Criminological Theory Context and Consequences 6th Edition by J. Robert Lilly Francis T. Test Bank

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Criminological Theory Context and Consequences 6th Edition by J. Robert Lilly Francis T. Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Criminological Theory Context and Consequences 6th Edition by J. Robert Lilly Francis T. Test Bank

 

  1. _____ is the author of Crimewarps, a study of what crime might look like during the next 2050 years.

*a. Bennett

  1. Binet
  2. Freud
  3. Cloward

Answer location: page 14

 

  1. It is impossible to understand criminological theory outside of its _____ context.
  2. biological

*b. social

  1. psychological
  2. philopsophical

Answer location: page 15

 

  1. Where did early theories of criminality locate the cause of crime?
  2. The demographic shifts

*b. In the individual

  1. Society
  2. Neighborhoods

Answer location: page 15

 

  1. _____ stressed the conflict between absolute good and absolute evil.
  2. Free will
  3. Differential association

*c. Spiritualism

  1. Control theory

Answer location: page 15

 

  1. During the era of spiritualism, which of the following was not a method constructed for dealing with those accused of committing a crime?
  2. Trial by battle
  3. Trial by ordeal
  4. Compurgation

*d. Trial by jury

Answer location: page 16

 

  1. In recent years, the percentage of people who state they have no religion has _____
  2. increased

*b. decreased

  1. stayed the same
  2. not measured

Answer location: page 17

 

  1. What is the major problem with spiritualism?

*a. Spiritualism cannot be tested scientifically

  1. Not everyone believes in religion
  2. It places too much emphasis on society
  3. It places too much emphasis on the family

Answer location: page 17

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the first naturalistic explanations in criminological theory?
  2. Darwins Natural Selection
  3. Darwins dictum that the brain is the organ of the mind

*c. Hippocrates dictum that the brain is the organ of the mind

  1. Hippocrates Natural Selection

Answer location: page 17

 

  1. The most important feature of the _____ school of thought is its emphasis on the individual criminal as a person who is capable of calculating what he or she wants to do.
  2. Positivist
  3. biological

*c. Classical

  1. conflict

Answer location: page 18

 

  1. Which of the following early theorists argued that punishment should be a deterrent and also explained behavior as a result of free will and hedonistic calculus?

*a. Bentham

  1. Darwin
  2. Howard
  3. Freud

Answer location: page 19

 

  1. Which of the following theorists studied prisons and advocated prison reform?
  2. Bentham
  3. Beccaria

*c. Howard

  1. Darwin

Answer location: page 19

 

  1. The _____ school wanted scientific proof of the causes of crime.
  2. classical
  3. neo-classical

*c. Positivist

  1. biological

Answer location: page 20

 

  1. Which of the following theorists is often called the father of modern criminology?
  2. Bentham
  3. Beccaria
  4. Howard

*d. Lombroso

Answer location: page 20

 

  1. Lombroso argued that criminals were _____ or throwbacks to an earlier form of evolutionary life.
  2. retrospective
  3. animalistic

*c. atavistic

  1. criminoloids

Answer location: page 22

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of Lombrosos criminal classifications?
  2. Born criminal
  3. Insane criminal
  4. Occasional criminal

*d. Life-course persistent criminal

Answer location: page 21

 

  1. _____, author of The Theory of Imputability and the Denial of Free Will, attacked free will arguments and acknowledged the interrelatedness of social, economic, and political factors.

*a. Ferri

  1. Garofalo
  2. Lombroso
  3. Goring

Answer location: page 23

 

  1. ______s theoretical arguments on the nature of crime and on the nature of criminals were consistent with social Darwinism.
  2. Ferri

*b. Garofalo

  1. Lombroso
  2. Goring

Answer location: page 24

 

  1. ______ is the sentiment of the revulsion against the voluntary infliction of suffering on others, while ______ is the respect for the property rights of others.
  2. Probity; pity
  3. Probate; propriety

*c. Pity; probity

  1. Propriety; probate

Answer location: page 25

 

  1. His study of 3000 English convicts concluded that there were no significant differences between the criminals and non-criminals except for stature and body weight.
  2. Ferri
  3. Garofalo
  4. Lombroso

*d. Goring

Answer location: page 26

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of Sheldons body types?
  2. Endomorphy
  3. Ectomorphy
  4. Mesomorphy

*d. Musclarmorphy

Answer location: page 27

 

  1. _____ concluded that because youths came from parents who were delinquent in very much the same way that the boys were delinquent, the factors that produce delinquency where inherited.

*a. Sheldon

  1. The Gluecks
  2. Darwin
  3. Sampson and Laub

Answer location: page 27

 

  1. The _____ school of criminology seeks to explain crime by focusing attention on the personality and how it was produced.
  2. classical
  3. biological

*c. psychogenic

  1. sociological

Answer location: page 28

 

  1. Which of the following theorists argued that crime is a symbolic expression of inner tensions that each person has but fails to control?
  2. Sheldon
  3. Healy
  4. Darwin

*d. Freud

Answer location: page 28

 

  1. _____ is the name of the family that became involved in crime because its members suffered from degeneracy and innate depravity.
  2. The Smiths

*b. The Jukes

  1. The Stadlers
  2. The Dooks

Answer location: page 29

 

  1. _____ usually is credited as the first person to test the IQs of prison inmates.
  2. Freud
  3. Binet

*c. Goddard

  1. Bennett

Answer location: page 29

 

  1. The study of _____claimed that inheritance could explain the presence of simple and complex human behavioral characteristics.

*a. eugenics

  1. sociology
  2. criminology
  3. psychology

Answer location: page 31

 

  1. _____s evolutionary thesis represents one of the most profound theories of all time.
  2. Sheldon

*b. Darwin

  1. Einstein
  2. Newton

Answer location: page 30

 

  1. Reformers, called _____ argued that the system should be arranged not to punish offenders but rather rehabilitate them.

*a. Progressives

  1. Prohibitionists
  2. Protagonists
  3. Correctors

Answer location: page 32

 

  1. During 2007-2012, crimes rates:
  2. increased.

*b. decreased.

  1. were not measured.
  2. stayed the same.

Answer location: page 14-15

 

  1. It is impossible to understand criminological theory outside of its social context.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 13

 

  1. According to the Classical school of thought, people who committed crimes were thought to be possessed by evil spirits.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 15

  1. Trial by ordeal allowed the accused to have reputable people swear an oath that he or she was innocent.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 16

 

  1. According to the Classical school of thought, punishment should be suited to the seriousness of the offense and not to the nature of the offender.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 18

 

  1. The U.S. Constitution was influenced by the Classical school.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 19

 

  1. According to Lombroso, criminals represent a peculiar physical type distinctively different from that of non-criminals.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 21

 

  1. Lombroso gave primary emphasis to the interrelatedness of social, economic, and political factors that contribute to crime.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 23

 

  1. The work of the Italian positivists did not suffer from serious methodological issues.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 26

 

  1. Alfred Binet developed an IQ test based on the idea that an individual should have a mental age that could be identified with an intelligence quotient.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 29

 

  1. The Social Darwinists felt that the best way to solve problems, such as crime, was for the government to try to help people, such as through social welfare programs.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 30-31

 

  1. Jeremy Bentham argued that behavior was the result of free will and hedonistic calculus.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 19

 

  1. An ectomorphic body type is most related to criminal behavior.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 27

 

  1. Naturalistic and spiritualistic explanations of crime have their common origin in the ancient world.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 17

 

  1. The predictions set forth by Bennett in Crimewarps all came true.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 14-15

 

  1. Trial by battle allowed the victim to engage in a physical challenge with an authority figure to attempt to win their freedom.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 16

 

Type: E

  1. Where did the early theories of crime locate the cause of crime?

*a. Early theories of crime tended to locate the cause of crime not in demographic shifts (as did Bennett) but rather within individualsin their souls (spiritualism/demonology), their wills (classical school), or their bodily constitutions (positivist school).

 

Type: E

  1. What do naturalistic theories and spiritualistic explanations of crime have in common?

*a. Naturalistic theories and spiritualistic explanations have in common their origin in the ancient world.

 

Type: E

  1. What is the difference between the positivist school and the classical school?

*a. The most significant difference between the classical school and the positivist school is the latters search for empirical facts to confirm the idea that crime was determined by multiple factors

 

Type: E

  1. Who is considered the father of modern criminology?

*a. Cesare Lombroso

 

Type: E

  1. What were the two distinct lines developed by the psychogenic school? Describe.

*a. One stressing psychoanalysis and the other stressing personality traits.

 

Type: E

  1. What is phrenology?

*a. The shape of an individuals head could explain his or her personal characteristics

 

Type: E

  1. What were Garofalos four categories of criminals and what were their deficiencies in probity and pity?

*a. This conclusion led Garofalo to identify four criminal classes, each one distinct from the others because of deficiencies in the basic sentiments of pity and probity.

Murderers were totally lacking in both pity and probity, and they would kill or steal when given the opportunity. Lesser criminals, Garofalo acknowledged, were more difficult to identify. He divided this category based on whether criminals lacked sentiments of either pity or of probity. Violent criminals lacked pity, which could be influenced very much by environmental factors such as alcohol and the fact that criminality was endemic to the population. Thieves, on the other hand, suffered from a lack of probity, a condition that may be more the product of social factors than the criminals in other classes (Allen, 1973, p. 323). His last category contained cynics or sexual criminals, some of whom would be classified among the violent criminals because they lacked pity. Other lascivious criminals required a separate category because their actions stemmed from a low level of moral energy rather than from a lack of pity (p. 329).

 

Type: E

  1. Explain and describe Sheldons different body types. Which one was most related to criminal behavior?

*a. Sheldon (1949) classified the boys physiques by measuring the degree to which they possessed a combination of three different body components: endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. Each could dominate a physique. Endomorphs tended to be soft, fat people, mesomorphs had muscular and athletic builds, and ectomorphs had skinny, flat, and fragile physiques. Mesomorphs were most related to criminal behavior.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain how social Darwinists believe we should control crime.

*a. The best approach was minimal involvement. Let nature take its course became a frequent refrain uttered by social Darwinists. It carried the clear message that accelerated social change was undesirable. Policies designed to accomplish equal treatment, for example, were opposed strongly. Social welfare programs, it was argued, would perpetuate the survival of people who were negligent, shiftless, silly, or immoral while, at the same time, retard individual and national economic development. Hard work, saving, and moral constraint were called on as the solutions to individual and collective social and economic good fortune.

 

Type: E

  1. List and explain Lombrosos criminal types. Provide an example of each to support your answer.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 21-22

 

Type: E

  1. Summarize Beccarias reasoned argument about crime. How is it seen in todays criminal justice system? Why do you think this argument has been so enduring?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 19-20

 

Type: E

  1. What kind of policies to control crime did early biological theories of the positivist school support? What is eugenics? Was this policy every supported in the United States?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 29-33

 

Type: E

  1. What is the classical school of criminology? How did it represent a rejection of spiritualism or religious explanations of crime? How did the classical school want to reform the way criminals were punished?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 18-20
Type: E

  1. What is the positivist school of criminology? How did it argue for the use of science to study the causes of crime? How was Cesare Lombroso involved in the positivist school? What was his theory of crime?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 20-22

  1. 1. For _____, the key ingredient to crime was not neighborhood disorganization, but the American Dream.
  2. Sutherland

*b. Merton

  1. Shaw and McKay
  2. Akers

Answer location: page 66

 

  1. According to Merton, American culture not only places an extraordinary emphasis on economic success, but the goal is _____.
  2. Diverse
  3. Unequal

*c. Universal

  1. Obtainable

Answer location: page 67

 

  1. According to Merton, the cardinal American virtue was _____ and the cardinal American vice was _____.
  2. Money; excess
  3. Excess; money

*c. Ambition; deviant behavior

  1. Deviant behavior; ambition

Answer location: page 67

 

  1. Which of the following is not a mode of adaptation according to Merton?
  2. Conformity

*b. Criminality

  1. Innovation
  2. Ritualism

Answer location: page 68

 

  1. According to Merton, most people engage in ______, or accept the cultural goal and institutional legitimacy.

*a. Conformity

  1. Criminality
  2. Innovation
  3. Ritualism

Answer location: page 68

 

  1. According to Merton, ______ occurs when people maintain outward conformity to the norms but scale down their aspirations (accept the goals, reject the means).
  2. Conformity
  3. Criminality
  4. Innovation

*d. Ritualism

Answer location: page 68

  1. ______ is defined as normlesssness or deregulation.
  2. Retreatism
  3. Ritualism
  4. Rebellion

*d. Anomie

Answer location: page 69

 

  1. According to Merton, _____ becomes especially prevalent as anomie intensifies.
  2. Conformity

*b. Innovation

  1. Ritualism
  2. Retreatism

Answer location: page 70

 

  1. According to Merton, the very nature of American _____ generates considerable crime and deviance.

*a. Society

  1. Individuals
  2. Culture
  3. Education

Answer location: page 70

 

  1. For Merton, the dominant reality was _____ and _____.
  2. Heterogeneity and culture conflict
  3. Hegemony and culture conflict

*c. Hegemony and homogeneity

  1. Homogeneity and culture conflict

Answer location: page 71

 

  1. According to Merton, youngsters where not led into crime by life in the slum, but rather by the ______.
  2. Family setting
  3. Association with deviant others

*c. Denial of the opportunity to leave the slum

  1. The label of being from the lower class

Answer location: page 71

 

  1. According to _____, delinquent gangs and the subcultural values they embrace are concentrated in urban slums.
  2. Marx

*b. Cohen

  1. Merton
  2. Cullins

Answer location: page 72-73

  1. ______ proposed that delinquent subcultures could emerge and persist only in areas where enough youths were concentrated to band together and to support one anothers alienation from conventional values.

*a. Cloward and Ohlin

  1. Marx
  2. Merton
  3. Cullins

Answer location: page 74

 

  1. Which of the following is not a type of subculture according to Cloward and Ohlin?
  2. Criminal subculture
  3. Conflict subculture

*c. Gang subculture

  1. Retreatist subculture

Answer location: page 74

 

  1. Which decade was the strain theory most popular?
  2. 1920s
  3. 1990s
  4. 1900s

*d. 1960s

Answer location: page 76

 

  1. According to _____, besides economic strain, there may be other kinds of negative relations or situations that create strain and prompt people to break the law.
  2. Cloward and Ohlin
  3. Akers
  4. Merton

*d. Agnew

Answer location: page 77

 

  1. Which of the following is not a strain that Agnew sees leading to crime?
  2. Actual or anticipated removal of positively valued stimuli
  3. Blockage from desired goals
  4. Actual or anticipated presentation of negative or noxious stimuli

*d. Negative associates

Answer location: page 77-78

 

  1. Agnew sought to demarcate the variables that _____ the response to strain.
  2. Lessen

*b. Condition

  1. Negate
  2. Increase

Answer location: page 79

 

  1. According to Agnew _____ emotions create pressure for corrective action; individuals feel bad and want to do something about it.
  2. Positive

*b. Negative

  1. Guilt
  2. Cognitive

Answer location: page 79

 

  1. Which theory is associated with Messner and Rosenfeld?
  2. Anomie
  3. Strain
  4. Opportunity Structure

*d. Institutional-Anomie

Answer location: page 85

 

  1. According to Messner and Rosenfeld, in the United States the institutional balance of power is tilted toward the _____.
  2. Family

*b. Economy

  1. Political system
  2. Educational system

Answer location: page 87

 

  1. Which of the following is not a non-economic institution?
  2. The family
  3. The educational system
  4. Politics

*d. The World Bank

Answer location: page 86

 

  1. There appears to be evidence that crime rates are _____ in societies or other geographic areas in which the vitality and support for noneconomic institutions, such as the family, are more pronounced.
  2. Similar

*b. Lower

  1. Slightly higher
  2. Much higher

Answer location: page 87

 

  1. _____ argued that it is in an extreme form of capitalism, the market economy, in which the pursuit of personal economic gain becomes increasingly the dominant organizing principle of social life.

*a. Currie

  1. Cohen
  2. Merton
  3. Cullins

Answer location: page 88

 

  1. Which theorist/s offered the foundation for MFY?
  2. Akers
  3. Agnew
  4. Merton

*d. Cloward and Ohlin

Answer location: page 90

 

  1. Which of the following strategies would a strain theorist say would best reduce crime?

*a. Expand economic opportunity

  1. Salary caps
  2. Change the structure of welfare
  3. Decrease minimum wage

Answer location: page 90

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of Agnews model of the coping process in general strain theory?
  2. individuals experience or anticipate experiencing an objective strain
  3. individuals subjectively evaluate or cognitively appraise the objective strain
  4. individuals experience a negative emotional reaction to strain

*d. individuals experience a neutral emotional reaction after committing crime

Answer location: page 81-82

 

  1. Merton suggested that sources of criminal behavior were decidedly cultural and social.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 66

 

  1. In 1938, Merton published Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 72

 

  1. Merton argued that the cultural goals in America may not be reached through conventional means in some social segments of the American population.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 68

 

  1. Strain is defined as normlessness or deregulation.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 69

 

  1. Anomie and deviance are not reinforcing.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 70

 

  1. Delinquent subcultures arise in response to the special problems that people face.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 73

 

  1. According to Agnew, people who are under strain will always engage in some crime.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 79

 

  1. According to Messner and Rosenfeld, the American Dream is central in understanding deviance.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 86

 

  1. There appears to be evidence that crime rates are lower in societies in which the vitality and support for non-economic institutions are more pronounced.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 87

 

  1. MFY was met with much opposition.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 90

 

  1. Merton delineated five modes of deviant adaptation.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 68

 

  1. Murray argued that poverty was the fault of the individual.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 72

 

  1. There is consistent empirical evidence that exposure to strain increases the likelihood of criminal offending.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 79

  1. U.S. social institutions are arranged to be subservient to and supportive of the economy.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 86

 

  1. Taming the American Dream will be an easy policy change.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 92

 

  1. African Americans make up 12% of the population.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 82

 

Type: E

  1. Which mode of adaptation do most individuals use as a response to strain?

*a. Merton realized that most people, even if they found their social ascent limited, did not deviate. Instead, the modal response was for people to conform, to continue to ascribe to the cultural success goal, and to believe in the legitimacy of the conventional or institutionalized means through which success was to be attained.

 

Type: E

  1. What is anomie?

*a. Normlessness or deregulation

 

Type: E

  1. According to Cohen, what is the importance of subcultures?

*a. The delinquent subculture, Cohen contended, deals with these problems by providing criteria of status which these children can meet (p. 121). In a process approximating a reaction formation, lower-class youths reject the middle-class goals and norms that they have been taught to desire but by which they are judged inadequate. In place of middle-class standards, they substitute a set of oppositional values.

 

Type: E

  1. According to Cloward and Ohlin, what are illegitimate means?

*a. antisocial or criminal means to achieve an outcome

 

Type: E

  1. What is the central premise of institutional anomie theory?

*a. A capitalist economic system is conducive to producing individual pursuit of self-interest, competition, and innovation, but other developed nations with capitalist economies are not wracked by high rates of serious crimes. What is different about the United States? Messner and Rosenfeld answered that it is the economic institution that dominates other social noneconomic institutionsthe family, the educational system, politics, and so onfar more than in other countries

 

Type: E

  1. What conditions illustrate that the social context of the 21st century will be conducive to renewed interest in the strain perspective?

*a. First, in response to the excessive individualism and emphasis on greed during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a continuing cultural self-examination in the United States; Second, we also may be in a period where it is more difficult to ignore the complicity of U.S. society in a range of social ills, including crime

 

Type: E

  1. According to Agnew, what factors increase the likelihood of a criminal adaptation to strain?

*a. Increase: strain is unjust, high in magnitude, associated with low social control, and creates pressure/incentive to engage in criminal coping

 

Type: E

  1. Describe Curries idea of a market economy and how it relates to crime in the United States.

*a. Currie (1997) argued that the United States is characterized by an extreme form of capitalism, a market economy in which the pursuit of personal economic gain becomes increasingly the dominant organizing principle of social life. The dominance of the market economy fosters high rates of crime in at least seven ways: (1) the progressive destruction of livelihood; (2) the growth of extremes of economic inequality and material deprivation; (3) the withdrawal of public services and supports, especially for families and children; (4) the erosion of informal and communal networks of mutual support, supervision, and care; (5) the spread of materialistic, neglectful, and hard culture; (6) the unregulated marketing of the technology of violence (i.e., guns); and (7) the weakening of social and political alternatives.

 

Type: E

  1. According to institutional anomie theory, what policy implications should be implemented to reduce the crime?

*a. The logic of institutional-anomie theory suggests that reducing the power of the American dream would necessitate policies that strengthen other institutions. This might involve, for example, workplace regulations that give adults more time to spend with their families and support schools. Or it might mean social welfare policies that help people to form families and that give everyone a measure of material security. But it also would be important, according to Messner and Rosenfeld (2001), to pursue cultural regeneration directly. That is, it is essential to discredit money as the chief currency of a persons success and instead to propose that parenting, spousing, teaching, learning, and serving the community become valued ends in themselves

 

Type: E

  1. How does strain theory differ from those theories discussed in the previous chapters?

*a. They rejected as simplistic, if not as incorrect, previous theories that had sought to locate the causes of crime within individuals. Instead, they warned that the social organization of society constrains what people learn to become and what they might be pressured into doing.

 

Type: E

  1. Describe Mertons typology of modes of individual adaptation. Provide an example of each.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 68-69

 

Type: E

  1. How did Agnew expand Mertons strain theory into general strain theory? What strains did he add? What role do emotions play? What is the empirical support for Agnews general strain theory?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 77-82

 

Type: E

  1. Outline the history of the Mobilization for Youth (MFY). Why did many oppose MFY? With what may we credit the MFY?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: Page 91-92

 

Type: E

  1. Why did strain theory become popular in the 1960s? What was unique about the social context of that time that made criminologists take not of strain and anomie theories?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 71-72

 

Type: E

  1. How did Messner and Rosenfelds institutional anomie theory expand Mertons theory? Specifically, what did Messner and Rosenfeld cite as a deficit in Mertons theory? How does institutional anomie theory explain crime in the United States and what policy implications could come from this theory?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 85-88

 

Type: E

  1. Describe Unnever and Gabbidons theory of African American offending?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 82-85

 

  1. Most criminological theories examine why it is that some individuals develop an orientation to commit crime whereas other do not. This is called what?
  2. Crime
  3. Routine activity

*c. Criminality

  1. Risk factors

Answer location: page 350

 

  1. Theories such as routine activity theory and rational choice theories focus on what occurs in _____ situation.

*a. the present

  1. the past
  2. the future
  3. a violent

Answer location: page 351

 

  1. According to the routine activity theorists, _____ is a necessary condition for any specific crime to be committed.
  2. motivation

*b. opportunity

  1. poverty
  2. capital

Answer location: page 351

 

  1. According to Cohen and Felson, for a predatory crime to take place, the three essential ingredientsmotivated offenders, suitable targets, and an absence of guardianshipmust _____.

*a. converge in time and space

  1. converge in time only
  2. occur independently of one another
  3. converge in a specific sequence

Answer location: page 354

 

  1. According to routine activity theorists, if we decrease opportunities, what will happen?
  2. Crime will be displaced

*b. Crime will be reduced

  1. Criminals will find new opportunities
  2. Crime will increase

Answer location: page 353

 

  1. A criminal event requires a/an _____ offender who has the opportunity to act.
  2. selfish
  3. opportunistic
  4. goal-oriented

*d. motivated

Answer location: page 354

  1. Which of the following is an essential ingredient for crime to occur according to routine activity theorists?
  2. Motivated offenders
  3. Suitable targets
  4. An absence of guardianship

*d. All of the above

Answer location: page 354

 

  1. Routine activity theory has been used on the micro level to explain which individuals in society are most likely to be _____.
  2. criminals

*b. victims

  1. guardians
  2. desisters

Answer location: page 356

 

  1. With which theory is routine activity theory most compatible?
  2. Differential association theory
  3. Conflict

*c. Rational choice

  1. Strain

Answer location: page 357

 

  1. _____ theory argues that it is necessary to study not just the routines of potential victims but also the routines of potential offenders and how they select their targets to victimize.
  2. Perceptual deterrence theory
  3. Environmental criminology theory

*c. Offender search theory

  1. Human ecology theory

Answer location: page 357

 

  1. According to Clarke, the best bet to reduce crime was to tinker with _____ so that the choice of crime would be knifed off or, in the least, discouraged.
  2. victims

*b. environments

  1. offenders
  2. home security systems

Answer location: page 359-360

 

  1. An example of a(n) _____ strategy is when security guards are hired for the express purpose of making crime difficult.
  2. Natural
  3. Mechanical
  4. Smart

*d. Organized

Answer location: page 360

  1. According to Eck, offenders have ______, usually people they know such as spouses, family members, neighbors, or clergy.
  2. controllers
  3. guardians
  4. managers

*d. handlers

Answer location: page 360

 

  1. According to Eck, _____ are those who are responsible for the proper functioning of a particular place.
  2. guardians
  3. handlers

*c. managers

  1. controllers

Answer location: page 361

 

  1. _____ is the possibility that when crime is made more difficult in one location, offenders will move on and commit their crimes in another location.
  2. Desistence

*b. Displacement

  1. Deterrence
  2. Targeting

Answer location: page 361

 

  1. _____ are deep-rooted inclinations or dispositions to commit crime.

*a. Criminal motivations

  1. Background factors
  2. Rational choices
  3. Routine activities

Answer location: page 362

 

  1. Which of the following are the most prominent rational choice theorists?
  2. Marx and Engels
  3. Cloward and Ohlin

*c. Cornish and Clarke

  1. Sykes and Matza

Answer location: page 362

 

  1. According to rational choice theorists, crime involves a concrete _____ that must be made to commit crime.
  2. rationality

*b. choice

  1. motivation
  2. skill

Answer location: page 362

  1. A key assumption of rational choice theory is that the decisions that offenders make are _____.
  2. unconscious
  3. independent

*c. purposive

  1. insane

Answer location: page 363

 

  1. ______ merges the insights of economics with those of social psychology.
  2. Rational choice
  3. Situational crime prevention
  4. Bounded rationality

*d. Behavioral economics

Answer location: page 364

 

  1. _____ proposes that individuals refrain from breaking the law when the costs outweigh the benefits.
  2. Rational choice
  3. Routine activity

*c. Perceptual deterrence

  1. Social control

Answer location: page 369

 

  1. A ______ is a person who has the propensity or inclination to offend.
  2. suitable target
  3. capable guardian
  4. victim

*d. motivated offender

Answer location: page 355

 

  1. A ______ is an objectperson or propertythat the offender would like to take or control.

*a. suitable target

  1. capable guardian
  2. victim
  3. motivated offender

Answer location: page 355

 

  1. A _____ can be friends or family, security personnel, or dogs. A person can be a guardian of his or her own person or property
  2. suitable target

*b. capable guardian

  1. victim
  2. motivated offender

Answer location: page 355

  1. _____ showed that offenders make a series of choices about whether to offend, which target to victimize, how to complete the crime effectively, and how to avoid detection, in their book about St. Louis, Missouri robbers.
  2. Cohen and Felson
  3. Clarke and Cornish

*c. Wright and Decker

  1. Sykes and Matza

Answer location: page 364

 

  1. The key to crime control is:
  2. severity

*b. certainty

  1. celerity
  2. nonintervention

Answer location: page 373

 

  1. This theory seeks to explain the likelihood that a person will come to see an act of crime as an action alternativethat is, as possibleand choose to carry out such an act.
  2. deterrence theory
  3. crime science
  4. rational choice theory

*d. situational action theory

Answer location: page 374

 

  1. The nature of opportunity affects what, where, how, and against whom crimes are committed

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 351

 

  1. According to the routine activity theory and rational choice theories, crime occurs in the context of the everyday lives that offenders and their victims lead.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 351

 

  1. Routine activity theory was initially stated as a micro-level theory of crime.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 355

 

  1. According to routine activity theory, offenders do not wander randomly looking for crime opportunities; rather they engage in patterned behaviors, typically traveling to certain areas but not others and traveling only so far from home.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 358

  1. Routine activity theory is interested in offenders and how steps might be taken to change the criminality of motivations of lawbreakers.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 358

 

  1. Organized strategies are where space is designed in such a way that people are channeled to go where they will do no harm or receive no harm.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 360

 

  1. Felson has expanded the concept of guardianship to that of controllers.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 360

 

  1. Mental templates are holistic conceptualizations that are based on experience and routines.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 358

 

  1. Advocates of opportunity reduction usually emphasize the importance of strategies that involve the use of police.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 361

 

  1. According to rational choice theories, crime is not simply due to underlying motivations or predispositions; it also involves a concrete choice or, a sequence of choices.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 362

 

  1. Perceptual deterrence theorys main proposition is that the decision to offend depends on the objective risks of being sanctioned or gaining rewards, rather than the perceptions of costs and benefits.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 369

 

  1. Perceptual deterrence theory assumes rationality.
  2. true

*b. false

Answer location: page 369

 

  1. Perceptual deterrence theory has focused disproportionately on the cost side of the cost-benefit analysis.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 371

 

  1. Theories of offender choice and opportunity do not consider how criminal motivations or criminality develops over time.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 376

 

  1. Theories of offender choice and opportunity have important policy implications in that they can help us to make any given place less conducive to crime.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 376

 

  1. In situational action theory, the moral filter consists of moral propensity and moral context.

*a. true

  1. false

Answer location: page 375

 

Type: E

  1. What is environmental criminology?

*a. Examine how features of the physical and social environment present or limit criminal opportunities.

 

Type: E

  1. What makes opportunity theories attractive?

*a. The attractiveness of opportunity theories of crime is that they avoid larger discussions of whether the United States is excessively unequal or excessively morally permissive and argue that crime can be prevented meaningfully without a major cultural or social revolution. Instead, by changing a few locks and installing a few alarmsor similar modest interventionswe can make ourselves safer.

 

Type: E

  1. The term routine carried two meaning according to Cohen and Felson. What are these two meanings?

*a. it was a technical term that referred to the everyday activities that people in society followedwhen and where they worked, attended school, recreated, and stayed home. More implicit, the term routine meant to imply the mundane in life, not the special or abnormal.

 

Type: E

  1. Felson suggested that blocking crime opportunities can be heightened through three strategies. Identify and briefly explain these three strategies.

*a. First are natural strategies, where space is designed in such a way that people are channeled to go where they will do no harm or receive no harm (p. 150). For example, signs and access to only certain doors might naturally lead people to enter a building only through a door where surveillance is high (i.e., many people are around). Second are organized strategies, where security guards are hired for the express purpose of making crime difficult. Third are mechanical strategies, where alarms, cameras, and other hardware are employed to control access and provide surveillance.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain Ecks concept of controllers.

*a. Those who discourage crime. Uses a crime triangle to visually represent this convergence and how controllers can limit opportunity and thus crime (see Figure 13.1). Hence, each of these three elements . . . has a potential controllera person (or people) whose role it is to protect them. If a controller is present, then the opportunity for crime either is diminished or vanishes

 

Type: E

  1. What is problem oriented policing?

*a. From this perspective, police would define a problem, such as juvenile violence in a neighborhood or drug selling in a particular building, and then devise strategies to make these specific offenses more difficult to commit.

 

Type: E

  1. What is bounded rationality?

*a. Offenders make choices that might be based on limited information, made under pressure, insufficiently planned, and/or attentive only to the immediate risks of apprehension rather than to the long-term consequences of their actions.

 

Type: E

  1. What two conclusions were reached from Pratt, Cullen, Blevins, Daigle, and Madensons 2006 meta-analysis of the existing perceptual deterrence research?

*a. First, perceptual deterrence due to legal sanctions is likely a modest to weak cause of crime. It is at most one factor involved in the choice of crime, and its effects are dwarfed by a range of other factors (such as those identified by other theories of crime). This means that interventions aimed only at increasing the perceived likelihood of being punishment are likely to leave a host of other criminogenic risk factors untouched. Second, for perceptual deterrence theory to contribute meaningfully to our understanding of crime, it must develop a richer perspective of how deterrence is specified by the nature of costs and benefits, by individual differences, and by the complex ways in which perceptions are formed and influence behavior.

 

Type: E

  1. According to Felson and other opportunity theorists, what is the key to stopping crime?

*a. First, perceptual deterrence due to legal sanctions is likely a modest to weak cause of crime. It is at most one factor involved in the choice of crime, and its effects are dwarfed by a range of other factors (such as those identified by other theories of crime). Second, for perceptual deterrence theory to contribute meaningfully to our understanding of crime, it must develop a richer perspective of how deterrence is specified by the nature of costs and benefits, by individual differences, and by the complex ways in which perceptions are formed and influence behavior.

 

Type: E

  1. What is offender search theory?

*a. Study of the routines of potential offenders and how they select their targets to victimize. Offenders play an active role in producing criminal opportunities. Where they are willing to travel and how they interpret their social environment when they get to their destination help to determine which targets they come into contact with and which targets they see as attractive and capable of being victimized. Ultimately, the distribution of offenses across time and space will be a by-product of this intersection between the routine activities of both victims and offenders.

 

Type: E

  1. What three ways does emotion shape criminal decision making?

*a. Negative emotionssuch as fear, guilt, and shamecan serve as costs that make the choice of crime less likely; positive emotions about crime can serve as benefits; emotional states change the context of crime.

 

Type: E

  1. Explain routine activity theory. What are the main concepts? Define each one. What did Cohen and Felson say was the key reason for the rises in predatory offenses after World War II?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 352-362

 

Type: E

  1. What is situational crime prevention? How can crime opportunities be blocked or made less attractive? Finally, what prompted Clarke to come up with the idea of situational crime prevention?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 359-364

 

Type: E

  1. What are the tenets of rational choice theories? What are the criticisms of the theory?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 362-369

 

Type: E

  1. What is perceptual deterrence theory? Identify and explain the three ways in which this perspective differs from rational choice theory. Why did this theory emerge? Finally, identify the advantages of this approach.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 362-369

 

Type: E

  1. What is Ecks concern? How does he see crime? Explain Ecks crime triangle. Feel free to draw the triangle if it helps you explain yourself better. Also, explain the following concepts as they relate to Ecks ideas: Handlers, guardians, and managers.

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 360-362

 

Type: E

  1. Explain the complex process of human choice. What is the role of emotion?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 364-369

 

Type: E

  1. Explain situational action theory. What is its causal model?

*a. answers vary

Answer location: page 374-375

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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