial of Free Will, attacked free will arguments and acknowledged the interrelatedness of social, economic, and political factors.
*a. Ferri
b. Garofalo
c. Lombroso
d. Goring
Answer location: page 23

17. ______s theoretical arguments on the nature of crime and on the nature of criminals were consistent with social Darwinism.
a. Ferri
*b. Garofalo
c. Lombroso
d. Goring
Answer location: page 24

18. ______ is the sentiment of the revulsion against the voluntary infliction of suffering on others, while ______ is the respect for the property rights of others.
a. Probity; pity
b. Probate; propriety
*c. Pity; probity
d. Propriety; probate
Answer location: page 25

19. His study of 3000 English convicts concluded that there were no significant differences between the criminals and non-criminals except for stature and body weight.
a. Ferri
b. Garofalo
c. Lombroso
*d. Goring
Answer location: page 26

20. Which of the following is not one of Sheldons body types?
a. Endomorphy
b. Ectomorphy
c. Mesomorphy
*d. Musclarmorphy
Answer location: page 27

21. _____ concluded that because youths came from parents who were delinquent in very much the same way that the boys were delinquent, the factors that produce delinquency where inherited.
*a. Sheldon
b. The Gluecks
c. Darwin
d. Sampson and Laub
Answer location: page 27

22. The _____ school of criminology seeks to explain crime by focusing attention on the personality and how it was produced.
a. classical
b. biological
*c. psychogenic
d. sociological
Answer location: page 28

23. Which of the following theorists argued that crime is a symbolic expression of inner tensions that each person has but fails to control?
a. Sheldon
b. Healy
c. Darwin
*d. Freud
Answer location: page 28

24. _____ is the name of the family that became involved in crime because its members suffered from degeneracy and innate depravity.
a. The Smiths
*b. The Jukes
c. The Stadlers
d. The Dooks
Answer location: page 29

25. _____ usually is credited as the first person to test the IQs of prison inmates.
a. Freud
b. Binet
*c. Goddard
d. Bennett
Answer location: page 29

26. The study of _____claimed that inheritance could explain the presence of simple and complex human behavioral characteristics.
*a. eugenics
b. sociology
c. criminology
d. psychology
Answer location: page 31

27. _____s evolutionary thesis represents one of the most profound theories of all time.
a. Sheldon
*b. Darwin
c. Einstein
d. Newton
Answer location: page 30

28. Reformers, called _____ argued that the system should be arranged not to punish offenders but rather rehabilitate them.
*a. Progressives
b. Prohibitionists
c. Protagonists
d. Correctors
Answer location: page 32

29. During 2007-2012, crimes rates:
a. increased.
*b. decreased.
c. were not measured.
d. stayed the same.
Answer location: page 14-15

30. It is impossible to understand criminological theory outside of its social context.
*a. true
b. false
Answer location: page 13

31. According to the Classical school of thought, people who committed crimes were thought to be possessed by evil spirits.
a. true
*b. false
Answer location: page 15
32. Trial by ordeal allowed the accused to have reputable people swear an oath that he or she was innocent.
a. true
*b. false
Answer location: page 16

33. According to the Classical school of thought, punishment should be suited to the seriousness of the offense and not to the nature of the offender.
*a. true
b. false
Answer location: page 18

34. The U.S. Constitution was influenced by the Classical school.
*a. true
b. false
Answer location: page 19

35. According to Lombroso, criminals represent a peculiar physical type distinctively different from that of non-criminals.
*a. true
b. false
Answer location: page 21

36. Lombroso gave primary emphasis to the interrelatedness of social, economic, and political factors that contribute to crime.
a. true
*b. false
Answer location: page 23

37. The work of the Italian positivists did not suffer from serious methodological issues.
a. true
*b. false
Answer location: page 26

38. Alfred Binet developed an IQ test based on the idea that an individual should have a mental age that could be identified with an intelligence quotient.
*a. true
b. false
Answer location: page 29

39. The Social Darwinists felt that the best way to solve problems, such as crime, was for the government to try to help people, such as through social welfare programs.
*a. true
b. false
Answer location: page 30-31

40. Jeremy Bentham argued that behavior was the result of free will and hedonistic calculus.
*a. true
b. false
Answer location: page 19

41. An ectomorphic body type is most related to criminal behavior.
a. true
*b. false
Answer location: page 27

42. Naturalistic and spiritualistic explanations of crime have their common origin in the ancient world.
*a. true
b. false
Answer location: page 17

43. The predictions set forth by Bennett in Crimewarps all came true.
a. true
*b. false
Answer location: page 14-15

44. Trial by battle allowed the victim to engage in a physical challenge with an authority figure to attempt to win their freedom.
a. true
*b. false
Answer location: page 16

Type: E
45. Where did the early theories of crime locate the cause of crime?
*a. Early theories of crime tended to locate the cause of crime not in demographic shifts (as did Bennett) but rather within individualsin their souls (spiritualism/demonology), their wills (classical school), or their bodily constitutions (positivist school).

Type: E
46. What do naturalistic theories and spiritualistic explanations of crime have in common?
*a. Naturalistic theories and spiritualistic explanations have in common their origin in the ancient world.

Type: E
47. What is the difference between the positivist school and the classical school?
*a. The most significant difference between the classical school and the positivist school is the latters search for empirical facts to confirm the idea that crime was determined by multiple factors

Type: E
48. Who is considered the father of modern criminology?
*a. Cesare Lombroso

Type: E
49. What were the two distinct lines developed by the psychogenic school? Describe.
*a. One stressing psychoanalysis and the other stressing personality traits.

Type: E
50. What is phrenology?
*a. The shape of an individuals head could explain his or her personal characteristics

Type: E
51. What were Garofalos four categories of criminals and what were their deficiencies in probity and pity?
*a. This conclusion led Garofalo to identify four criminal classes, each one distinct from the others because of deficiencies in the basic sentiments of pity and probity.
Murderers were totally lacking in both pity and probity, and they would kill or steal when given the opportunity. Lesser criminals, Garofalo acknowledged, were more difficult to identify. He divided this category based on whether criminals lacked sentiments of either pity or of probity. Violent criminals lacked pity, which could be influenced very much by environmental factors such as alcohol and the fact that criminality was endemic to the population. Thieves, on the other hand, suffered from a lack of probity, a condition that may be more the product of social factors than the criminals in other classes (Allen, 1973, p. 323). His last category contained cynics or sexual criminals, some of whom would be classified among the violent criminals because they lacked pity. Other lascivious criminals required a separate category because their actions stemmed from a low level of moral energy rather than from a lack of pity (p. 329).

Type: E
52. Explain and describe Sheldons different body types. Which one was most related to criminal behavior?
*a. Sheldon (1949) classified the boys physiques by measuring the degree to which they possessed a combination of three different body components: endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. Each could dominate a physique. Endomorphs tended to be soft, fat people, mesomorphs had muscular and athletic builds, and ectomorphs had skinny, flat, and fragile physiques. Mesomorphs were most related to criminal behavior.

Type: E
53. Explain how social Darwinists believe we should control crime.
*a. The best approach was minimal involvement. Let nature take its course became a frequent refrain uttered by social Darwinists. It carried the clear message that accelerated social change was undesirable. Policies designed to accomplish equal treatment, for example, were opposed strongly. Social welfare programs, it was argued, would perpetuate the survival of people who were negligent, shiftless, silly, or immoral while, at the same time, retard individual and national economic development. Hard work, saving, and moral constraint were called on as the solutions to individual and collective social and economic good fortune.

Type: E
54. List and explain Lombrosos criminal types. Provide an example of each to support your answer.
*a. answers vary
Answer location: page 21-22

Type: E
55. Summarize Beccarias reasoned argument about crime. How is it seen in todays criminal justice system? Why do you think this argument has been so enduring?
*a. answers vary
Answer location: page 19-20

Type: E
56. What kind of policies to control crime did early biological theories of the positivist school support? What is eugenics? Was this policy every supported in the United States?
*a. answers vary
Answer location: page 29-33

Type: E
57. What is the classical school of criminology? How did it represent a rejection of spiritualism or religious explanations of crime? How did the classical school want to reform the way criminals were punished?
*a. answers vary
Answer location: page 18-20
Type: E
58. What is the positivist school of criminology? How did it argue for the use of science to study the causes of crime? How was Cesare Lombroso involved in the positivist school? What was his theory of crime?
*a. answers vary
Answer location: page 20-22

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